Clayey Soils (clayey + soil)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Analysis of soil,pile,structure interaction in a two-layer ground during earthquakes considering liquefaction

C. W. Lu
Abstract This study is conducted with a numerical method to investigate the seismic behaviour among certain soils, single piles, and a structure. A series of numerical simulations of the seismic behaviour of a single-pile foundation constructed in a two-layer ground is carried out. Various sandy soils, namely, dense sand, medium dense sand, reclaimed soil, and loose sand, are employed for the upper layer, while one type of clayey soil is used for the lower layer. The results reveal that when a structure is built in a non-liquefiable ground, an amplification of the seismic waves is seen on the ground surface and in the upper structure, and large bending moments are generated at the pile heads. When a structure is built in a liquefiable ground, a de-amplification of the seismic waves is seen on the ground surface and in the upper structure, and large bending moments are generated firstly at the pile heads and then in the lower segment at the boundary between the soil layers when liquefaction takes place. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Modelling of earth and water pressure development during diaphragm wall construction in soft clay

R. Schäfer
Abstract The influence of a diaphragm wall construction on the stress field in a soft clayey soil is investigated by the use of a three-dimensional FE-model of seven adjacent wall panels. The installation procedure comprises the excavation and the subsequent pouring of each panel taking into account the increasing stiffness of the placed fresh concrete. The soft clay deposit is described by a visco-hypoplastic constitutive model considering the rheological properties and the small-strain stiffness of the soil. The construction process considerably affects the effective earth and pore water pressures adjacent to the wall. Due to concreting, a high excess pore water pressure arises, which dissipates during the following construction steps. The earth pressure finally shows an oscillating, distinct three-dimensional distribution along the retaining wall which depends on the installation sequence of the panels and the difference between the fresh concrete pressure and the total horizontal earth pressure at rest. In comparison to FE-calculations adopting the earth pressure at rest as initial condition, greater wall deflections and surface ground settlements during the subsequent pit excavation can be expected, as the average stress level especially in the upper half of the wall is increased by the construction procedure of the retaining structure. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Identification of soil degradation during earthquake excitations by Bayesian inference

Jianye Ching
Abstract A Bayesian inference approach is introduced to identify soil degradation behaviours at four downhole array sites. The approach of inference is based on a parametric time-varying infinite impulse response filter model. The approach is shown to be adaptive to the changes of filter parameters and noise amplitudes. Four sites, including the Lotung (Taiwan), Chiba (Japan), Garner Valley (California), and Treasure Island (California) sites with downhole seismic arrays are analysed. Our results show two major types of soil degradation behaviour: the well-known strain-dependent softening, and reduction in stiffness that is not instantaneously recoverable. It is also found that both types of soil degradation are more pronounced in sandy soils than in clayey soils. The mechanism for the second type of soil degradation is not yet clear to the authors and suggested to be further studied. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Degradation kinetics of ptaquiloside in soil and soil solution

Rikke Gleerup Ovesen
Abstract Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a carcinogenic norsesquiterpene glycoside produced in bracken (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn), a widespread, aggressive weed. Transfer of PTA to soil and soil solution eventually may contaminate groundwater and surface water. Degradation rates of PTA were quantified in soil and soil solutions in sandy and clayey soils subjected to high natural PTA loads from bracken stands. Degradation kinetics in moist soil could be fitted with the sum of a fast and a slow first-order reaction; the fast reaction contributed 20 to 50% of the total degradation of PTA. The fast reaction was similar in all horizons, with the rate constant k1F ranging between 0.23 and 1.5/h. The slow degradation, with the rate constant k1S ranging between 0.00067 and 0.029/h, was more than twice as fast in topsoils compared to subsoils, which is attributable to higher microbial activity in topsoils. Experiments with sterile controls confirmed that nonmicrobial degradation processes constituted more than 90% of the fast degradation and 50% of the slow degradation. The lower nonmicrobial degradation rate observed in the clayey compared with the sandy soil is attributed to a stabilizing effect of PTA by clay silicates. Ptaquiloside appeared to be stable in all soil solutions, in which no degradation was observed within a period of 28 d, in strong contrast to previous studies of hydrolysis rates in artificial aqueous electrolytes. The present study predicts that the risk of PTA leaching is controlled mainly by the residence time of pore water in soil, soil microbial activity, and content of organic matter and clay silicates. [source]

