Clinical Practice Guidelines (clinical + practice_guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Are guidelines on use of colony-stimulating factors in solid cancers flawed?

I. E. Haines
Abstract In cancer care in Australia, we are very reliant on an array of expensive pharmaceuticals. Our use of these treatments is often based on multinational or foreign clinical studies. Oncologists are, to varying degrees, reliant on how the studies are interpreted by the writers of journal editorials, clinical guidelines and opinion pieces. Therefore it is important that these guidelines are balanced and evidence based. We have examined in detail one of the most influential and wide ranging clinical guidelines used in oncology, The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 2006 Update of Recommendations for the use of White Blood Cell Factors: An Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline. We have discussed in detail some of the controversial recommendations in this guideline and have exposed what we believe are some flaws in these recommendations. We would urge that we continue to be rigorous in our oversight of international research agendas and international clinical guidelines in the future. [source]

Development of a Clinical Practice Guideline for Testing Nasogastric Tube Placement

Sue Peter
PURPOSE.,A Perth metropolitan hospital group standardized changes to nasogastric tube placement, including removal of the "whoosh test" and litmus paper, and introduction of pH testing. DESIGN AND METHODS.,,Two audits were conducted: bedside data collection at a pediatric hospital and a point-prevalence audit across seven hospitals. RESULTS.,,Aspirate was obtained for 97% of all tests and pH was , 5.5 for 84%, validating the practice changes. However, patients on continuous feeds and/or receiving acid-inhibiting medications had multiple pH testing fails. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.,Nasogastric tube placement continues to present a challenge for those high-risk patients on continuous feeds and/or receiving acid-inhibiting medications. [source]

Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation of Fever and Infection in Older Adult Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities: 2008 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Kevin P. High MD
Residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are at great risk for infection. Most residents are older and have multiple comorbidities that complicate recognition of infection; for example, typically defined fever is absent in more than one-half of LTCF residents with serious infection. Furthermore, LTCFs often do not have the on-site equipment or personnel to evaluate suspected infection in the fashion typically performed in acute care hospitals. In recognition of the differences between LTCFs and hospitals with regard to hosts and resources present, the Infectious Diseases Society of America first provided guidelines for evaluation of fever and infection in LTCF residents in 2000. The guideline presented here represents the second edition, updated by data generated over the intervening 8 years. It focuses on the typical elderly person institutionalized with multiple chronic comorbidities and functional disabilities (e.g., a nursing home resident). Specific topic reviews and recommendations are provided with regard to what resources are typically available to evaluate suspected infection, what symptoms and signs suggest infection in a resident of an LTCF, who should initially evaluate the resident with suspected infection, what clinical evaluation should be performed, how LTCF staff can effectively communicate about possible infection with clinicians, and what laboratory tests should be ordered. Finally, a general outline of how a suspected outbreak of a specific infectious disease should be investigated in an LTCF is provided. [source]

Guidelines Abstracted from the Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Stroke Rehabilitation

Miriam Rodin MD
OBJECTIVES: To assist facilities in identifying those evidence-based processes of poststroke care that enhance measurable patient outcomes. The guideline(s) should be used by facilities (hospitals, subacute-care units and providers of long-term care) to implement a structured approach to improve rehabilitative practices and by clinicians to determine best interventions to achieve improved patient outcomes. OPTIONS: The guideline considers five elements of poststroke rehabilitation care: interdisciplinary teams; use of standardized assessments; intensity, timing, and duration of therapy; involvement of patients' families and caregivers in decision-making; and educational interventions for patients, families, and caregivers. Evidence, benefits, harms, and recommendations for each of the five designated elements and specific annotated recommendations for poststroke managements are presented separately. OUTCOMES: The overall guideline considers improvement in functional status measures as the primary outcome. Achieving community-dwelling status and preventing complications, death, and rehospitalization are also important outcomes. Costs are not specifically addressed. PARTICIPANTS: The Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense (VA/DoD) Stroke Rehabilitation Working Group consisted of 28, largely VA and military hospital, representatives of medical and allied professions concerned with stroke diagnosis, management, and rehabilitation. Nine additional members with similar credentials served as the editorial committee. Technical consultation was contracted from ACS Federal Health Care, Inc., and the Center for Evidence-Based Practice, State University of New York,Upstate Medical University, Department of Family Medicine conducted evidence appraisal. Consensus was achieved over several years of facilitated group discussion and iterative evaluation of draft documents and supporting evidence. SPONSOR: The guideline was prepared under the auspices of the VA/DoD. No other source of support was identified in the document, or supporting documents. [source]

