Clinical Guidelines (clinical + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Clinical Guidelines

  • current clinical guideline

  • Selected Abstracts

    We Live in the Age of the Clinical Guideline

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 11 2006
    Article first published online: 16 NOV 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    We Live in the Age of the Clinical Guideline

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2006
    Simon Shorvon
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Medical management of left-sided ulcerative colitis and ulcerative proctitis: Critical evaluation of therapeutic trials

    Miguel Regueiro MD
    Abstract Background: The goal of this work was to critically evaluate the published studies on the treatment of ulcerative proctitis (UP) and left-sided ulcerative colitis (L-UC). The results of this review provided the content for the accompanying treatment guidelines, Clinical Guidelines for the Medical Management of Left-sided Ulcerative Colitis and Ulcerative Proctitis: Summary Statement. Methods: All English language articles published between 1995 and September 2005 were identified through a comprehensive literature search using OVID and PubMed. The quality of the data supporting or rejecting the use of specific therapies was categorized by a data quality grading scale. An "A+" grade was assigned to treatment supported by multiple high-quality randomized controlled trials with consistent results, whereas a "D" grade was given to therapy supported only by expert opinion. The therapeutic efficacy of a treatment was defined by its success in treating UP and L-UC compared with placebo. A medication was ranked as "excellent" if it was specifically studied for UP and L-UC and had consistently positive results compared with placebo or another agent. Quality and efficacy scores were agreed on by author consensus. Results: For the acute treatment of UP or L-UC, the rectally administered corticosteroids and mesalazine (5-ASA), either alone or in combination with oral 5-ASAs, are the most effective therapy: evidence quality, A+; efficacy, excellent. Only rectally administered 5-ASA received an A+/excellent rating for maintenance of remission. Infliximab received an A+ grade for induction and maintenance of remission but only a "good" rating because the studies were performed in all UC, not specifically UP or L-UC. Conclusions: This critical evaluation of treatment provides a "report card" on medications available for the management of patients with UP and L-UC. The guidelines should provide a useful reference and supplement for physicians treating UC patients. [source]

    UK National Clinical Guidelines in Paediatric Dentistry *

    Article first published online: 25 DEC 200
    First page of article [source]

    Australian Clinical Guidelines for Acute Stroke Management 2007

    Acute Stroke Guidelines Writing Subgroup on behalf of the National Stroke Foundation Clinical Guidelines For Acute Stroke Management Expert Working Group
    First page of article [source]

    Clinical Guidelines in Old Age Psychiatry

    Alessandra Scalmati MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Use of Clinical Guidelines for Treatment of Anemia Among Hemodialysis Patients

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 2 2000
    Mae Thamer
    Abstract: Changing financial incentives have strongly influenced dosing patterns of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) since its introduction in 1989. Although guidelines for prescribing rHuEPO exist, the extent to which they are adhered to is unknown. Using a retrospective cohort observational study design, the factors influencing the initial dosing of rHuEPO prescribed to 413 hemodialysis patients in 1994 were examined. Patient weight, the only recommended guideline, was not found to be a significant predictor of dosing of rHuEPO after controlling for selected patient demographic and clinical characteristics. The strongest predictor for initial rHuEPO dosing was hematocrit followed by White race (p < 0.05). Finally, each subsequent month was associated with a significantly larger initial rHuEPO dose, reflecting the general trend in increasing dose since 1991 (p < 0.001). In conclusion, despite the recent DOQI guidelines for treatment of anemia among persons with chronic renal failure, providers are not using patient weight as an independent criterion for determining dosing of rHuEPO. [source]

    Clinical guideline for male lower urinary tract symptoms

    Yukio Homma
    Abstract: This article is a shortened version of the clinical guideline for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which has been developed in Japan for symptomatic men aged 50 years and over irrespective of presumed diagnoses. The guideline was formed on the PubMed database between 1995 and 2007 and other relevant sources. The causes of male LUTS are diverse and attributable to diseases/dysfunctions of the lower urinary tract, prostate, nervous system, and other organ systems, with benign prostatic hyperplasia, bladder dysfunction, polyuria, and their combination being most common. The mandatory assessment should comprise medical history, physical examination, urinalysis, and measurement of serum prostate-specific antigen. Symptom and quality of life questionnaires, bladder diary, residual urine measurement, urine cytology, urine culture, measurement of serum creatinine, and urinary tract ultrasonography would be optional tests. The Core Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Score Questionnaire may be useful in quickly capturing important symptoms. Severe symptoms, pain symptoms, and other clinical problems would indicate urological referral. One should be careful not to overlook underlying diseases such as infection or malignancy. The treatment should be initiated with conservative therapy and/or medicine such as ,1 -blockers. Treatment with anticholinergic agents should be reserved only for urologists, considering the risk of urinary retention. The present guideline should help urologists and especially non-urologists treat men with LUTS. [source]

    The Global Diversion of Pharmaceutical Drugs

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2010
    Opiate treatment, the diversion of pharmaceutical opiates: a clinician's perspective
    ABSTRACT Aim To provide a clinician's perspective on the problem of diversion of prescribed pharmaceuticals. Methods The paper provides a personal account of working in a treatment context where diversion from opioid substitution treatment (OST) became a political issue potentially compromising the continued delivery of OST. It summarizes evidence on the impact of diversion, and measures to contain it, from the United Kingdom 1986,2006, Australia 1996,2008 and the United States and France from the mid-1990s. Results Opioid diversion to the black market occurs in proportion to the amount of opioids prescribed to be taken without supervision, and in inverse proportion to the availability of heroin. Diversion for OST programmes using supervision of dosing is less than diversion of opioids prescribed for pain, which is now a growing public health problem. Adverse consequences of diversion include opioid overdose fatalities, an increased incidence of addiction (particularly in jurisdictions where heroin is scarce) and compromising the public acceptance of long-term opioid prescribing. All long-term opioid prescribing requires monitoring of risk and appropriate dispensing arrangements,including dilution of methadone take-aways, supervision of administration for high-risk patients and random urine testing. Clinical guidelines influence practice, although prescribing often deviates from guidelines. Conclusion Clinical guidelines and clinical audit to enhance compliance with guidelines are helpful in maintaining the quality and integrity of the treatment system, and can contribute to keeping diversion within acceptable levels. [source]

    Clinical guidelines: attitudes, information processes and culture in English primary care