Grassland communities on a Sahelian peneplain in Burkina Faso

J. V. Müller Dr.
A detailed phytosociological analysis of grassland communities of a Sahelian peneplain in Burkina Faso (West Africa) is presented. The floristic structure of the vegetation was documented with 113 relevés, which were classified manually and in addition ordinated to characterize main floristic gradients. The topographical situation from high-lying areas of the peneplain with erosion of material to low-lying areas with accumulation of material turned out to be the most important differentiating factor in the data set. All grassland communities are dominated by annual grasses and have large distribution ranges. They colonize sandy-silty, loamy to clayey soils and can be water-saturated or repeatedly inundated during the rainy season, while dry, non-inundated habitats are also colonized. Many grasses are valuable fodder plants and are appreciated by livestock , the peneplain is economically highly important as a grazing ground. Whereas exozoochorous annual species are constantly present companions, perennial herbaceous species are almost completely missing. Stands were grouped into one alliance Panico laeti-Echinochloion colonae and only two phytocoenoses: a rankless Schoenefeldia gracilis -community (with two subcommunities: a typical subcommunity with a large ecological amplitude from sandy-silty to loamy soils, and an Aristida funiculata -subcommunity on sandy, dry, non-inundated soils) and Eragrostietum pilosae. The Eragrostietum pilosae grows in the low-lying areas of the peneplain and connects between communities of seasonally inundated lakes and the grasslands on the upper parts of the pene- plain. Following the topography, the two plant communities form a large transition (zonation complex). It is widespread across the study area and contains the diagnostic species of both plant communities. The plant communities are compared with other Sahelian grass-dominated plant communities, and with plant communities from the Sahara and the (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Grasfluren einer sahelischen Rumpffläche in Burkina Faso In diesem Beitrag wird eine detaillierte pflanzensoziologische Analyse der Grasfluren einer sahelischen Rumpffläche in Burkina Faso (Westafrika) präsentiert. Die floristische Struktur der Vegetation wurde mit 113 pflanzensoziologischen Aufnahmen dokumentiert. Diese wurden zunächst manuell klassifiziert und anschließend einem Ordinationsverfahren unterzogen, um die wichtigsten Gradienten im floristischen Datensatz aufzuzeigen. Die topographische Geländesituation der Rumpffläche, beginnend mit hochgelegenen Bereichen mit Materialaustrag bis in die Niederungen mit Materialeintrag, wurde als wichtigster differenzierender Faktor des floristischen Datensatzes identifiziert. Alle untersuchten Pflanzengesellschaften der Grasfluren haben große Verbreitungsgebiete und werden von annuellen Gräsern dominiert. Sie sind auf sandig-schluffigen, lehmigen bis tonigen Böden zu finden. Sie können in der Regenzeit entweder wassergesättigt oder wiederholt überflutet sein. Die Grasfluren sind auch auf trockenen, nicht überfluteten Standorten nachgewiesen. Viele der Grasarten sind vom Weidevieh geschätzte Futterpflanzen , die Rumpffläche dient als wirtschaftlich bedeutendes Weideland. Exozoochore, einjährige Arten sind hochstet als Begleiter vorhanden. Hingegen fehlen mehrjährige, krautige Arten fast vollständig. Die Bestände konnten einem pflanzensoziologischen Verband Panico laeti-Echinochloion colonae und zwei Pflanzengesellschaften zugeordnet werden. Die ranglose Schoenefeldia gracilis -Gesellschaft kommt in zwei Untereinheiten vor: eine typische Untereinheit mit breiter ökologischer Amplitude von sandig-schluffigen bis lehmigen Böden, und eine Aristida funiculata Untereinheit auf trockenen, sandigen, nicht überfluteten Böden. Das Eragrostietum pilosae kommt in den tiefliegenden Bereichen Sudanian zone. A close floristic relationship of Sahelian grassland communities with Saharan vegetation could be shown. der Rumpffläche vor und vermittelt zwischen den Pflanzengesellschaften temporärer Seen und den Grasfluren der hochgelegenen Bereiche der Rumpffläche. Der Geländesituation folgend bilden beide Pflanzengesellschaften einen breiten Übergangsbereich (Zonationskomplex). Dieser Übergangsbereich ist im Untersuchungsgebiet weit verbreitet und enthält diagnostische Arten beider Pflanzengesellschaften. Die beschriebenen Einheiten werden mit anderen grasdominierten Pflanzengesellschaften des Sahels sowie der Sahara und der Sudanzone verglichen. Eine enge floristische Beziehung der sahelischen Grasfluren mit Vegetationseinheiten der Sahara wird aufgezeigt. [source]