Clinical Practice Guideline: Screening and Diagnosing Autism

APRN-C, Mary Jo Goolsby EdD
The clinical practice guideline (CPG) reviewed in this month's column concerns the screening and diagnosis of autism. Autism is the third most common developmental disability and affects more than 1 in 500 children, or nearly 400,000 people in the United States, in some form. Primary care providers of children, including pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) and family nurse practitioners (FNPs), should reasonably expect to care for at least one child with autism (CWA). The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) has therefore developed guidelines to help healthcare providers facilitate the early identification of children with autism. [source]

Special Issue: KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for the Care of Kidney Transplant Recipients

Article first published online: 14 OCT 200
Abstract The 2009 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guideline on the monitoring, management, and treatment of kidney transplant recipients is intended to assist the practitioner caring for adults and children after kidney transplantation. The guideline development process followed an evidence-based approach, and management recommendations are based on systematic reviews of relevant treatment trials. Critical appraisal of the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations followed the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. The guideline makes recommendations for immunosuppression, graft monitoring, as well as prevention and treatment of infection, cardiovascular disease, malignancy, and other complications that are common in kidney transplant recipients, including hematological and bone disorders. Limitations of the evidence, especially on the lack of definitive clinical outcome trials, are discussed and suggestions are provided for future research. [source]

The committee for revision of the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Article first published online: 19 MAY 2010
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Quality of histopathological reporting on melanoma and influence of use of a synoptic template

Lauren E Haydu
Haydu L E, Holt P E, Karim R Z, Madronio C M, Thompson J F, Armstrong B K & Scolyer R A (2010) Histopathology56, 768,774 Quality of histopathological reporting on melanoma and influence of use of a synoptic template Aims:, To evaluate the quality of histopathological reporting for melanoma in a whole population, to assess the influence on quality of the use of a synoptic template and thus to provide an evidence base to guide improvement in reporting melanoma pathology. Methods and results:, Histopathology reports of all primary invasive melanomas notified to the New South Wales Central Cancer Registry between October 2006 and October 2007 (n = 3784) were reviewed. A detailed audit of histopathology reports for consecutively diagnosed primary invasive melanoma over 6 months (n = 2082) was performed to assess the quality of each report based on compliance with the 2008 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Melanoma in Australia and New Zealand. Only half of the initial excision specimen reports included the essential components necessary to stage a melanoma patient according to the 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer melanoma staging system. Report format was strongly correlated with completeness and validity of reporting: reports in a synoptic format, with or without a descriptive component, achieved the highest quality levels. Conclusions:, Even in a population with a high incidence of melanoma, concordance of pathology reports with current guidelines was comparatively low. Wider adoption of synoptic reporting is likely to increase report quality. [source]

Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Prostate Cancer (Summary , JUA 2006 Edition)

Sadao Kamidono
First page of article [source]

Health Care for the Homeless Assesses the Use of Adapted Clinical Practice Guidelines

Aaron J. Strehlow RN, FNP-C
COLUMN EDITOR: Mary Jo Goolsby This article describes a process of evaluating and adapting existing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for homeless individuals by different healthcare providers in multiple healthcare settings across the country. Data were collected using a standardized evaluation tool in nine sites across the United States. Clinicians completed an evaluation of the CPG after every use. Most clinicians used the CPG five times. Descriptive statistics were reported on the characteristics of the clinicians, and the utility of the guidelines and written comments. Clinicians had an average of 12 years of clinical experience, 8 years of which were specifically spent working with homeless individuals. Ninety-one percent of the clinicians practiced in urban settings. The majority of clinicians felt the adapted guidelines met evaluation criteria. The major weaknesses reported the delineation of outreach and case management activities. Results did not vary by clinicians' disciplines, years of experience, or any other indicators. Clients and clinicians providing primary care to homeless individuals may benefit from utilizing Health Care for the Homeless Clinicians' Network adapted CPGs to assure quality, evidenced-based care to a vulnerable population. [source]