    George Dowswell
    Abstract The application to clinical medicine of evidence-based clinical guidelines is an increasingly international policy prescription, yet research on how such guidelines might be implemented has tended to focus on change initiatives without seeking to understand change processes. This paper reports an empirical study of guideline implementation in UK general practice. Most GPs welcome guidelines as a means of improving care, though have reservations about their authority, relevance and effect on professional autonomy. ,Clan' organizational culture predominates and general practices do not generally have well-functioning internal arrangements for the management of clinical evidence and related information. We found no coherent relationships between these variables and practices' actual uptake of guidelines. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Clinical guidelines for nocturia

    The Committee for Establishment of the Clinical Guidelines for Nocturia of the Neurogenic Bladder Society
    Abstract Nocturia is a bothersome condition, defined as a complaint whereby the individual has to wake one or more times per night in order to void. Nocturia that occurs twice or more per night can have a substantial adverse effect on the patient's quality of life (QOL), and in many cases treatment may be required. These guidelines provide a treatment algorithm for use by primary care physicians. The initial assessment is conducted through a history taking interview. With a clear understanding of symptoms, patients can be classified into three broad categories: (1) nocturia only, (2) nocturia and diurnal pollakisuria without other lower urinary tract symptoms, and (3) nocturia and diurnal pollakisuria accompanying other lower urinary tract symptoms. For treatment, the literature supporting each form of drug therapy was ranked and a recommendation grade was determined for each form of therapy. A grade of ,F (pending)' was applied to any drug not currently approved for use in Japan or for which the efficacy and safety in Japanese patients was unconfirmed at the time of evaluation. We recommend instruction and guidance on water intake that will generally result in 24-h urine volume of 20 to 25 mL/kg. This corresponds to a daily water intake of 2.0% to 2.5% of body weight. In Japan, desmopressin is indicated for central diabetes insipidus and nocturnal enuresis, but not indicated for nocturia. The therapeutic mechanism of the anticholinergic drugs for nocturia may depend on the action of the sensory nerve mediated by the muscarinic receptors. [source]

    Clinical guidelines for overactive bladder

    Osamu Yamaguchi
    First page of article [source]


    Brian Jory
    This article describes development of the Intimate Justice Scale (IJS) and reports on a clinical study of the validity, reliability, and clinical usefulness of the instrument. Rather than measuring specific acts of abuse, the IJS measures ethical dynamics of couple relationships, which areevident in patterns of action and attitude expressed over the course of the relationship. Ethical dynamics appear to correlate with partner abuse. The study suggests that the IJS may reliably identify victims of abuse and may discriminate between minor and severe levels of abuse. The IJS can be completed and scored in less than 10 min and may be useful for screening in mental health, medical, and social service agencies. Clinical guidelines and a case example are presented. [source]

    Clinical guidelines and off-license recombinant activated factor VII: content, use, and association with patient outcomes

    C. D. WILLIS
    Summary.,Background: Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is increasingly being used off-license for treating critical bleeding. Guidelines may therefore be useful for improving processes and outcomes. Little is known regarding guidelines for off-license rFVIIa or their association with patient outcomes. Objectives: To investigate the availability of hospital guidelines for off-license rFVIIa use and the association between these guidelines and mortality. Methods: Data were extracted from the Haemostasis Registry, which collects all cases of off-license rFVIIa use in participating institutions in Australia and New Zealand. Contributing hospitals were requested to supply a copy of the institutional guideline relating to off-license rFVIIa administration. The characteristics of patients treated in accordance with all elements of the guidelines were compared with those of patients for who one or more guideline elements had been violated. The relationship between guideline-directed treatment and 28-day mortality was investigated using stepwise logistic regression. Results: Two thousand five hundred and fifty-one patients in 75 hospitals were available for analysis. Of these hospitals, 58 provided a guideline for analysis. Patients complying with all guideline elements (n = 530) did not differ from patients receiving care that violated guidelines (n = 1035) regarding age, size of dose, or gender. Guideline-directed treatment was not found to have an association with 28-day mortality following logistic regression. Conclusions: Few patients are treated in accordance with the criteria of rFVIIa guidelines, despite their availability in the majority of hospitals. Moreover, 28-day mortality does not appear to be associated with the use of guidelines in this patient group. Refinement of guidelines relating to the off-license use of rFVIIa is therefore required. [source]

    GINA guidelines on asthma and beyond,

    ALLERGY, Issue 2 2007
    J. Bousquet
    ,Clinical guidelines are systematically developed statements designed to help practitioners and patients make decisions regarding the appropriate health care for specific circumstances. Guidelines are based on the scientific evidence on therapeutic interventions. The first asthma guidelines were published in the mid 1980s when asthma became a recognized public health problem in many countries. The Global Initiative on Asthma (GINA) was launched in 1995 as a collaborative effort between the NHLBI and the World Health Organization (WHO). The first edition was opinion-based but updates were evidence-based. A new update of the GINA guidelines was recently available and it is based on the control of the disease. Asthma guidelines are prepared to stimulate the implementation of practical guidelines in order to reduce the global burden of asthma. Although asthma guidelines may not be perfect, they appear to be the best vehicle available to assist primary care physicians and patients to receive the best possible care of asthma. [source]

    Attitudes to evidence-based practice in urology: Results of a survey

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 5 2001
    Alan M. F. Stapleton
    Background: The advantages of promoting evidence-based care through implementation of clinical guidelines are well established. Clinical practice guidelines have been developed for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and prostate cancer screening. Aspects of the delivery of care by urologists or specialist registrars relevant to the guidelines were assessed. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed at the 1999 meeting of the Urological Society of Australasia, which was attended by 187 Australasian and 33 foreign delegates. Questions addressed access to resources for evidence-based medicine; perceived need; preferred sources of information; and then presented four clinical scenarios. These were: (i) treatment recommendations in early stage prostate cancer; (ii) the same scenario if the respondent was the patient; (iii) treatment recommendations after radical prostatectomy when there was a positive resection margin; and (iv) clinical investigations for mild to moderate LUTS. Results: Of 220 possible responses, 132 were received, a response rate of 60%. Urologists overwhelmingly (100%) endorsed the need for access to evidence-based reviews, although 28% claimed such access was non-existent to poor. Clinical guidelines were the preferred source of evidence-based information. For early stage prostate cancer in a 55-year-old man, radical prostatectomy was recommended by 93.2% of respondents, but this dropped to 83% when the respondent was the patient (P < 0.05), and a wider range of treatments was recommended. Pelvic radiotherapy and hormone therapy were equally recommended for biochemical progression following radical prostatectomy where there was a positive surgical margin. Investigations for LUTS included serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing (78.0%) and voided flow studies (77.3%). Conclusions: Urologists express a need for evidence-based practice resources, in particular clinical guidelines. Nevertheless their clinical approach is not necessarily consistent with existing guidelines, particularly for LUTS. An alteration in the recommendation when the respondent is the patient of interest and endorses the recommendation that patients with prostate cancer should be involved in treatment decisions. [source]

