Clinical Features (clinical + feature)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Clinical Features

  • atypical clinical feature
  • characteristic clinical feature
  • common clinical feature
  • different clinical feature
  • distinct clinical feature
  • important clinical feature
  • main clinical feature
  • of clinical feature
  • other clinical feature
  • similar clinical feature
  • specific clinical feature
  • unusual clinical feature
  • variety of clinical feature

  • Terms modified by Clinical Features

  • clinical feature suggestive

  • Selected Abstracts


    Paul J. Drinka MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 3 2000
    H. C. Lee
    Background: Pilonidal disease has not been well documented in Asian people. The aims of the present study were to investigate any variations in the clinical features and effectiveness of various surgical treatments in such a population. Methods: A prospectively collected computerized database of 61 consecutive patients admitted to a specialist colorectal unit over a 9-year period was studied. The five methods of surgical treatment used during this period (incision and drainage; laying open; marsupialization; primary closure; and the flap procedure) were compared. Results: There were 38 men and 23 women with a mean age of 27 ± 1.02 years. Pilonidal disease was significantly more common among the Indian people (52.5% of patients) than the other ethnic races in the Singaporean community (P < 0.001). Chronic discharging sinuses were the most common presentation (93.4%). There were no differences between the various surgical techniques employed with regard to the time required for wound healing (mean: 48 ± 21 days) and recurrence rates (4/61, 6.6%). Wound dehiscence after primary wound closure (10%) and flap procedures (42%) meant that the overall healing rate was not faster than when the wound was just laid open. Furthermore, flap procedures required a longer hospitalization than other procedures (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Pilonidal disease was more common among Indian people, the more hirsute among the Singaporean population. Primary closure and flap procedure did not improve overall wound healing because of dehiscence. [source]

    Diaper Dermatitis: A New Clinical Feature

    Margarita Larralde M.D., Ph.D.
    First page of article [source]

    Pulmonary Regurgitation after Tetralogy of Fallot Repair: Clinical Features, Sequelae, and Timing of Pulmonary Valve Replacement

    Naser M. Ammash MD
    ABSTRACT Pulmonary regurgitation following repair of tetralogy of Fallot is a common postoperative sequela associated with progressive right ventricular enlargement, dysfunction, and is an important determinant of late morbidity and mortality. Although pulmonary regurgitation may be well tolerated for many years following surgery, it can be associated with progressive exercise intolerance, heart failure, tachyarrhythmia, and late sudden death. It also often necessitates re-intervention. Identifying the appropriate timing of such intervention could be very challenging given the risk of prosthetic valve degeneration and the increased risk of reoperation. Comprehensive informed and regular assessment of the postoperative patient with tetralogy of Fallot, including evaluation of pulmonary regurgitation, right heart structure and function, is crucial to the optimal care of these patients. Pulmonary valve replacement performed in an experienced tertiary referral center is associated with low operative morbidity and mortality and very good long-term results. Early results of percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement are also promising. [source]

    Basal Cell Carcinoma Associated with Orbital Invasion: Clinical Features and Treatment Options

    First page of article [source]

    ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS: Different Clinical Features of Aortic Intramural Hematoma Versus Dissection Involving the Descending Thoracic Aorta

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2005
    Mariano Falconi M.D.
    Objective: The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that the absence of flow communication in aortic intramural hematoma (IMH) involving the descending aorta may have a different clinical course compared with aortic dissection (AD). Methods: We prospectively evaluated clinical and echocardiographic data in AD (76 patients) and IMH (27 patients) of the descending thoracic aorta. Results: Patients did not differ with regard to age, gender, or clinical presentation. IMH and AD had the same predictors of complications at follow-up: aortic diameter (>5 cm) at diagnosis and persistent back pain. Surgical treatment was more frequently selected in AD (39% vs. 22%, P < 0.01) and AD patients who underwent surgical treatment had higher mortality than those with IMH (36% vs. 17%, P < 0.01). There was no difference in mortality with medical treatment (14% in AD vs. 19% in IMH, P = 0.7). During follow-up, of 23 patients with IMH, 11 (47%) showed complete resolution or regression, 6 (26%) increased the diameter of the descending aorta, and typical AD developed in 3 patients (13%). No changes occurred in 14% of the group. Three-year survival rate did not show significant differences between both groups (82 ± 6% in IMH vs. 75 ± 7% in AD, P = 0.37). Conclusion: IMH of the descending thoracic aorta has a relatively frequent rate of complications at follow-up, including dissection and aneurysm formation. Medical treatment with very frequent imaging and timed elective surgery in cases with complications allows a better patient management. [source]