Implementing a Smoking Cessation Program for Pregnant Women Based on Current Clinical Practice Guidelines

Lynne Buchanan APRN, PhDArticle first published online: 24 MAY 200
Purpose To describe the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services clinical practice guideline for treating tobacco use and dependence and demonstrate how the guideline was utilized in a pilot program for a small sample of pregnant women (n=20) to help them decrease smoking. Data Sources A convenience sample of 20 pregnant women was recruited from a health maintenance organization at their initial prenatal contact either by telephone or in person. A comparison group of pregnant women (n=28) was used for analysis of outcomes. Conclusions Clinical results showed better outcomes for women in the pilot program when compared to a similar group who did not participate in the program. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in average number of cigarettes smoked per day at delivery and two weeks after delivery with pilot program participants reporting less smoking (p<.05). Women in both groups showed a pattern of returning to smoking after delivery of the baby. Implications for Practice Although a few tobacco users achieve permanent abstinence in first or second attempts, the majority continue to use tobacco for many years and typically cycle through many lapse and relapses before permanent abstinence. Ambulatory care systems need to be developed and funded to treat tobacco use and dependence over the life span. Recognition of the chronic nature of the problem and development of long term care delivery systems are needed to assist clients to achieve goals of permanent abstinence and better personal and family health. This cycle of lapse and relapse before permanent abstinence is typical and demonstrates the chronic nature of tobacco use and dependence and the need for long term follow-up. [source]

Evaluating and Applying Clinical Practice Guidelines

APRN-C, Mary Jo Goolsby EdD
Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) hold great potential for providing a summary of large volumes of clinical evidence and a related set of practical recommendations. Nurse practitioners should become aware of the range of available CPGs and methods by which they can be evaluated for use. Appropriate evaluation of CPGs should include their overall reliability and validity, as well as their applicability in specific situations. This article provides an overview of an appropriate evaluation method and serves as an introduction to future columns presenting individual CPGs. [source]

Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Use of Axillary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Carcinoma of the Breast: Current Update

Gordon F. Schwartz MD, MBAArticle first published online: 10 MAR 200
Abstract: Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been adopted as a suitable alternative to traditional level I and II axillary dissection in the management of clinically node-negative (N0) breast cancers. There are two current techniques used to identify the sentinel node(s): radiopharmaceutical, technetium sulfur colloid, and isosulfan blue dye (used in the United States) and technetium-labeled albumin and patent blue dye (used in Europe). (The labeled albumin is not U.S. Food and Drug Administration [FDA] approved in the United States.) SLNB to replace axillary dissection should only be performed by surgeons and patient management teams with appropriate training and experience. Although both radiocolloid and blue dye are used together by most surgeons, and training should be in both techniques, some experienced surgeons use one or the other almost exclusively. In addition, surgical pathologists must recognize the need to examine these small specimens with great care, using a generally adopted protocol. Imprint cytology or frozen sections may be used, followed by additional sections for light microscopy. Immunochemical staining with cytokeratin or other techniques to identify "submicroscopic" metastasis is often used, but the results should not be used to influence clinical decisions with respect to adjuvant therapy. "Failed" SLNB implies the surgeon's failure to identify the sentinel nodes, in which case a complete dissection is performed. A "false-negative" SLNB implies the finding of metastasis in the excised sentinel nodes by light microscopy after a negative frozen section examination. Whether a false-negative SLNB mandates completion axillary dissection is controversial, with clinical trials currently under way to answer this question. Although SLNB was initiated to accompany breast-conserving treatment, it is equally useful in patients undergoing mastectomy. It is more difficult to perform with mastectomy. When using blue dye only, SLNB may require a separate incision because of time constraints between injection and identification of the blue-stained nodes; radiocolloid usually does not. Completion axillary dissection after false-negative SLNB is more difficult after mastectomy. SLNB is a useful procedure that may save 70% of women with clinically negative (N0) axillae and all of those with pathologically negative axillae from the morbidity of complete axillary dissection. Ideally the sentinel nodes should be able to identified in more than 95% of patients, with a false-negative rate of less than 5%. Until these rates can be achieved consistently, however, surgeons should not abandon traditional axillary dissection., [source]