    Multilevel Analysis of the Chronic Care Model and 5A Services for Treating Tobacco Use in Urban Primary Care Clinics

    Dorothy Y. Hung
    Objective. To examine the chronic care model (CCM) as a framework for improving provider delivery of 5A tobacco cessation services. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were used to obtain data from 497 health care providers in 60 primary care clinics serving low-income patients in New York City. A hierarchical generalized linear modeling approach to ordinal regression was used to estimate the probability of full 5A service delivery, adjusting for provider covariates and clustering effects. We examined associations between provider delivery of 5A services, clinic implementation of CCM elements tailored for treating tobacco use, and the degree of CCM integration in clinics. Principal Findings. Providers practicing in clinics with enhanced delivery system design, clinical information systems, and self-management support for cessation were 2.04,5.62 times more likely to perform all 5A services ( p<.05). CCM integration in clinics was also positively associated with 5As delivery. Compared with none, implementation of one to six CCM elements corresponded with a 3.69,30.9 increased odds of providers delivering the full spectrum of 5As ( p<.01). Conclusions. Findings suggest that the CCM facilitates provider adherence to the Public Health Service 5A clinical guideline. Achieving the full benefits of systems change may require synergistic adoption of all model components. [source]

    Clinical guideline for male lower urinary tract symptoms

    Yukio Homma
    Abstract: This article is a shortened version of the clinical guideline for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which has been developed in Japan for symptomatic men aged 50 years and over irrespective of presumed diagnoses. The guideline was formed on the PubMed database between 1995 and 2007 and other relevant sources. The causes of male LUTS are diverse and attributable to diseases/dysfunctions of the lower urinary tract, prostate, nervous system, and other organ systems, with benign prostatic hyperplasia, bladder dysfunction, polyuria, and their combination being most common. The mandatory assessment should comprise medical history, physical examination, urinalysis, and measurement of serum prostate-specific antigen. Symptom and quality of life questionnaires, bladder diary, residual urine measurement, urine cytology, urine culture, measurement of serum creatinine, and urinary tract ultrasonography would be optional tests. The Core Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Score Questionnaire may be useful in quickly capturing important symptoms. Severe symptoms, pain symptoms, and other clinical problems would indicate urological referral. One should be careful not to overlook underlying diseases such as infection or malignancy. The treatment should be initiated with conservative therapy and/or medicine such as ,1 -blockers. Treatment with anticholinergic agents should be reserved only for urologists, considering the risk of urinary retention. The present guideline should help urologists and especially non-urologists treat men with LUTS. [source]

    Is there a downside to customizing care?

    Implications of general, patient-specific treatment strategies
    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives, The use of general clinical guidelines versus customization of patient care presents a dilemma for clinicians managing chronic illness. The objective of this project is to investigate the claim that the performance of customized strategies for the management of chronic illness depends on accurate patient categorization, and inaccurate categorization can lead to worse performance than that achievable using a general clinical guideline. Methods, This paper is based on an analysis of a basic utility model that differentiates between the use of general management strategies and customized strategies. Results, The analysis identifies necessary conditions for preferring general strategies to customized strategies as a trade-off between strategy performance and the probability of correct patient categorization. The analysis shows that customized treatment strategies developed under optimal conditions are not necessarily preferred. Conclusions, Results of the analysis have four implications regarding the design and use of clinical guidelines and customization of care: (i) the balance between the applications of more general strategies versus customization depends on the specificity and accuracy of the strategies; (ii) adoption of clinical guidelines may be stifled as the complexity of guidelines increases to account for growing evidence; (iii) clinical inertia (i.e. the failure to intensify an indicated treatment) can be a rational response to strategy specificity and the probability of misapplication; and, (iv) current clinical guidelines and other decision-support tools may be improved if they accommodate the need for customization of strategies for some patients while providing support for proper categorization of patients. [source]

    GASTROENTEROLOGY: Prospective evaluation of a clinical guideline recommending early patients discharge in bleeding peptic ulcer

    Marķa Chaparro
    Abstract Background and Aim:, To validate an early discharge policy in patients admitted with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) due to ulcers. Methods:, Patients with gastroduodenal ulcer or erosive gastritis/duodenitis were included in a previous study aiming to develop a practice guideline for early discharge of patients with UGIB. Variables associated with unfavorable evolution were analyzed in order to identify patients with low-risk of re-bleeding. After that, a one-year prospective analysis of all UGIB episodes was carried out. Results:, A total of 341 patients were identified in the retrospective study. Variables associated with unfavorable evolution were: systolic blood pressure , 100 mmHg, heart rate , 100 bpm, and a Forrest endoscopic classification of severe. 10% of patients were immediately discharged; however, if predictive variables obtained in the multivariate analysis had been used, hospitalization could have been prevented in 34% of patients. A total of 77 patients were included in the prospective analysis. Although only 19.5% of patients were immediately discharged without complications, 29 patients (37.7%) were theoretically suitable for early discharge. Conclusions:, Patients with UGIB who have clean-based ulcers and are stable on admission can be safely discharged immediately after endoscopy. Implementation of the clinical practice guideline safely reduced hospital admission for those patients. [source]

    The ,Collaborative Care' curriculum: an educational model addressing key ACGME core competencies in primary care residency training