    Clinical Features and Prognosis of Nonepileptic Seizures in a Developing Country

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 3 2001
    W. Silva
    Summary: ,Purpose: To determine the predictive value of clinical features and medical history in patients with nonepileptic seizures (NESs). Methods: One hundred sixty-one consecutive ictal video-EEGs were reviewed, and 17 patients with 41 NESs identified. NES diagnosis was defined as paroxysmal behavioral changes suggestive of epileptic seizures recorded during video-EEG without any electrographic ictal activity. Clinical features, age, sex, coexisting epilepsy, associated psychiatric disorder, social and economic factors, delay in reaching the diagnosis of NES, previous treatment, and correlation with outcome on follow-up were examined. Results: The study population included 70% female patients with a mean age of 33 years. Mean duration of NESs before diagnosis was 9 years. Forty-one percent had coexisting epilepsy. The most frequent NES clinical features were tonic,clonic mimicking movements and fear/anxiety/hyperventilation. The most common psychiatric diagnosis was conversion disorder and dependent and borderline personality disorder. Seventy-three percent of patients with pure NESs received antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and 63.5% of this group received new AEDs. Fifty-nine percent of the patients received psychological/psychiatric therapy. At follow-up, 23.5% were free of NESs. Conclusions: All seizure-free patients had two good prognostic factors: having an independent lifestyle and the acceptance of the nonepileptic nature of the episodes. Video-EEG monitoring continues to be the diagnostic method to ensure accurate seizure classification. Establishing adequate health care programs to facilitate access to new technology in public hospitals as well as the implementation of continuous education programs for general practitioners and neurologists could eventually improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with NESs. [source]

    Orgasmic Headaches: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Management

    HEADACHE, Issue 6 2000
    Randolph W. Evans MD
    First page of article [source]

    Clinical Features to Identify Urinary Tract Infection in Nursing Home Residents: A Cohort Study

    (See editorial comments by Lindsay Nicolle on pp 111, 1114)
    OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical features associated with bacteriuria plus pyuria in noncatheterized nursing home residents with clinically suspected urinary tract infection (UTI). DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study from 2005 to 2007. SETTING: Five New Haven, Connecticut area nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred fifty-one nursing home residents each followed for 1 year for the development of clinically suspected UTI. MEASUREMENTS: The combined outcome of bacteriuria (>100,000 colony forming units from urine culture) plus pyuria (>10 white blood cells from urinalysis). RESULTS: After 178,914 person-days of follow-up, 228 participants had 399 episodes of clinically suspected UTI with a urinalysis and urine culture performed; 147 episodes (36.8%) had bacteriuria plus pyuria. The clinical features associated with bacteriuria plus pyuria were dysuria (relative risk (RR)=1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.10,2.03), change in character of urine (RR=1.42, 95% CI=1.07-1.79), and change in mental status (RR=1.38, 95% CI=1.03,1.74). CONCLUSION: Dysuria, change in character of urine, and change in mental status were significantly associated with the combined outcome of bacteriuria plus pyuria. Absence of these clinical features identified residents at low risk of having bacteriuria plus pyuria (25.5%), whereas presence of dysuria plus one or both of the other clinical features identified residents at high risk of having bacteriuria plus pyuria (63.2%). Diagnostic uncertainty still remains for the vast majority of residents who meet only one clinical feature. If validated in future cohorts, these clinical features with bacteriuria plus pyuria may serve as an evidence-based clinical definition of UTI to assist in management decisions. [source]