The Evaluation of the Renal Transplant Candidates: Clinical Practice Guidelines

Article first published online: 18 MAR 200
First page of article [source]

Feedback on the Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Delirium in Older People in Australia

Geoff Jones
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Management of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men

Samantha Pillay
This clinical update, written for the non-urologist, aims to highlight the important concepts behind understanding and treating men with uncomplicated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). In the last five years there have been important changes in the preferred terminology and guidelines for managing men with voiding symptoms. In particular, the assessment of a patient's degree of bother is the most important factor when making management decisions for men with uncomplicated LUTS. Although this clinical update does not attempt to address the management of prostate cancer it does include some brief guidelines on prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing. The following information is based on the NH&MRC Clinical Practice Guidelines, published 1996 [1]. It is acknowledged that opinion remains divided among urologists concerning some of these guidelines. [source]

Implementing Clinical Practice Guidelines in occupational therapy practice: Recommendations from the research evidence

Mary Stergiou-Kita
Background:,Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) are prominent tools in evidence-based practice which integrate research evidence, clinical expertise and client input to develop recommendations for specific clinical circumstance. With the push to use research evidence in health care, it is anticipated that occupational therapists will become increasingly involved in implementing CPGs in practice. The research evidence has revealed several factors that can affect guideline uptake, and a variety of strategies that can facilitate implementation. Methods:,This narrative review examines the health-related literature in CPGs to answer the following questions. Based on the research evidence, (i) what are the factors that may influence guideline implementation? (ii) What implementation strategies may enhance guideline implementation? Results:,Factors within the guideline itself (e.g. quality, complexity and clarity), within the practitioner (e.g. experience, perceptions and beliefs), the patient (e.g. expectations and preferences) and the practice context (e.g. resource availability, organisational culture and opinion leaders) can all affect implementation success. Currently, there is no conclusive evidence to support the use of one implementation strategy over another, in all situations. The choice of implementation strategy must take into account the guideline to be implemented, the practice context and the anticipated challenges to implementation. Conclusions:,By understanding the factors that can influence implementation and the strategies for successful implementation, occupational therapists will be better prepared to implement guidelines. Recommendations to assist with guideline uptake and implementation are provided. [source]

A review of guidelines on benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms: are all guidelines the same?

J. Irani
The Clinical Practice Guidelines on BPH/LUTS are examined by authors from London and Poitiers. They found in their review of the literature that the overall and methodological quality of such guidelines varies widely. They acknowledge the difficulties in developing careful guidelines, but suggest a formal appraisal of quality and methods, as these are the ones more likely to help urologists in decision-making. There are three papers on the prevalence of symptoms relating to lower tract conditions. The first examines male urinary incontinence in four European centres, the second nocturia and its effect on quality of life and sleep in a US community sample, and a further paper describes the prevalence diagnosis and treatment of prostatitis in Italy. A study from Sydney describes the authors use of the Inflow intra-urethral device for managing acontractile bladders in female patients. They found that the device provides an effective method of bladder drainage, with an acceptable side-effect profile and a significant improvement in quality of life. OBJECTIVE To compare overall and methodological quality with content in national and supra-national Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), as the purpose of CPGs is to reduce unwanted variation in practice and improve patient care by setting agreed standards based on the best available evidence. METHODS An electronic search was used to identify Internet-based national and supra-national CPGs on BPH and LUTS available in 2001. Two independent assessors analysed the content and appraised the methodological quality of the CPGs using an existing and validated instrument (St. George's Hospital Medical School Health Care Evaluation Unit Appraisal Instrument) comprising 37 items grouped into three broad areas, i.e. rigour of development, context and content, and clinical application. RESULTS Eight CPGs were suitable for appraisal; there was much variation in overall and methodological quality. There was agreement that a patient history and physical examination (including a digital rectal examination) should be used in all symptomatic men. In addition, patients' symptoms should be assessed using a validated symptom score, e.g. the International Prostate Symptom Score. There was considerable variation in the number and type of diagnostic tests recommended for routine assessment. CPGs scoring low on the appraisal instrument (indicating poor overall and methodological quality) were more likely to recommend more diagnostic tests than those scoring high. There was general agreement between the guidelines on the treatment of BPH/LUTS and the importance of the patient's involvement in making management decisions. Guideline quality was independent of local health resources and publication year. CONCLUSION The overall and methodological quality of CPGs on BPH/LUTS varies considerably. There appears to be an inverse relationship between guideline quality and the number of diagnostic tests recommended for routine assessment. Using CPGs of high quality may prevent men with BPH/LUTS being exposed to tests of doubtful utility. Although this may reduce both resource use and exposure to potential harm, moving to a more minimalist approach to diagnosis may itself be potentially harmful to patients. [source]