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 9 2003
    Keith Frey
    Aim, The ,Collaborative Care' curriculum is a 12-month senior resident class project in which one evidence-based clinical guideline is designed, implemented and evaluated in our residency practice. This curriculum specifically addresses three of the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies: Practice-Based Learning and Improvement, Interpersonal and Communication Skills and System-Based Practices. Additionally, the project enhances the quality of patient care within the model family practice centre in a family practice residency. Methods, During the project, the third-year residency class selects the disease, develops the clinical guideline, leads its implementation and guides the evaluation process. Select faculty members serve as mentors and coach the resident class through each phase of the project. Specific educational objectives are developed for each content area: evidence-based medicine, clinical guideline development, continuous quality improvement and team leadership. A series of seminars are presented during the project year to provide ,just-in-time' learning for the key content and skills required for each step in the project. By working together to develop the practice guideline, then working with nurses and allied health staff to implement the guideline and review its effectiveness, the resident team gains competence in the areas of practice-based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communication skills and system-based practices. Results, The self-reported level of resident confidence in skill acquisition for each content area was measured for each resident at the time of graduation from the residency programme. Results from the first 2 years of this curriculum are reported (resident n = 12), and demonstrate a high level of physician confidence in the skills addressed and their utility for future practice. Conclusions, The senior resident seminar and team project model reported here creates learning experiences that appear to address at least three of the ACGME general competency expectations: practice-based learning and improvement, interpersonal communication skills, and systems-based practice. From the initial resident feedback, this educational model seems to establish a high level of physician confidence in the skills addressed and their utility for future practice. [source]

    Allergic rhinitis in children: Incidence and treatment in Dutch general practice in 1987 and 2001

    Cindy M. A. De Bot
    Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disorder in children, mostly diagnosed in primary health care. This study investigated the national incidence and treatment of allergic rhinitis among children aged 0,17 yr in Dutch general practice in 1987 and 2001 to establish whether changes have occurred. A comparison was made with data from the first (1987) and second (2001) Dutch national surveys of general practice on children aged 0,17 yr. Incidence rates were compared by age, sex, level of urbanization and season. The management of the general practitioner was assessed regarding drug prescriptions and referrals to medical specialists, and compared with the clinical guideline issued in 1996. The incidence rate of allergic rhinitis increased from 6.6 (1987) to 9.2 (2001) per 1000 person-years. We found a male predominance with a switch in adolescence to a female predominance at both time points. The increase in incidence was the highest in rural (<30,000 inhabitants) and suburban areas (30,000,50,000 inhabitants). Compared to 1987, there was a significant increase in incidence in the central part of the Netherlands in 2001. In both years, the incidence was higher in spring compared with the other seasons. In 2001, children of natives and western immigrants visited the general practitioner more often with complaints of allergic rhinitis compared to 1987. In 1987, prescribed medication consisted mainly of nasal corticosteroids (36%) and in 2001 of oral antihistamines (45%). Although a clinical guideline was not issued until 1996, overall, the treatment of allergic rhinitis by general practitioners was in both years in accordance with the current clinical guideline, but with a stronger adherence in 2001. The results show an increased incidence in the past decades of allergic rhinitis in children in Dutch general practice. The shift to a smaller spectrum of prescriptions in 2001 may be a result of the 1996 clinical guideline. [source]

    Latest news and product developments

    PRESCRIBER, Issue 12 2008
    Article first published online: 14 JUL 200
    Patients want to stop ,Z' drugs more than benzos A study from Lincolnshire has revealed that patients prescribed a ,Z' drug - zaleplon (Sonata), zolpidem or zopiclone - for insomnia are more likely to want to stop treatment than those prescribed a benzodiazepine (Br J Gen Pract 2008;58:417-22). The cross-sectional survey of 705 patients prescribed a hypnotic for insomnia found that more patients taking a Z drug wanted to stop (23 vs 12 per cent prescribed a benzodiazepine) and tried to stop treatment (52 vs 41 per cent). New NICE guidance NICE has published an updated clinical guideline for the management of type 2 diabetes, covering: the control of blood glucose with lifestyle modification, oral hypoglycaemic drugs and insulin; reducing blood pressure and lipids, antithrombotic therapy and estimating cardiovascular risk; and screening and treatment for long-term complications. There is also a new clinical guideline on cardiovascular risk assessment and the modification of blood lipids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. New technology appraisals include the use of erythropoietin analogues for cancer-associated anaemia, and adalimumab (Humira) and etanercept (Enbrel) for ankylosing spondylitis; infliximab (Remicade) is not recommended. See New from NICE (pages 13-14) for further details. Prescriber consultant editor wins award Professor Tony Avery, professor of primary care at Nottingham University and consultant editor for Prescriber, has won the John Fry Award for his work in promoting the discipline of general practice through research and publishing as a practising GP. The citation acknowledges Professor Avery as ,quite simply one of the best researchers we have had in general practice,' describing his output of original work and research as impressive. The award commemorates the work of the late Dr John Fry, perhaps the most prominent GP of his generation involved in research. Antihypertensive dose ignores adherence Clinicians take no account of poor adherence when they increase the dose of antihypertensive therapy due to apparent lack of effect, US researchers say (Circulation 2008; published online May 27; doi 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.724104). Their retrospective analysis included reimbursement records for 38 327 patients with hypertension who presented with elevated BP (140-200/>90mmHg) in one year (mean 1.8 events per patient). After adjusting for potential confounders, they found that antihypertensive medications were added or the dose of medication increased in about one-third of patients regardless of the degree of nonadherence in the previous year. LABAs improve COPD Inhaled long-acting beta2-agonists (LABAs) improve COPD and do not increase the risk of death, a new safety review has concluded (Chest 2008;133:1079-87). The meta-analysis of 27 RCTs in patients with moderate to severe stable COPD found that LABAs reduced exacerbations by 22 per cent, improved lung function, reduced use of rescue medication and improved quality of life. There was no effect on respiratory deaths, though a combination of a LABA with an inhaled steroid reduced the risk by two-thirds compared with LABA monotherapy. Tiotropium (Spiriva) was associated with a 50 per cent lower risk of exacerbations than LABAs. These findings follow the MHRA's review of LABAs in the treatment of asthma, which found no increase in mortality provided they are used with an inhaled steroid (Drug Safety Update 2008;1:9). Naproxen as effective in acute gouty arthritis Naproxen is as effective as prednisolone in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis, say researchers from The Netherlands (Lancet 2008;371:1854-60). Their study in 118 primary care patients showed that five days' treatment with naproxen 500mg twice daily or prednisolone 35mg daily reduced pain scores to a similar extent with a comparable incidence of adverse effects. Copyright © 2008 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