    Clinical Features and Epidemiology of Tick Typhus in Travelers

    Tomas Jelinek
    Background: Epidemiologic features of tick typhus among German travelers has not been surveyed recently. Methods: Clinical features, travel and medical histories in 78 patients with tick typhus who presented to a German outpatient clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases were investigated, in order to identify common epidemiological factors and potential strategies of prevention. Diagnosis was confirmed by serological detection of IgG- and IgM-antibodies to Rickettsia conorii by indirect immunofluorescence. Results: The majority of patients (71.8%) had visited southern Africa prior to presentation. All patients presented with fever as the main symptom. An eschar was still present in 68 patients (87.2%) with regional lymphadenitis in 19.2%. However, only a minority of patients (17.9%) remembered a tick bite at the location of the eschar. Conclusion: Efforts to reduce the incidence of tick typhus in travelers should focus on preventive measures targeting behavioral changes. Avoiding tick bites during travel to endemic areas appears to be the single most important prophylactic action. Taking this into consideration, it should be possible to decrease the number of travelers returning with tick typhus significantly by adequate pretravel counseling. [source]

    Clinical Features and Outcome of Heterobilharzia americana Infection in Dogs

    C. Fabrick
    Background: Heterobilharzia americana (HA), the causative agent of canine schistosomiasis, is a flatworm with a freshwater snail as an intermediate host. Only case reports or small case series evaluating naturally infected dogs have been published. Objective: Describe clinical signs in dogs naturally infected with HA. Animals: Twenty-two dogs naturally infected with HA from 1985 to 2009. Methods: Retrospective study. All medical records were searched for HA and schistosomiasis. Only dogs with a diagnosis based on identification of ova on histopathology or fecal saline sedimentation were included. Results: The median age was 3.1 years (1,12). The median duration of clinical signs before diagnosis was 0.63 months (0.03,12). The most common clinical signs were lethargy (91%), weight loss (77%), hyporexia (68%), vomiting (59%), and diarrhea (55%). Eleven of the 22 dogs were hypercalcemic. Hypercalcemia did not resolve without definitive treatment with praziquantel. HA infection was an incidental diagnosis in 7/22 dogs. Diagnosis was obtained via necropsy (4), histopathology (9), and fecal examination (9). Definitive treatment included praziquantel and fenbendazole. Eighteen dogs were diagnosed antemortem and 17 were treated. Twelve dogs were alive for 6 months to 3 years after diagnosis. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: HA infection occurs in younger, larger breed, indoor dogs. Hypercalcemia does not resolve without praziquantel treatment. Prognosis is good and neither hypercalcemic-induced renal failure nor ascites appears to worsen prognosis. Dogs in affected areas or that have traveled to affected areas that present for weight loss, gastrointestinal or liver disease, and hypercalcemia, should be tested. [source]

    Scabies with Clinical Features and Positive Darier Sign Mimicking Mastocytosis

    But diagnosis pitfalls are frequent in infants, in whom the clinical presentation is usually atypical and different from adults. We report a misleading case of a 5-month-old child, who presented with pruritic brown,red macules of the trunk showing a positive Darier's sign, suggestive of an urticaria pigmentosa. [source]

    Congenital Hypertrophy of the Lateral Nail Folds of the Hallux: Clinical Features and Follow-Up of Seven Cases

    Bianca Maria Piraccini M.D.
    We describe the clinical picture and follow-up of seven patients with this abnormality. In three patients the affected toe showed an asymptomatic, dome-shaped, hypertrophic lip that partially covered the nail plate. Four patients had acute inflammatory changes due to toenail ingrowth, with considerable swelling and reddening of the hypertrophic lip that was painful on pressure. Topical treatment with steroids was useful to reduce inflammation and produced persistent remission in two patients. Follow-up showed a spontaneous disappearance of the hypertrophic nail fold in one of the seven patients. In two patients the hypertrophic lip partially regressed, but remained clearly visible, while in two patients it remained unchanged. In two patients surgical correction of the soft tissue abnormality was necessary due to painful nail ingrowth unresponsive to topical treatment. [source]

    Neck Nerve Trunks Schwannomas: Clinical Features and Postoperative Neurologic Outcome,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 9 2008
    Carlos Eugenio Nabuco de Araujo MD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: To analyze clinical and epidemiological features of neck nerve schwannomas, with emphasis on the neurologic outcome after surgical excision sparing as much of nerve fibers as possible with enucleation technique. Study Design: Retrospective study. Methods: Review of medical records from 1987 to 2006 of patients with neck nerve schwannomas, treated in a single institution. Results: Twenty-two patients were identified. Gender distribution was equal and age ranged from 15 to 61 years (mean: 38.6 years). Seven vagal, four brachial plexus, four sympathetic trunk, three cervical plexus, and two lesions on other sites could be identified. Most common symptom was neck mass. Local or irradiated pain also occurred in five cases. Median growing rate of tumors was 3 mm per year. Nerve paralysis was noted twice (a vagal schwannoma and a hypoglossal paralysis compressed by a vagal schwannoma). Different techniques were employed, and seven out of nine patients kept their nerve function (78%) after enucleation. No recurrence was observed in follow-up. Conclusions: Schwannomas should be treated surgically because of its growing potential, leading to local and neural compression symptoms. When possible, enucleation, which was employed in 10 patients of this series, is the recommended surgical option, allowing neural function preservation or restoration in most instances. This is especially important in the head and neck, where denervation may have a significant impact on the quality of life. [source]