Toward Improved Implementation of Evidence-based Clinical Algorithms: Clinical Practice Guidelines, Clinical Decision Rules, and Clinical Pathways

Gary M. Gaddis MD
This is a summary of the consensus-building workshop entitled "Guideline Implementation and Clinical Pathways," convened May 15, 2007, at the Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, "Knowledge Translation in Emergency Medicine: Establishing a Research Agenda and Guide Map for Evidence Uptake." A new term, "evidence-based clinical algorithms" is suggested to encompass evidence-based information codified into clinical pathways, clinical practice guidelines, and clinical decision rules. Examples of poor knowledge translation (KT) relevant to the specialty of emergency medicine are identified, followed by brief descriptions of important research and concepts that inform the research recommendations. Four broad themes for research to improve the KT of evidence-based clinical algorithms are suggested: organizational factors, cognitive factors, social factors, and motivational factors. In all cases, research regarding optimizing KT for the subthemes identified by Glasziou and Haynes, "getting the evidence straight," and "getting the evidence used," are interwoven into the thematic research recommendations. Consensus was reached that the majority of research efforts to evaluate means to improve KT need to be centered on the factors that show promise to enhance "getting the evidence used," focused especially on organizational factors. [source]

Australian Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of ocular and periocular Melanoma: an evidence-based literature analysis

Simon E Skalicky MBBS
Abstract Background:, With recent advances in the diagnosis and management of ocular and periocular melanoma, many of which are based on results from randomized control trials, there is an increasing need for an evidence-based review of the literature for the Australasian population. The Australian Cancer Network has recently redeveloped the evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Melanoma, including a chapter on ocular melanoma. These are the first evidence-based guidelines on ocular melanoma to be created by the Australian Cancer Network. Methods:, The primary research questions were formed and a detailed literature search was undertaken. Each relevant article was assessed and graded I,IV according to the level of evidence. Articles were grouped into bodies of evidence which were then assessed. Results:, A total of 107 relevant articles were identified and grouped into 12 bodies of evidence. Guidelines based on this analysis were formulated and graded. These are presented below. Conclusions:, The management of ocular melanoma has benefited from recent advances in imaging, molecular biology and cytogenetics, and tumours today are detected earlier and with greater accuracy than 25 years ago. With improved treatment ocular and periocular melanomas can be controlled locally, with good preservation of vision in many patients. However, there remains no cure for metastatic disease. [source]

Amiodarone for Atrial Fibrillation Following Cardiac Surgery: Development of Clinical Practice Guidelines at a University Hospital

Pharm D., Ujjaini Khanderia M.S.
Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) usually develops within the first 72 h following cardiac surgery, and is often self-limiting. Within 48 h of acute onset of symptoms, approximately 50% of patients spontaneously convert to normal sinus rhythm. Thus, the relative risks and benefits of therapy must be carefully considered. The etiology of AF following cardiac surgery is similar to that in non-surgical patients except that pericardial inflammation and increased adrenergic tone play an increasingly important role. Further, AF after surgery may be associated with transient risk factors that resolve as the patient moves out from surgery, and the condition is less likely to recur compared to AF arising in other circumstances. Immediate heart rate control is important in preventing ischemia, tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, and left ventricular dilatation. At our institution, amiodarone is frequently used as a first-line drug for treating AF after cardiac surgery. Inconsistent prescribing practices, variable dosage regimens, and a lack of consensus regarding the appropriate use of amiodarone prompted the need for developing practice guidelines. Multidisciplinary collaboration between the departments of cardiac surgery, pharmacy, and anesthesiology led to the development of a protocol for postoperative AF. We review the clinical evidence from published trials and discuss our guidelines, defining amiodarone use for AF in the cardiac surgery setting. Copyright © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Policy on Acute Toxic Ingestion or Dermal or Inhalation Exposure