    Latest news and product developments

    PRESCRIBER, Issue 8 2008
    Article first published online: 12 MAY 200
    Glargine preferred to lispro as type 2 add-on Basal insulin glargine (Lantus) and insulin lispro (Humalog) at mealtimes improved glycaemic control equally well in patients with type 2 diabetes poorly controlled by oral agents, but patient satisfaction was greater with basal insulin (Lancet 2008;371:1073-84). The 44-week APOLLO trial, funded by Sanofi Aventis, was a nonblinded randomised comparison of basal and prandial insulin regimens added to oral treatment in 418 patients. It found similar reductions in HbA1C (,1.7 vs ,1.9 per cent respectively). Fasting and nocturnal glucose levels were lower with insulin glargine and postprandial levels were lower with insulin lispro. The basal regimen was associated with fewer hypoglycaemic events (5.2 vs 24 per patient per year), less weight gain (3.01 vs 3.54kg) and greater improvement in patient satisfaction scores. Treating hypertension cuts mortality in over-80s Treating hypertension in the over-80s reduces all-cause mortality by 21 per cent, the HYVET study has shown (N Engl J Med online: 31 March 2008; doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa 0801369). Compared with placebo, treatment with indapamide alone or with perindopril for an average of 1.8 years also reduced the incidence of fatal stroke by 39 per cent, cardiovascular death by 23 per cent and heart failure by 64 per cent. The incidence of stroke was reduced by 30 per cent but this was of borderline statistical significance. Fewer serious adverse events were reported with treatment than with placebo. New work for NICE The DoH has announced the 18th work programme for NICE. Seven public health interventions include preventing skin cancer, smoking by children and excess weight gain during pregnancy. Public health guidance will include the provision of contraceptive services for socially disadvantaged young people. Two new clinical guidelines are sedation in young people and management of fractured neck of femur. New technology appraisals may include eight therapies for cancer, two new monoclonal antibodies for psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis, an oral retinoid for severe chronic hand eczema and methylnaltrexone for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Combinations no better against CV disease Taking ezetimibe and simvastatin (Inegy) does not appear to slow the progression of atherosclerosis more than high-dose simvastatin alone, say researchers from The Netherlands (N Engl J Med 2008;358: 1431-43). In patients with hypercholesterolaemia, there was no difference in regression or progression of atherosclerosis after two years' treatment with simvastatin 80mg per day alone or combined with ezetimibe 10mg per day. Adverse event rates were similar. In patients with vascular disease or high-risk diabetes, there was no difference between the ACE inhibitor ramipril 10mg per day or the ARB telmisartan (Micardis) 80mg per day as monotherapy, or their combination, in the risk of a composite outcome of cardiovascular death, MI, stroke and admission for heart failure (N Engl J Med 2008;358:1547-59). Combined treatment was associated with higher risks of hypotensive symptoms, syncope and renal dysfunction. Twice-daily celecoxib increases CV risk Taking celecoxib (Celebrex) twice daily carries a higher risk of cardiovascular events than the same total dose taken once daily, a metaanalysis suggests (Circulation 2008; doi: 10.1161/ CIRCULATIONAHA.108. 764530). The analysis of six placebo-controlled trials involving a total of 7950 patients taking celecoxib for indications other than rheumatoid arthritis found that the combined risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure or thromboembolic event increased with dose over the range 400-800mg per day. The risk was significantly greater with 200mg twice daily (HR 1.8) than 400mg once daily (HR 1.1). Patients at greatest baseline risk were at disproportionately increased risk from celecoxib. Long-term etanercept effective in AS An open-label study suggests that etanercept (Enbrel) remains effective in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in the long term (Ann Rheum Dis 2008;67:346-52). Of 257 patients who completed six months' treatment with etanercept and who entered the nonblinded extension study, 126 completed a total of 168-192 weeks' treatment. The commonest adverse events were injection-site reactions (22 per cent), headache (20 per cent) and diarrhoea (17.5 per cent). The annual rate of serious infections was 0.02 per person. Response and partial remission rates after 192 weeks were similar to those reported after 96 weeks. Metformin reduces risk Metformin reduces the risk of developing diabetes in individuals at increased risk, a meta-analysis suggests (Am J Med 2008;121:149-57.e2). The study included 31 mostly small, randomised, controlled trials involving a total of 4570 participants and lasting at least eight weeks (8267 patient-years of treatment). Metformin was associated with reductions in body mass (,5.3 per cent), fasting glucose (,4.5 per cent) and insulin resistance (,22.6 per cent); lipid profiles also improved. The odds of developing diabetes were reduced by 40 per cent,an absolute risk reduction of 6 per cent over 1.8 years. MHRA clarifies cough and colds advice Press reports mistakenly suggested that the MHRA had banned some cough and cold remedies when it issued new guidance on treating young children, the MHRA says. The Agency's advice followed a review of over-thecounter cough and cold medicines for children by the Commission on Human Medicines. Children under two are at increased risk of adverse reactions and should no longer be treated with products containing antihistamine (chlorphenamine, brompheniramine, diphenhydramine), antitussives (dextromethorphan, pholcodine), expectorants (guaifenesin, ipecacuanha) and decongestants (phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, oxymetazoline and xylometazoline). The MHRA said these products, which are classified as general sale medicines, should be removed from open shelves until available in new packaging that complies with the advice. They may still be supplied by a pharmacist for the treatment of older children. Coughs and colds should be treated with paracetamol or ibuprofen for fever, a simple glycerol, honey or lemon syrup for cough, and vapour rubs and inhalant decongestants for stuffy nose. Saline drops can be used to thin and clear nasal secretions in young babies. Parents are being urged not to use more than one product at a time to avoid inadvertently administering the same constituent drug twice. Perindopril brand switch Servier Laboratories is replacing its current formulations of perindopril (Coversyl, Coversyl Plus) with a new product that is not bioequivalent. The current Coversyl brand contains perindopril erbumine (also known as tert -butylamine). The new formulation contains perindopril arginine; it will be distinguished by new brand names (Coversyl Arginine, Coversyl Arginine Plus) and new packaging. Coversyl 2, 4 and 8mg tablets are equivalent to Coversyl Arginine 2.5, 5 and 10mg. Servier says the change is part of the simplification and harmonisation of global manufacturing; the arginine salt is already used in other countries and offers greater stability and a longer shelf-life. Both Coversyl and Coversyl Arginine will be in the supply chain for the next few weeks. Generic perindopril will continue to be the erbumine salt and prescriptions for generic perindopril are not affected. New from NICE Diabetes in pregnancy: management of diabetes and its complications from preconception to the postnatal period. Clinical Guidance No. 63, March 2008 This clinical guideline focuses on additional aspects of care for women with gestational diabetes (88 per cent of cases) or pre-existing diabetes (of which about 40 per cent is type 2 diabetes) and their babies. To date, insulin aspart (NovoRapid) is the only drug in the guideline specifically licensed for use in pregnancy and NICE advises obtaining informed consent to implement its recommendations for using other insulins and oral hypoglycaemic agents. As with other guidelines, NICE begins by stressing the importance of patient-centred care and involving women in decisions about their treatment. The guideline is divided into six sections, dealing with consecutive periods of pregnancy. Preconceptual planning should include empowering women to help them reduce risks, optimising glycaemic control (after retinal assessment) and increasing monitoring intensity, and providing information about the effects of pregnancy on diabetes. Metformin may be recommended as an adjunct or alternative to insulin, but other oral hypoglycaemic agents should be replaced with insulin, although glibenclamide is an option during pregnancy. Isophane insulin is the preferred long-acting insulin; lispro (Humalog) and aspart are considered safe to use. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor blockers should be replaced with other antihypertensive agents and statins should be discontinued. Recommendations for screening and treatment of gestational diabetes build on previous guidance (CG62). Drug treatment will be needed by 10-20 per cent , this includes insulin (soluble, aspart or lispro) and/or metformin or glibenclamide, tailored to individual need. Antenatal care includes optimising glycaemic control. Insulin lispro or aspart should be considered in preference to soluble insulin. If glycaemic control cannot be achieved with insulin injections, an insulin pump may be indicated. The guideline includes a timetable for appointments and the care that should offered after each interval. Recommendations for intrapartum care, which supplement those in CG55, include frequent monitoring of blood glucose. Neonatal care includes recommendations for monitoring and screening the infant and the management of hypoglycaemia. Postnatal care (supplementing CG37) involves adjusting maternal treatment to avoid hypoglycaemia and recommendations for returning to community care. Metformin and glibenclamide are the only oral agents suitable for breastfeeding women. Women with gestational diabetes need advice about glycaemic control and planning for future pregnancies. Lifestyle advice and measurement of annual fasting plasma glucose should be offered. Inhaled corticosteroids for the treatment of chronic asthma in adults and in children aged 12 years and over. Technology Appraisal No. 138, March 2008 The latest technology appraisal of asthma treatments covers inhaled steroids for adults and children over 12 with chronic asthma. It makes only two recommendations. First, the cheapest appropriate option is recommended. Second, when a steroid and a long-acting beta2-agonist are indicated, the decision to prescribe a combined inhaler or separate devices should take into account therapeutic need and likely adherence. Combined inhalers are currently less expensive than separate devices, though they may not remain so. When a combined inhaler is chosen it should be the cheapest. NICE concludes that, at equivalent doses, there is little difference in the effectiveness or adverse event profile of the available steroids or the fixed-dose combinations. According to specialist advice, choosing the best device for an individual remains the overriding concern. Continuous positive airway pressure for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. Technology Appraisal No. 139, March 2008 NICE recommends continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for adults with moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnoea, and for those with a milder disorder if quality of life and functioning are impaired and alternative strategies such as lifestyle change have failed. Diagnosis and treatment is the responsibility of a specialist team. A CPAP device costs £250-£550 and lasts for seven years. Copyright © 2008 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