Nitrate leaching from three afforestation chronosequences on former arable land in Denmark

Abstract In regions dominated by agricultural activities, nitrogen (N) is recognized as a major pollutant in aquatic environments. In north-western Europe, afforestation of agricultural land is part of a strategy to improve water quality. In Denmark, former arable land has been afforested during the past 40,50 years. This study evaluated the effect of afforestation of former arable land on nitrate leaching, based on three afforestation chronosequences. Precipitation, canopy throughfall and soil water were collected and soil moisture was monitored at two Danish locations, Vestskoven (nutrient-rich, medium deposition) and Gejlvang (nutrient-poor, high deposition). Afforestation was performed using Norway spruce [Picea abies (Karst.) L.] and common oak (Quercus robur L.) at Vestskoven and Norway spruce at Gejlvang. The results suggest that afforestation of former arable land initially leads to lower nitrate leaching than that occurring under the former agricultural land use, and largely below the standard of 50 mg NO,3 L,1 for groundwater to be utilized as drinking water. Nitrate concentrations became almost negligible in forest stands of 5,20 years of age. However, after canopy closure (>20 years) nitrate concentrations below the root zone and nitrate leaching tended to increase. This was attributed to increased N deposition with increasing canopy development and decreased N demand once the most N-rich biomass compartments had been built up. Nitrate leaching started to increase at a throughfall deposition level of about 10 kg N ha,1 yr,1. Compared with nutrient-poor sandy soils, nutrient-rich clayey soils appeared more vulnerable to disturbance of the N cycle and to increased N deposition, leading to N saturation and enhanced nitrate leaching. In approximately the first 35 years after afforestation, nitrate leaching below the root zone was generally higher below oak than below Norway spruce. [source]

A Method for Predicting Chloride Concentrations in Leachate at Natural Attenuation Landfills in the Precambrian Shield Regions of Ontario, Canada

Jim Gehrels
Natural attenuation landfill sites continue to be the preferred method of domestic waste disposal in the Precambrian Shield regions of Ontario due to economic factors. The main challenge in siting these landfills is ensuring that there will be no adverse impact on off-site water resources. Impact risk assessments are generally based on estimated volumes and strengths of chloride in the leachate. While volumes can be estimated using simple water balances, peak chloride concentration predictions are based on judgment and are quite variable. Since design chloride strengths dictate the size of the required attenuation zone, overestimating concentrations will typically make it impossible to find a suitable site, while underestimating concentrations increases the potential for adverse off-site impacts occurring. Hydrogeological data from active and closed landfills in the Precambrian Shield region were collected to help develop a reliable method of predicting peak chloride concentrations in leachate. This study focused on 21 sites located on relatively permeable sandy soils since landfills underlain by low permeability clayey soils retain leachate similar to lined facilities. Linear regression analyses were conducted to determine if source chloride concentrations at the "sand" sites are significantly influenced by waste thickness, fill area, waste volume, waste deposition rate, hydraulic conductivity, upgradient flow length, depth to the water table, and moisture surplus. A strong relationship (R = 0.957) was found to exist between source chloride concentrations and waste volume. This empirical volume versus chloride regression equation can be used as the basis for establishing design chloride concentrations at new natural attenuation landfills developed over sandy soils in the Precambrian Shield regions of Ontario. An alternative risk assessment approach is required for sites developed over clay soils. [source]

Response evaluation of axially loaded fixed-head pile groups in clayey soils

Emilios M. Comodromos
Abstract The aim of this paper is to investigate the interaction between the piles in a group with a rigid head and correlate the response of a group of piles to that of a single pile. For this purpose, a computationally intensive study using 3-D nonlinear numerical analysis was carried out for different pile group arrangements in clayey soils. The responses of the groups of piles were compared with that of a single pile and the variation of the settlement amplification factor Ra was then quantified. The influence of the number of piles, the spacing, and the settlement level on the group response is discussed. A previously proposed relationship for predicting the response of a pile group, based on its configuration and the response of a single pile, has been modified to extend its applicability for any pile spacing. The modified relationship provides a reasonable prediction for various group configurations in clayey soils. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]