ANP-C FAANP, Mary Jo Goolsby EdD
ABSTRACT Many nurse practitioners (NPs) practice in emergency and urgent-care settings, and fir more practical remote settings. NPs in each of these settings should be familiar with the assessment, stabilization, and treatment of patients who seek treatment for suspected intentional or accidental poisoning. This month's Clinical practice guideline (CPG) column reviews the "Clinical Policy for the Initial Approach to Patients Presenting With Acute Toxic Ingestion or Dermal or Inhalation Exposure." SUMMARY The ACEP "Clinical Policy for the Initial Approach to Patients Presenting With Acute Toxic Ingestion or Dermal or Inhalation Exposure" includes several helpful resources. In addition to recommending specific clinical actions in response to patient variables, the document includes a table identifying the antidote for many of the most commonly ingested drugs. These include digoxin, iron, opioids, salicylates, acetaminophen, and tricyclic antidepressants. The table also includes both the adult and pediatric dose of each listed antidote. A quick reference is included. This form can be used to guide the history, physical examination, and subsequent actions for treating patients with acute toxic ingestion or dermal or inhalation exposure. Finally, there is a quality assurance form to guide chart reviews. Many of the attributes of a well-developed guideline are identified in the report. The authors clearly identify the situations for which the recommendations are intended as well as those in which they do not apply. For instance, the guidance is not intended for use when patients are unstable and stabilization is the primary focus. It is also not intended for cases of radiation, parenteral, or eye exposure or of food poisoning. The authors describe the process used to develop the recommendations and identify the strength of the evidence on which each recommendation is based. The role of provider judgment in application of the guidance is addressed. Prior to its dissemination, the CPG was subjected to external review by dinical experts. This ACEP policy has applicability for the growing number of NPs working in emergency and urgent cafe settings as well as for those who must provide front line emergency care in remote settings. It provides a framework for responding to acute toxic exposures and provides several useful resources to assist the clinician in responding to situations in which accidental or intentional poisoning is suspected. [source]

Are clinical practical guidelines (CPGs) useful for health services and health workforce planning?

A critique of diabetes CPGs
Diabet. Med. 27, 570,577 (2010) Abstract Aims, Chronic disease management is increasingly informed by clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). However, their implementation requires not only knowledge of guideline content by clinicians and practice processes that support implementation, but also a health workforce with the capacity to deliver care consistent with CPGs. This has a health services planning as well as a health workforce dimension. However, it is not known whether CPGs are described in a way that can inform health services and health workforce planning and potentially drive better quality care. This study aimed to ascertain whether CPGs are useful for health service and health workforce planning. Methods, This question was explored taking diabetes mellitus as a case study. A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and Scopus was carried out to identify all CPGs relating to the management of diabetes mellitus in the primary healthcare setting. The search was limited to guidelines published in the English language between 2003 and 2009. The quality of guidelines was assessed against a subset of criteria set by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) collaboration. Results, Seventy-five diabetes-related CPGs were identified, of which 27 met the inclusion criteria. In terms of quality, many guidelines adopted evidence-based recommendations for diabetes care (59%) and most were endorsed by national authorities (70%). With regards to coverage of 17 identified subpopulations, guidelines were generally selective in the populations they covered. Whilst many provided adequate coverage of common complications and comorbidities, approaches to management for those with reduced capacity for effective diabetes self-care were largely absent, except for indigenous populations. Conclusions, Clinical practice guidelines are potentially useful for health services and health workforce planning, but would be more valuable for this purpose if they contained more detail about care protocols and specific skills and competencies, especially for subpopulations who would be expected to have reduced capacity for effective self-care. If service planning ignores these subgroups that tend to require more resource-intensive management, underprovision of services is likely. [source]