    Latest news and product developments

    PRESCRIBER, Issue 5 2008
    Article first published online: 3 APR 200
    Newer antidepressants no better than placebo? A new meta-analysis suggests that newer antidepressants are no superior to placebo in most patients with depression , the exception being those with very severe depression, who can expect a small benefit. Writing in the online-only open access journal PLoS Medicine (5:e45.doi:10.1371/ journal.pmed.0050045), researchers from Hull and the US analysed published and unpublished trials submitted to the Food and Drug Administration in marketing applications for fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine (Efexor) and nefazodone (no longer available). Using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) score as an endpoint, meta-analysis of 35 trials involving 5133 patients and lasting six to eight weeks showed that mean HRSD score improved by 9.6 points with drug treatment and 7.8 with placebo. The authors say the difference of 1.8 was statistically significant but below the criterion for clinical significance (3.0) set by NICE in its clinical guideline on depression. A review of the study by the NHS Knowledge Service ( points out that it omits trials published after the drugs were licensed (1999) and those not sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. It did not include any patients with severe depression and only one trial in patients with moderate depression. An earlier US study of data submitted to the FDA (N Eng J Med 2008;358:25260) showed that published trials of antidepressants were more likely to be positive (37/38) than unpublished ones (3/25). Further, FDA analysts concluded that 51 per cent of trials (published and unpublished) demonstrated positive findings compared with 94 per cent of those that were published. Audit reveals variations in hospital psoriasis care There are unacceptably large variations in the quality of care for patients with psoriasis in UK hospitals, a report by the British Association of Dermatologists and the Royal College of Physicians reveals. The audit of 100 hospital units found that 39 per cent restricted access to biological therapies because of cost, and over one-third of pharmacies could not supply ,specials' such as topical coal tar preparations. More positively, the units are adequately resourced to provide timely communication with GPs. RCGP responds to Public Accounts Committee The Royal College of General Practitioners has agreed with the Commons Public Accounts Committee that drug package labelling should include the cost of the medication. The suggestion was made by the Committee in its report Prescribing Costs in Primary Care. While recognising the importance of generic prescribing, the RCGP cautions against frequent medication switches because it may unsettle patients. ,Any changes must be carried out for sound clinical reasons with good communication between GPs and their patients,' it adds. Statins for patients with kidney disease? Statins reduce cardiovascular risk in people with chronic kidney disease, a new study suggests, but their effects on renal function remain unclear (BMJ 2008; published online doi: 10.1136/bmj. 39472.580984.AE). The meta-analysis of 50 trials involving a total of 30 144 patients found that statins reduced lipids and cardiovascular events regardless of the severity of kidney disease. However, all-cause mortality was unaffected and, although proteinuria improved slightly, there was no change in the rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate. An accompanying editorial (BMJ 2008; published online doi:10.1136/ bmj.39483.665139.80) suggests that the indications for statin therapy to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease should be the same as for those with normal renal function. New NICE guidance New clinical guidelines from NICE (see New from NICE, pages 14,15) include the diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome in adults in primary care, the care and management of osteoarthritis in adults, and the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. In a public health guideline on smoking cessation services, NICE endorses the use of nicotine replacement patches for 12,17 year olds. Suspect additives in children's medicines The Food Commission ( has drawn attention to the presence in children's medicines of food additives it says are linked with hyperactivity. The Commission, a national nonprofit organisation campaigning for ,the right to safe, wholesome food', says that seven common additives (including tartrazine, sodium benzoate and Ponceau 4R) are associated with hyperactivity in susceptible children. Checking the SPCs, it found that 28 of 70 children's medicines , including formulations of paracetamol, ibuprofen, amoxicillin, erythromycin and codeine phosphate throat linctus , contain at least one suspect additive. Digoxin may increase mortality in AF patients An observational study has suggested that digoxin may increase deaths in patients with atrial fibrillation (Heart 2008;94:191,6). The study was a planned subgroup analysis of a trial evaluating anticoagulant therapy in 7329 patients with atrial fibrillation. Of these, 53 per cent were treated with digoxin. Mortality was significantly higher among digoxin users than nonusers (4.22 vs 2.66 per cent per year); myocardial infarction and other vascular deaths (but not stroke, systemic embolic episodes and major bleeding events) were significantly more frequent with digoxin. Poor communications cause readmission Elderly hospital patients are often discharged with inadequate information or arrangements for care, causing almost three-quarters to be readmitted within a week, say investigators from Nottingham (Qual Safety Health Care 2008;17:71,5). Retrospective review of records for 108 consecutive patients aged over 75 found that readmission was related to medication in 38 per cent and, of these, 61 per cent were considered avoidable. Almost two-thirds had no discharge letter or were readmitted before the letter was typed; two-thirds of discharge letters had incomplete documentation of medication changes. Copyright © 2008 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