    Single and Combined Diagnostic Value of Clinical Features and Laboratory Tests in Acute Appendicitis

    Wytze Laméris
    Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of clinical features and laboratory test results in detecting acute appendicitis. Methods:, Clinical features and laboratory test results were prospectively recorded in a consecutive series of 1,101 patients presenting with abdominal pain at the emergency department (ED) in six hospitals. Likelihood ratios (LRs) and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated for the individual features. Variants of clinical presentation, based on different combinations of clinical features, were investigated and the accuracies of combinations of clinical features were evaluated. Results:, The discriminative power (AUC) of the individual features in patients with suspected appendicitis ranged from 0.50 to 0.65. For five of the 23 predictor sets, the accuracy for appendicitis was more than 85%. This accuracy was only found in male patients. The relative frequency of these predictor sets ranged from 2% to 13% of patients with suspected appendicitis. A combination of the clinical features migration of pain to the right lower quadrant (RLQ), and direct tenderness in the RLQ, was present in only 28% (120/422) of clinically suspected patients, of whom no more than 85 patients had appendicitis (71%). A "classical" presentation (combination of migration of pain to the RLQ, tenderness in the RLQ, and rigidity) occurred in only 6% (25/422) of patients with suspected appendicitis and yielded an accuracy of 100% in males but only 46% in females. Conclusions:, The discriminative power (AUC) of individual clinical features and laboratory test results for appendicitis was weak in patients with suspected appendicitis. Combinations of clinical features and laboratory tests with high diagnostic accuracy are relatively infrequent in patients with suspected appendicitis. [source]

    The chronic fatigue syndrome , an update

    Vegard Bruun Wyller
    Background ,, In this article, current scientific knowledge on the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is reviewed. The US case definition of CFS (the CDC-definition) is most widespread in research and clinical practice. Estimates of prevalence vary from 0.2% to above 2%. The female,male ratio is approximately 3:1. Clinical Features ,, Severe fatigue is the dominating complaint; it is worsened from exertions and not substantially relieved by rest. In addition, the patients might have a varying combination of accompanying symptoms. Clinical evaluation should be based upon standardized guidelines, including an assessment of functional impairments. Pathophysiology ,, The pathophysiology should be interpreted within a biopsychosocial framework. Present knowledge suggests that certain genetic polymorphisms and personality traits might be regarded as predisposing factors, some infections and severe psychosocial stress constitute precipitating factors, whereas disturbances of immunity, skeletal muscle, cognitive abilities, endocrine control and cardiovascular homeostasis are possible perpetuating factors. Treatment ,, Cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy are of proven value in randomized controlled trials. Several pharmaceutical measures have been explored and found to have no beneficial effect. Most patients might expect long-term improvement, but full recovery is rare; however, the prognosis is better among adolescents. [source]

    Prospective Study of the Clinical Features and Outcomes of Emergency Department Patients with Delayed Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism

    Jeffrey A. Kline MD
    Objectives:The authors hypothesized that emergency department (ED) patients with a delayed diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) will have a higher frequency of altered mental status, older age, comorbidity, and worsened outcomes compared with patients who have PE diagnosed by tests ordered in the ED. Methods:For 144 weeks, all patients with PE diagnosed by computed tomographic angiography were prospectively screened to identify ED diagnosis (testing ordered from the ED) versus delayed diagnosis (less than 48 hours postadmission). Serum troponin I level, right ventricular hypokinesis on echocardiography, and percentage pulmonary vascular occlusion were measured at diagnosis; patients were prospectively followed up for adverse events (death, intubation, or circulatory shock). Results:Among 161 patients with PE, 141 (88%) were ED diagnosed and 20 (12%) had a delayed diagnosis. Patients with a delayed diagnosis were older than ED-diagnosed patients (61 [±15] vs. 51 [±17] years; p < 0.001), had a longer median time to heparin administration (33 vs. 8 hours; p < 0.001), and had a higher frequency of altered mental status (30% vs. 8%; p = 0.01) but did not have a higher frequency of prior cardiopulmonary disease (25% vs. 23%). Patients with a delayed diagnosis had equal or worse measures of PE severity (right ventricular hypokinesis on echocardiography, 60% vs. 58%; abnormal troponin I level, 55% vs. 24%); on computed tomographic angiography, ten of 20 patients with a delayed diagnosis had PE in lobar or larger arteries and >50% vascular obstruction. Patients with a delayed diagnosis had a higher rate of in-hospital adverse events (9% vs. 30%; p = 0.01). Conclusions:In this single-center study, the diagnosis of PE was frequently delayed and outcomes of patients with delayed diagnosis were worse than those of patients with PE diagnosed in the ED. [source]

    Atypical Clinical Features of Pediatric Appendicitis

    Theresa Becker DO
    Background The diagnosis of appendicitis remains challenging in children. Delays in diagnosis, or misdiagnosis, have important medical and legal implications. The typical, or classic, presentation of pediatric appendicitis has been modeled after adult disease; however, many children present atypically with subtle findings or unusual signs. Objectives To determine the frequency of atypical clinical features among pediatric patients with appendicitis and to investigate which atypical features are the strongest negative predictors for appendicitis among patients being evaluated for appendicitis. Methods Children and adolescents with suspected appendicitis were enrolled over 20 consecutive months. Pediatric emergency physicians completed standardized data collection forms on eligible patients. Final diagnosis was determined by pathology or follow-up telephone call. Typical and atypical findings were defined strictly a priori. Results Seven hundred fifty-five patients were enrolled. The median age was 11.9 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 8.5, 14.9 yr); 36% of patients were diagnosed with appendicitis. Among patients with appendicitis, the most common atypical features included absence of pyrexia (83%), absence of Rovsing's sign (68%), normal or increased bowel sounds (64%), absence of rebound pain (52%), lack of migration of pain (50%), lack of guarding (47%), abrupt onset of pain (45%), lack of anorexia (40%), absence of maximal pain in the right lower quadrant (32%), and absence of percussive tenderness (31%). Forty-four percent of patients with proven appendicitis had six or more atypical characteristics. The median number of atypical features for patients with proven appendicitis was five (IQR: 4.0, 7.0). The greatest negative predictors, on the basis of likelihood ratios, were as follows: white blood cell count (WBC) of <10,000 per cubic millimeter (likelihood ratios [LR], 0.18), absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of <7,500 per cubic millimeter (LR, 0.35), lack of percussive tenderness (LR, 0.50), lack of guarding (LR, 0.63), and no nausea or emesis (LR, 0.65). Conclusions Appendicitis in pediatric patients is difficult to diagnose because children present with a wide variety of atypical clinical features. Forty-four percent of patients with appendicitis presented with six or more atypical features. Two atypical features are the strongest negative predictors of appendicitis in children: WBC of <10,000 per cubic millimeter and an ANC of <7,500 per cubic millimeter. [source]

    Clinical Features of Bacterial Conjunctivitis in Children

    Parul B. Patel MD
    Abstract Objectives Conjunctivitis is a common cause of primary care and emergency department (ED) visits. There is a paucity of data in recent literature on the prevalence of pediatric bacterial conjunctivitis, and there are no evidence-based clinical guidelines for empirical treatment. The study objective was to describe clinical features most predictive of bacterial conjunctivitis. Methods This was a prospective study in a children's hospital ED. Conjunctival swabs for bacterial culture were obtained from patients aged 1 month to 18 years presenting with red or pink eye and/or the diagnosis of conjunctivitis. Results A total of 111 patients were enrolled over one year. Patients had a mean (±SD) age of 33.2 (±37.5) months, and 55% were male. Eighty-seven patients (78%) had positive bacterial cultures. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae accounted for 82% (71/87), Streptococcus pneumoniae for 16% (14/87), and Staphylococcus aureus for 2.2% (2/87). Five clinical variables were significantly associated with a positive bacterial culture. Regression analysis revealed that the combination of a history of gluey or sticky eyelids and the physical finding of mucoid or purulent discharge had a posttest probability of 96% (95% confidence interval = 90% to 99%). Subjective scoring by physicians for a positive culture was 50.6%. Conclusions Conjunctivitis in children is predominantly bacterial, with nontypeable H. influenzae being the most common organism. A history of gluey or sticky eyelids and physical findings of mucoid or purulent discharge are highly predictive of bacterial infection. Based on the above data, empirical ophthalmic antibiotic therapy may be appropriate in children presenting with conjunctivitis. [source]