GPs' perceptions of multiple-medicine use in older patients

Janne Moen PhD
Abstract Rationale, aim and objective, Multiple-medicine use (polypharmacy) is a growing problem for older patients, prescribers and health policy makers. The general practitioner (GP) is most often the main professional care provider; hence, improvements of treatment can only be carried out in concordance with GPs. The aim of this study was, therefore, to explore GPs' perspectives of treating older users of multiple medicines, using a qualitative approach. Method, Six focus groups, with four private GPs and 27 county-employed GPs, were analysed by using the framework method. Results, In contrast to definitions in most epidemiologic studies, the GPs gave a spontaneous definition of polypharmacy as ,the administration of more medicines than are clinically indicated'. They had problems stating both a cut-off number and which medicines should be included. Clinical practice guidelines were thought of as ,medicine generators', having an ambiguous effect on the GPs, who both trust them and find them difficult to apply. There was a perceived lack of communication between GPs and hospital specialists concerning their patients' medicines, which was further perceived to reduce treatment quality. The influence of patient pressure was acknowledged by the GPs as a factor contributing to the development of multiple-medicine use. Conclusions, The GPs felt insecure although surrounded by clinical practice guidelines. There is a need for policy makers to appreciate this paradox, as the problem is likely to grow in size and proportion. GPs must be empowered to handle the increasing proportion of older users of multiple medicines with individual agendas, receiving care from multiple specialists. [source]

Improved guideline adherence to pharmacotherapy of chronic systolic heart failure in general practice , results from a cluster-randomized controlled trial of implementation of a clinical practice guideline

Frank Peters-Klimm MD
Abstract Rationale and aims, Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) reflect the evidence of effective pharmacotherapy of chronic (systolic) heart failure (CHF) which needs to be implemented. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a new, multifaceted intervention (educational train-the-trainer course plus pharmacotherapy feedback = TTT) compared with standard education on guideline adherence (GA) in general practice. Method, Thirty-seven participating general practitioners (GPs) were randomized (18 vs. 19) and included 168 patients with ascertained symptomatic CHF [New York Heart Association (NYHA) II-IV]. Groups received CPG, the TTT intervention consisted of four interactive educational meetings and a pharmacotherapy feedback, while the control group received a usual lecture (Standard). Outcome measure was GA assessed by prescription rates and target dosing of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), beta-blockers (BB) and aldosterone antagonists (AA) at baseline and 7-month follow-up. Group comparisons at follow-up were adjusted to GA, sex, age and NYHA stage at baseline. Results, Prescription rates at baseline (n = 168) were high (ACE-I/ARB 90, BB 79 and AA 29%) in both groups. At follow up (n = 146), TTT improved compared with Standard regarding AA (43% vs. 23%, P = 0.04) and the rates of reached target doses of ACE-I/ARB (28% vs. 15%, P = 0.04). TTT group achieved significantly higher mean percentages of daily target dose (52% vs. 42%, mean difference 10.3%, 95% CI 0.84,19.8, P = 0.03). Conclusion, Despite of pre-existing high GA in both groups and an active control group, the multifaceted intervention was effective in quality of care measured by GA. Further research is needed on the choice of interventions in different provider populations. [source]

Provider-perceived barriers and facilitators for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) guideline adherence

Gail M. Powell-Cope PhD ARNP
Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives, Clinical practice guidelines have become a standard way of implementing evidence-based practice, yet research has shown that clinicians do not always follow guidelines. Method, As part of a larger study to test the effects of an intervention on provider adherence to ischaemic heart disease (IHD) guidelines, we conducted five focus groups at three Veterans Administration Medical Centers with 32 primary care providers, cardiologists, and internists to identify key barriers and facilitators to adherence of the guidelines. Using content analysis, responses were grouped into categories. Results, The main perceived advantages of using the IHD guidelines were improvements in quality and the cost of care. Perceived barriers were the lack of ability of guidelines to manage the care of any one individual patient, the difficulty of accessing guidelines, and high workloads with many complex patients. While providers agreed on the benefits of aspirin, beta-blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, barriers for use of these medications were lack of consensus about contraindications, difficulty in providing follow-up during medication titration, and lack of patient adherence. Sources of influence for guideline use were: professional cardiology organizations, colleagues, mainly cardiologists, and key cardiology journals. However, most providers acknowledged that following guidelines was a personal practice decision. Conclusions, While results validated the influences of using clinical practice guidelines, our results highlight the importance of ascertaining guideline-specific barriers for building effective interventions to improve provider adherence. An advisory panel reviewed results and, using a modified nominal group process, chose implementation strategies targeting key barriers. [source]