    Latest news and product developments

    PRESCRIBER, Issue 20 2007
    Article first published online: 26 NOV 200
    GPs and pharmacists to work more closely Closer working between GPs and community and primary-care pharmacists ,could further improve prescribing quality and therapeutic outcomes for patients', according to a report by the London School of Pharmacy and Alliance Boots. The report suggests that the expansion of primary-care centres and the increasing complexity of care they offer mean that community pharmacists will increasingly need to take on some GP roles. It foresees an increase in shared premises and calls for closer interdisciplinary working between GPs, pharmacists and nurses. Variation in PCT commissioning of enhanced services from pharmacies has resulted in ,a fragmented system of postcode pharmaceutical care rationing'. Full read-write access to patients' records will be essential if the benefits of electronic prescribing are to be realised. How pharmacists can support commissioners The NHS Alliance and Primary Care Pharmacists' Association have published a guide for practice-based commissioners on making the most of primary-care pharmacists. Prescribing Support and Prescribing Advice for Practice Based Commissioners , A Guide for Commissioning Groups and GPs illustrates how pharmacists can support commissioners at all levels of medicines use. Copies are free to NHS Alliance members and cost £10 for others. Directory website aids diabetes management The National Diabetes Support Team is developing a website that brings together different datasets and tools for diabetes management. The Diabetes Data Directory ( summarises what other online databases can provide and lists the tools that can be used to answer specific questions. The first edition is now online, providing direct links to the appropriate sites. Flu vaccine efficacy in older people challenged US reviewers have questioned the effectiveness of flu vaccine in older people (Lancet Infect Dis online: 24 September; doi: 10.1016/ S1473-3099(07)70236-0). They were unable to confirm a reduction in flu mortality since 1980, concluding that biased patient selection and nonspecific end-points such as all-cause mortality may have exaggerated the benefits of vaccination in clinical trials. The Department of Health is encouraging younger people in at-risk groups to be vaccinated against flu this winter; last year, 58 per cent of under-65s at risk were not vaccinated. OC cervical cancer risk probably overestimated Recent evidence that oral contraceptives may be associated with a small increase in the incidence of cervical cancer probably overestimates the risk, says the Clinical Effectiveness Unit of the Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care ( A recent study in the BMJ reported a 12 per cent reduced overall risk of cancer associated with oral contraceptives but an increased risk of cervical cancer of 38 per 100 000 woman-years after at least eight years' use. The FFPRHC says this study was conducted before the UK cervical screening programme was established, and at a time when the average Inhaled insulin ,unlikely to be cost effective' Inhaled insulin (Exubera) is safe and effective but costs so much more than injected insulin that it is unlikely to be cost effective, according to a new Health Technology Assessment (2007; The review included nine trials (seven of Exubera), in which the only significant difference between inhaled and injected soluble insulin was in patient preference. However, most of the trials used syringes for insulin injection rather than pens. The extra cost of inhaled insulin is put at between £600 and £1000 per year. New topics for NICE The Secretary of State for Health has referred the novel antihypertensive aliskiren (Rasilez) for appraisal by NICE; aliskiren is the first direct renin inhibitor to be introduced. Other referrals to NICE include five clinical guidelines (multiple pregnancy, transient loss of consciousness, lower UTI in men, post-ITU rehabilitation and colorectal and anal cancer). Topics for technology appraisals include cetuximab (Erbitux) for colorectal and head and neck cancers. QOF statistics for 06/07 GPs in England averaged 96.3 per cent of the maximum points available for the clinical domain of the Quality and Outcomes Framework in 2006/07 compared with 97.1 per cent previously, official statistics show. Mean practice scores for most clinical areas were in the mid-90 per cent range, but highest for obesity (100 per cent) and lowest for depression (81 per cent), palliative care (90 per cent), mental health and epilepsy (<95 per cent). NICE consulting on type 2 diabetes guideline NICE is consulting on its draft clinical guideline for the management of type 2 diabetes. Comments should be submitted online by 22 November; publication is scheduled for April 2008. The drug of first choice for glycaemic control is metformin, which should be considered even for patients who are not overweight; a sulphonylurea is an alternative or adjunctive agent if glycaemic control is not achieved with metformin alone. If these regimens fail, a glitazone may be added. Exenatide (Byetta) is recommended only for obese patients for whom other oral treatments have failed. The guidance will update and replace clinical guidelines E, F, G and H, and technology appraisals 53, 60 and 63. Glitazones increase risk of HF but not CV death A new meta-analysis , this time of seven trials involving a total of 20 191 patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance treated with a glitazone , has concluded that these agents are associated with an increased risk of heart failure but not cardiovascular death (Lancet 2007;370:1129,36). Compared with comparator drugs, glitazones were associated with an increased risk of congestive heart failure (2.3 vs 1.4 per cent; relative risk, RR, 1.72; number needed to harm over 30 months, 107). There was no heterogeneity between studies, showing that this is a class effect. However, the risk of cardiovascular death was not increased for either rosiglitazone (Avandia) or pioglitazone (Actos). Copyright © 2007 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