    Neurocognitive functions in euthymic bipolar patients

    K. Jamrozinski
    Objective:, Meta-analytic findings support the hypothesis of specific neurocognitive deficits for bipolar patients in the domains of attention, processing speed, memory and executive functions. This study aims to show neurocognitive impairment in euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder compared with healthy controls while detailing the impact of medication side-effects or illness characteristics on neuropsychological test performance. Method:, Forty euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder were compared with 40 healthy controls in a cross-sectional design. Clinical features and neuropsychological measures of IQ, psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, learning and memory, executive functions and attention were assessed. Results:, Patients without antipsychotic drug use did not differ significantly from healthy controls in any neuropsychological measure. Yet patients treated with antipsychotics showed significant underperformance in the domains of semantic fluency, verbal learning and recognition memory as well as executive functions related to planning abilities, even when clinical features were controlled for. Conclusion:, The impact of antipsychotic medication needs to be further clarified for euthymic bipolar patients and should be considered when neuropsychological test performance is interpreted. [source]

    Clinical features, diagnosis and management of maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) associated with the 3243A>G mitochondrial point mutation

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2008
    R. Murphy
    Abstract Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) affects up to 1% of patients with diabetes but is often unrecognized by physicians. It is important to make an accurate genetic diagnosis, as there are implications for clinical investigation, diagnosis, management and genetic counselling. This review summarizes the range of clinical phenotypes associated with MIDD; outlines the advances in genetic diagnosis and pathogenesis of MIDD; summarizes the published prevalence data and provides guidance on the clinical management of these patients and their families. [source]

    Clinical features of seizures associated with parahippocampal/inferior temporal lesions compared to those with hippocampal sclerosis

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2010
    Laura Mirandola
    Summary Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is not a unitary electroclinical imaging syndrome. We asked if seizures arising from the parahippocampal-inferior temporal (PIT) region differ from those associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). The electroclinical features of 22 patients with HS and 14 patients with lesions in the PIT region who underwent epilepsy surgery and were seizure free for at least 2 years postoperatively were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with PIT lesions had a higher frequency of hypermotor and bilateral features and a lower frequency of behavioral arrest at the onset of seizure compared to cases with HS, suggesting that TLE originating in the PIT area can mimic frontal lobe epilepsy or contralateral mesial TLE. [source]

    Loss of the Potassium Channel ,-Subunit Gene, KCNAB2, Is Associated with Epilepsy in Patients with 1p36 Deletion Syndrome

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2001
    Heidi A. Heilstedt
    Summary: ,Purpose: Clinical features associated with chromosome 1p36 deletion include characteristic craniofacial abnormalities, mental retardation, and epilepsy. The presence and severity of specific phenotypic features are likely to be correlated with loss of a distinct complement of genes in each patient. We hypothesize that hemizygous deletion of one, or a few, critical gene(s) controlling neuronal excitability is associated with the epilepsy phenotype. Because ion channels are important determinants of seizure susceptibility and the voltage-gated K+ channel ,-subunit gene, KCNAB2, has been localized to 1p36, we propose that deletion of this gene may be associated with the epilepsy phenotype. Methods: Twenty-four patients were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization with a probe containing KCNAB2. Clinical details were obtained by neurologic examination and EEG. Results: Nine patients are deleted for the KCNAB2 locus, and eight (89%) of these have epilepsy or epileptiform activity on EEG. The majority of patients have a severe seizure phenotype, including infantile spasms. In contrast, of those not deleted for KCNAB2, only 27% have chronic seizures, and none had infantile spasms. Conclusions: Lack of the , subunit would be predicted to reduce K+ channel,mediated membrane repolarization and increase neuronal excitability, suggesting a possible relation between loss of this gene and the development of seizures. Because some patients with seizures were not deleted for KCNAB2, there may be additional genes within 1p36 that contribute to epilepsy in this syndrome. Hemizygosity of this gene in a majority of monosomy 1p36 syndrome patients with epilepsy suggests that haploinsufficiency for KCNAB2 is a significant risk factor for epilepsy. [source]