Scandinavian Clinical practice guidelines for therapeutic hypothermia and post-resuscitation care after cardiac arrest

Background and aim: Sudden cardiac arrest survivors suffer from ischaemic brain injury that may lead to poor neurological outcome and death. The reperfusion injury that occurs is associated with damaging biochemical reactions, which are suppressed by mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH). In several studies MTH has been proven to be safe, with few complications and improved survival, and is recommended by the International Liaison of Committee on Resuscitation. The aim of this paper is to recommend clinical practice guidelines for MTH treatment after cardiac arrest from the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (SSAI). Methods: Relevant studies were identified after two consensus meetings of the SSAI Task Force on Therapeutic Hypothermia (SSAITFTH) and via literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Medline. Evidence was assessed and consensus opinion was used when high-grade evidence (Grade of Recommendation, GOR) was unavailable. A management strategy was developed as a consensus from the evidence and the protocols in the participating countries. Results and conclusion: Although proven beneficial only for patients with initial ventricular fibrillation (GOR A), the SSAITFTH also recommend MTH after restored spontaneous circulation, if active treatment is chosen, in patients with initial pulseless electrical activity and asystole (GOR D). Normal ethical considerations, premorbid status, total anoxia time and general condition should decide whether active treatment is required or not. MTH should be part of a standardized treatment protocol, and initiated as early as possible after indication and treatment have been decided (GOR E). There is insufficient evidence to make definitive recommendations among techniques to induce MTH, and we do not know the optimal target temperature, duration of cooling and rewarming time. New studies are needed to address the question as to how MTH affects, for example, prognostic factors. [source]

Clinical practice guidelines for pediatric constipation

Beverly J. Greenwald PhD, CGRN (Associate Professor)
Abstract Purpose: To discuss the diagnosis and management of pediatric constipation by nurse practitioners in primary care. Data sources: Clinical practice guidelines and selected research articles. Conclusions: Pediatric constipation is a common complaint. Few children have an organic cause; more common is "functional constipation." Management may include medications, dietary interventions, and behavior modification. Patient and family education is essential. Implications for practice: A successful outcome requires multiple management strategies. There are usually relapses and gradual progress, so follow-up is essential. A consult with a pediatric gastroenterologist is indicated when treatment fails, if there is concern about an organic cause, or for complex management. [source]

An intervention to change clinician behavior: Conceptual framework for the multicolored simplified asthma guideline reminder (MSAGR)

FNP-C Assistant Professor, Mary C. O'Laughlen PhD
Abstract Clinical practice guidelines decrease variation in health care because they standardize the care offered by healthcare providers. Seventeen years after publication, the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) guidelines are considered the "gold standard" in asthma care, yet they remain underutilized despite three revisions with the latest in July 2007. Multiple factors are presented for lack of adherence to the guidelines. This article discusses the Multicolored, Simplified Asthma Guideline Reminder (MSAGR), an algorithm chart intervention for helping change clinicians' behavior for better adherence to the NAEPP guidelines, and describes the conceptual framework underpinning this intervention as a means of predicting better outcomes for providers and children. [source]

Evaluating Acute Musculoskeletal Complaints

Mary Jo Goolsby EdD
Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are now widely available summarizing large amounts of scientific evidence and providing specific recommendations for the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of varied health problems. In order to take advantage of the available CPGs in clinical practice, providers must be aware of their existence and be able to critique them for scientific merit and relevance to specific clinical settings. This ongoing series is designed to provide a brief review of a different CPG each month. This month, the CPG reviewed addresses the evaluation of an extremely common set of complaints: musculoskeletal symptoms. The document emphasizes the importance of a thorough history and physical for these presentations and indicates when specific diagnostic studies and/or consultations are warranted. [source]