Clay Loam Soil (clay + loam_soil)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Evaluation of laboratory assays for the assessment of leaching of copper and chromium from ground-contact wood

Ana I. García-Valcárcel
Abstract Laboratory studies were conducted to assess the leaching of Cu and Cr from wood, treated with a Cu-Cr-B preservative, when placed in contact with soil. Two laboratory assays were performed: Wood in contact with soil solutions over 30 d, and wood in direct contact with soil over 30 weeks. The influence of several factors, such as soil type and fertilizer use, was studied in both assays. In addition, the effect of soil moisture content and temperature was evaluated when wood was in contact with soil. A discrepancy in the results of the laboratory assays was observed. Leaching of Cu and Cr increased when soil in contact with wood was fertilized, but only an increase of Cu leaching was observed when soil solutions from fertilized soils were used. Moreover, soil solutions from a sandy clay loam soil produced a higher Cu leaching than those from a loamy sand soil, whereas the contrary occurred when treated wood was in direct contact with these soils. In the assay of treated wood in ground contact, the highest metal losses were produced in fertilized soils maintained at constant temperature and high soil moisture content, the latter being the most important factor. These losses were in the range of 5.34 to 15.6% for Cu and 1.85 to 2.35% for Cr in the soils studied. The proposed laboratory assay, using treated wood in direct contact with soil at a moisture content near field capacity during a period of 30 weeks, produced total metal losses that were in accordance with those reported by other authors under field conditions, expressed on a per-year basis. [source]

A field-scale infiltration model accounting for spatial heterogeneity of rainfall and soil saturated hydraulic conductivity

Renato Morbidelli
Abstract This study first explores the role of spatial heterogeneity, in both the saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and rainfall intensity r, on the integrated hydrological response of a natural slope. On this basis, a mathematical model for estimating the expected areal-average infiltration is then formulated. Both Ks and r are considered as random variables with assessed probability density functions. The model relies upon a semi-analytical component, which describes the directly infiltrated rainfall, and an empirical component, which accounts further for the infiltration of surface water running downslope into pervious soils (the run-on effect). Monte Carlo simulations over a clay loam soil and a sandy loam soil were performed for constructing the ensemble averages of field-scale infiltration used for model validation. The model produced very accurate estimates of the expected field-scale infiltration rate, as well as of the outflow generated by significant rainfall events. Furthermore, the two model components were found to interact appropriately for different weights of the two infiltration mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effect of water and nitrogen management on aggregate size and carbon enrichment of soil in rice-wheat cropping system,

Rojalin Tripathy
Abstract A study was carried out on a silty clay loam soil (Typic Haplustept) to evaluate the effect of farmyard manure (FYM) vis-à-vis fertilizer and irrigation application on the soil organic C content and soil structure. The fertilizer treatments comprised of eight different combinations of N and FYM and three water regimes. The results indicated that the application of FYM and increasing N rate increased soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Addition of FYM also increased the percentage of large sized water stable aggregates (> 5,mm) and reduced the percentage of smaller size aggregates. This was reflected in an increase in the mean weight diameter (MWD) and improved soil structure. The organic carbon content in macroaggregates (> 1,mm) was greater compared to microaggregates, and it declined with decrease in size of microaggregates. This difference in organic C content between macro- and microaggregates was more with higher N dose and FYM treated plots. The effect of residual FYM on MWD and organic C content of the soil after wheat harvest was not significant. The effect was less in deeper layers compared to surface layers of the soil. MWD was significantly correlated with the SOC content for the top two layers. [source]

Sensitivity analyses for four pesticide leaching models

Igor G Dubus
Abstract Sensitivity analyses using a one-at-a-time approach were carried out for leaching models which have been widely used for pesticide registration in Europe (PELMO, PRZM, PESTLA and MACRO). Four scenarios were considered for simulation of the leaching of two theoretical pesticides in a sandy loam and a clay loam soil, each with a broad distribution across Europe. Input parameters were varied within bounds reflecting their uncertainty and the influence of these variations on model predictions was investigated for accumulated percolation at 1-m depth and pesticide loading in leachate. Predictions for the base-case scenarios differed between chromatographic models and the preferential flow model MACRO for which large but transient pesticide losses were predicted in the clay loam. Volumes of percolated water predicted by the four models were affected by a small number of input parameters and to a small extent only, suggesting that meteorological variables will be the main drivers of water balance predictions. In contrast to percolation, predictions for pesticide loss were found to be sensitive to a large number of input parameters and to a much greater extent. Parameters which had the largest influence on the prediction of pesticide loss were generally those related to chemical sorption (Freundlich exponent nf and distribution coefficient Kf) and degradation (either degradation rates or DT50, QTEN value). Nevertheless, a significant influence of soil properties (field capacity, bulk density or parameters defining the boundary between flow domains in MACRO) was also noted in at least one scenario for all models. Large sensitivities were reported for all models, especially PELMO and PRZM, and sensitivity was greater where only limited leaching was simulated. Uncertainty should be addressed in risk assessment procedures for crop-protection products. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Response of potted grapevines to increasing soil copper concentration

Abstract Background and Aims:, Copper accumulation in soil may promote phytotoxicity in grapevines. Nutritional implications of potted vines to increasing concentrations of copper (Cu) in either clay loam soil or clay loam soil mixed with 85% sand were tested on Vitis vinifera (L.) cv Sangiovese and crop toxicity threshold and symptoms determined. Methods and Results:, Soils were mixed at planting with Cu at the rates (mg Cu/kg) of 0 (control, native soil Cu only), 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000, and non-bearing vines were grown in these for two seasons. Reduction of root growth was observed after addition of ,400 mg Cu/kg to both soils; reduction of shoot growth, leaf number and chlorosis of leaf edges were detected only in sand-enriched soil. Root Cu concentration increased in response to soil Cu addition. Unlike that of leaf Cu and N, the amount of P and Fe (in both soils) and Mg and Ca (in sand-enriched soil only) were reduced by soil Cu. Conclusion:, Vines grown in sand-enriched soil tolerated lower concentrations of Cu than in clay loam soil, probably because of the lower nutritional status and the higher root Cu concentration. Significance of the Study:, Results provide information on the concentration of soil Cu that grapevine can tolerate and on the nutrients involved in the response to toxic levels of soil Cu in clay loam and sandy clay loam soils. [source]