    Weekly E-mail Reminders Influence Emergency Physician Behavior: A Case Study Using the Joint Commission and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Pneumonia Guidelines

    Scott G. Weiner MD
    Abstract Objectives:, Improving physician compliance with evidence-based guidelines is challenging. The authors wanted to determine if weekly e-mail reminders to emergency department (ED) staff increase compliance with Joint Commission and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) community-acquired pneumonia quality measures. Methods:, One nurse administrator reviewed records on a weekly basis for all adult patients admitted to the hospital from the ED with a working diagnosis of pneumonia. An e-mail was then sent to all ED staff indicating the percentage of patients with antibiotic timing less than 4 hours from arrival. The names of individuals who administered antibiotics in less than 1 hour were highlighted. This study compared the time to antibiotics for 11 months before and 11 months after commencing this intervention. Results:, There were 281 patients in the control cohort, and 37 met exclusion criteria, leaving 244 for analysis. There were 342 patients in the intervention cohort, and 40 met exclusion criteria, leaving 302 for analysis. The median time from arrival to chest radiograph order decreased significantly from 61 to 47 minutes (p < 0.001). The median time interval from chest radiograph order to antibiotic administration did not change significantly (92 to 88 minutes, p = 0.294). The overall median time from arrival to antibiotic administration decreased significantly from 162 to 146 minutes (p = 0.018). The percentage of patients with antibiotic administration within 4 hours increased from 77.5% to 86.1% (p = 0.009). Conclusions:, Weekly e-mail reminders listing performance on antibiotic administration recommendations are associated with increased compliance with a clinical guideline. [source]

    A randomised controlled trial of a tailored multifaceted strategy to promote implementation of a clinical guideline on induced abortion care

    R. Foy
    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of a tailored multifaceted strategy, delivered by a national clinical effectiveness programme, to implement a guideline on induced abortion. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting and participants All 26 hospital gynaecology units in Scotland providing induced abortion care. Intervention Following the identification of barriers to guideline implementation, intervention units received a package comprising audit and feedback, unit educational meetings, dissemination of structured case records and promotion of a patient information booklet. Control units received printed guideline summaries alone. Main outcome measures Compliance with five key guideline recommendations (primary outcomes) and compliance with other recommendations, patient satisfaction and costs of the implementation strategy (secondary outcomes). Results No effect was observed for any key recommendation: appointment with a gynaecologist within five days of referral (odds ratio 0.89; 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.58); ascertainment of cervical cytology history (0.93; 0.36 to 2.40); antibiotic prophylaxis or screening for lower genital tract infection (1.70; 0.71 to 5.99); use of misoprostol as an alternative to gemeprost (1.00; 0.27 to 1.77); and offer of contraceptive supplies at discharge (1.11; 0.48 to 2.53). Median pre-intervention compliance was near optimal for antibiotic prophylaxis and misoprostol use. No intervention benefit was observed for any secondary outcome. The intervention costs an average of £2607 per gynaecology unit. Conclusions The tailored multifaceted strategy was ineffective. This was possibly attributable to high pre-intervention compliance and the limited impact of the strategy on factors outside the perceived control of clinical staff. [source]

    Splinting duration and periodontal outcomes for replanted avulsed teeth: a systematic review

    Susan Elisabeth Hinckfuss
    The principles of evidence-based dentistry can be used to assess whether these guidelines are based on currently-available evidence. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of relevant clinical literature to examine the evidence on splinting duration and periodontal healing outcomes. The review was constrained markedly by small sample sizes, retrospective nature of clinical audits, dissimilarities of selected studies in their design, methodology and observation periods, and lack of uniformity in terminology for outcomes. A total of 138 replanted avulsed permanent teeth pooled from four papers each reporting both short-term splinting (14 days or less) and long-term splinting (over 14 days) in accord with current clinical guidelines, were studied. The evidence for an association between short-term splinting and an increased likelihood of functional periodontal healing, acceptable healing, or decreased development of replacement resorption, appears inconclusive. The study found no evidence to contraindicate the current guidelines and suggests that the likelihood of successful periodontal healing after replantation is unaffected by splinting duration. Pending future research to the contrary, it is recommended that dentists continue to use the currently-recommended splinting periods when replanting avulsed permanent teeth. [source]

    An evidence-based assessment of the clinical guidelines for replanted avulsed teeth.

    Part II: prescription of systemic antibiotics
    The principles of evidence-based dentistry can be used to assess whether this is the best approach based on currently-available evidence. The objective of this study was to use the principles of evidence-based dentistry to answer the PICO question: (P) for a replanted avulsed permanent tooth, (I) is prescribing SAT, (C) compared with not prescribing SAT, (O) associated with an increased likelihood of successful periodontal healing after tooth replantation? Materials and methods:, A literature search was performed across four internet databases (Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, PubMed, ISI Web of Science), for relevant citations (n = 35 702). Limiting citations to those in English and removing duplicates produced a set of titles (n = 14 742) that were sieved according to evidence-based dentistry principles. Relevant titles were selected for abstract assessment (n = 782), identifying papers for examination (n = 74). Inclusion criteria were applied and three papers (326 total teeth) met the final criteria for meta-analysis. Results:, Meta-analyses found no statistically significant difference between prescribing or not prescribing antibiotics for acceptable periodontal healing without progressive root resorption (common odds ratio = 0.90, SE = 0.29, 95% confidence intervals = 0.51,1.58). Conclusion:, The evidence for an association between prescribing SAT and an increased likelihood of acceptable periodontal healing outcome is inconclusive. This investigation of antibiotic use as defined in the clinical guidelines indicates there is inconclusive clinical evidence from studies of replanted avulsed human teeth to either contradict or support the guideline. Pending future research to the contrary, dentists are recommended to follow current guidelines in prescribing SAT when replanting avulsed teeth. [source]