Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis (clathrin-mediated + endocytosi)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

CD303 (BDCA-2) signals in plasmacytoid dendritic cells via a BCR-like signalosome involving Syk, Slp65 and PLC,2

Jürgen Röck
Abstract Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) are the main type,I interferon (IFN-I) producers and play a central role in innate and adaptive immunity. CD303 (BDCA-2) is a type,II c-type lectin specifically expressed by human PDC. CD303 signaling induces tyrosine phosphorylation and Src kinase dependent calcium influx. Cross-linking CD303 results in the inhibition of IFN-I production in stimulated PDC. Here, we demonstrate that PDC express a signalosome similar to the BCR signalosome, consisting of Lyn, Syk, Btk, Slp65 (Blnk) and PLC,2. CD303 associates with the signaling adapter FcR ,-chain. Triggering CD303 leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk, Slp65, PLC,2 and cytoskeletal proteins. Analogous to BCR signaling, CD303 signaling is likely linked with its internalization by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, CD303 signaling leads to reduced levels of transcripts for IFN-I genes and IFN-I-responsive genes, indicating that the inhibition of IFN-I production by stimulated PDC is at least partially regulated at the transcriptional level. These results support a possible therapeutic value of an anti-CD303 mAb strategy, since the production of IFN-I by PDC is considered to be a major pathophysiological factor in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. See accompanying commentary at [source]

Dynamin 2 mutations associated with human diseases impair clathrin-mediated receptor endocytosis,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 10 2009
Marc Bitoun
Abstract Dynamin 2 (DNM2) is a large GTPase involved in the release of nascent vesicles during endocytosis and intracellular membrane trafficking. Distinct DNM2 mutations, affecting the middle domain (MD) and the Pleckstrin homology domain (PH), have been identified in autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (CNM) and in the intermediate and axonal forms of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth peripheral neuropathy (CMT). We report here the first CNM mutation (c.1948G>A, p.E650,K) in the DNM2 GTPase effector domain (GED), leading to a slowly progressive moderate myopathy. COS7 cells transfected with DNM2 constructs harboring a disease-associated mutation in MD, PH, or GED show a reduced uptake of transferrin and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) complex, two markers of clathrin-mediated receptor endocytosis. A decrease in clathrin-mediated endocytosis was also identified in skin fibroblasts from one CNM patient. We studied the impact of DNM2 mutant overexpression on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 activation, known to be an endocytosis- and DNM2-dependent process. Activation of ERK1/2 was impaired for all the transfected mutants in COS7 cells, but not in CNM fibroblasts. Our results indicate that impairment of clathrin-mediated endocytosis may play a role in the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to DNM2-related diseases, but the tissue-specific impact of DNM2 mutations in both diseases remains unclear. Hum Mutat 30:1,9, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The molecular physiology of activity-dependent bulk endocytosis of synaptic vesicles

Emma L. Clayton
Abstract Central nerve terminals release neurotransmitter in response to a wide variety of stimuli. Because maintenance of neurotransmitter release is dependent on the continual supply of synaptic vesicles (SVs), nerve terminals possess an array of endocytosis modes to retrieve and recycle SV membrane and proteins. During mild stimulation conditions, single SV retrieval modes such as clathrin-mediated endocytosis predominate. However, during increased neuronal activity, additional SV retrieval capacity is required, which is provided by activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE). ADBE is the dominant SV retrieval mechanism during elevated neuronal activity. It is a high capacity SV retrieval mode that is immediately triggered during such stimulation conditions. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism of ADBE, including molecules required for its triggering and subsequent steps, including SV budding from bulk endosomes. The molecular relationship between ADBE and the SV reserve pool will also be discussed. It is becoming clear that an understanding of the molecular physiology of ADBE will be of critical importance in attempts to modulate both normal and abnormal synaptic function during intense neuronal activity. [source]

Constitutive high-affinity choline transporter endocytosis is determined by a carboxyl-terminal tail dileucine motif

Fabiola M. Ribeiro
Abstract Maintenance of acetylcholine synthesis depends on the effective functioning of a high-affinity sodium-dependent choline transporter (CHT1). Recent studies have shown that this transporter is predominantly localized inside the cell, unlike other neurotransmitter transporters, suggesting that the trafficking of CHT1 to and from the plasma membrane may play a crucial role in regulating choline uptake. Here we found that CHT1 is rapidly and constitutively internalized in clathrin-coated vesicles to Rab5-positive early endosomes. CHT1 internalization is controlled by an atypical carboxyl-terminal dileucine-like motif (L531, V532) which, upon replacement by alanine residues, blocks CHT1 internalization in both human embryonic kidney 293 cells and primary cortical neurons and results in both increased CHT1 cell surface expression and choline transport activity. Perturbation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis with dynamin-I K44A increases cell surface expression and transport activity to a similar extent as mutating the dileucine motif, suggesting that we have identified the motif responsible for constitutive CHT1 internalization. Based on the observation that the localization of CHT1 to the plasma membrane is transient, we propose that acetylcholine synthesis may be influenced by processes that lead to the attenuation of constitutive CHT1 endocytosis. [source]

Come in and take your coat off , how host cells provide endocytosis for virus entry

Mario Schelhaas
Summary Viruses are intracellular parasites that rely upon the host cell machinery for their life cycle. Newly generated virus particles have to transmit their genomic information to uninfected cells/organisms. Viral entry is the process to gain access to viral replication sites within uninfected cells, a multistep course of events that starts with binding to target cells. Since viruses are simple in structure and composition and lack any locomotive capacity, viruses depend on hundreds of host cell proteins during entry. Most animal viruses take advantage of endocytosis to enter cells. Cell biological, morphological and biochemical studies, live cell imaging and systematic approaches have identified various new endocytic mechanisms besides clathrin-mediated endocytosis, macropinocytosis and caveolar/lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. Hence, studying virus entry has become ever more complex. This review provides a cell biological overview of the existing endocytic mechanisms and strategies used or potentially used by viruses to enter cells. [source]

Alternative infectious entry pathways for dengue virus serotypes into mammalian cells

Eliana G. Acosta
Summary The entry of two dengue virus (DENV) serotypes into Vero cells was analysed using biochemical inhibitors, dominant negative mutants of cellular proteins involved in endocytic pathways, fluorescence microscopy and infectivity determinations. By treatment with dansylcadaverine and chlorpromazine and overexpression of a dominant negative form of the Eps15 protein, a clathrin-mediated endocytosis for productive DENV-1 internalization into Vero cells was demonstrated whereas the infectious entry of DENV-2 in the same cell system was independent of clathrin. Treatment with the inhibitors nystatin and methyl-,-cyclodextrin, as well as transfection of Vero cells with dominant negative caveolin-1, had no effect on DENV-2 virus infection. It was also shown, by using the K44A mutant and the inhibitor dynasore, that dynamin was required for DENV-2 entry. Consequently, the infectious entry of DENV-2 into Vero cells occurs by a non-classical endocytic pathway independent of clathrin, caveolae and lipid rafts, but dependent on dynamin. By contrast, DENV-2 entry into A549 cells was clathrin-dependent, as previously reported in HeLa, C6/36 and BS-C-1 cells. Our results conclusively show, for the first time, a differential mode of infective entry for DENV-1 and DENV-2 into a common host cell, Vero cells, as well as alternative entry pathways for a given serotype, DENV-2, into different types of cells. [source]