    Clinical Features and Prognosis of Nonepileptic Seizures in a Developing Country

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 3 2001
    W. Silva
    Summary: ,Purpose: To determine the predictive value of clinical features and medical history in patients with nonepileptic seizures (NESs). Methods: One hundred sixty-one consecutive ictal video-EEGs were reviewed, and 17 patients with 41 NESs identified. NES diagnosis was defined as paroxysmal behavioral changes suggestive of epileptic seizures recorded during video-EEG without any electrographic ictal activity. Clinical features, age, sex, coexisting epilepsy, associated psychiatric disorder, social and economic factors, delay in reaching the diagnosis of NES, previous treatment, and correlation with outcome on follow-up were examined. Results: The study population included 70% female patients with a mean age of 33 years. Mean duration of NESs before diagnosis was 9 years. Forty-one percent had coexisting epilepsy. The most frequent NES clinical features were tonic,clonic mimicking movements and fear/anxiety/hyperventilation. The most common psychiatric diagnosis was conversion disorder and dependent and borderline personality disorder. Seventy-three percent of patients with pure NESs received antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and 63.5% of this group received new AEDs. Fifty-nine percent of the patients received psychological/psychiatric therapy. At follow-up, 23.5% were free of NESs. Conclusions: All seizure-free patients had two good prognostic factors: having an independent lifestyle and the acceptance of the nonepileptic nature of the episodes. Video-EEG monitoring continues to be the diagnostic method to ensure accurate seizure classification. Establishing adequate health care programs to facilitate access to new technology in public hospitals as well as the implementation of continuous education programs for general practitioners and neurologists could eventually improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with NESs. [source]

    Changes in Quality of Life in Epilepsy: How Large Must They Be to Be Real?

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2001
    Samuel Wiebe
    Summary: ,Purpose: The study goal was to assess the magnitude of change in generic and epilepsy-specific health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) instruments needed to exclude chance or error at various levels of certainty in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. Methods: Forty patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and clearly defined criteria of clinical stability received HRQOL measurements twice, 3 months apart, using the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-89 and -31 (QOLIE-89 and QOLIE-31), Liverpool Impact of Epilepsy, adverse drug events, seizure severity scales, and the Generic Health Utilities Index (HUI-III). Standard error of measurement and test-retest reliability were obtained for all scales and for QOLIE-89 subscales. Using the Reliable Change Index described by Jacobson and Truax, we assessed the magnitude of change required by HRQOL instruments to be 90 and 95% certain that real change has occurred, as opposed to change due to chance or measurement error. Results: Clinical features, point estimates and distribution of HRQOL measures, and test-retest reliability (all > 0.70) were similar to those previously reported. Score changes of ±13 points in QOLIE-89, ±15 in QOLIE-31, ±6.3 in Liverpool seizure severity,ictal, ±11 in Liverpool adverse drug events, ±0.25 in HUI-III, and ±9.5 in impact of epilepsy exclude chance or measurement error with 90% certainty. These correspond, respectively, to 13, 15, 17, 18, 25, and 32% of the potential range of change of each instrument. Conclusions: Threshold values for real change varied considerably among HRQOL tools but were relatively small for QOLIE-89, QOLIE-31, Liverpool Seizure Severity, and adverse drug events. In some instruments, even relatively large changes cannot rule out chance or measurement error. The relation between the Reliable Change Index and other measures of change and its distinction from measures of minimum clinically important change are discussed. [source]

    Clinical features and outcomes of severe ulcerative keratitis with medical and surgical management in 41 horses (2000,2006)

    M. E. Utter
    Summary The clinical features and outcomes of equine ulcerative keratitis with and without conjunctival graft surgery were assessed using a retrospective study. Medical records of horses hospitalised from July 2000-January 2006 for ulcerative keratitis were included if a diagnosis of melting ulcer, descemetocele or iris prolapse was made, or if surgery was recommended due to severity of corneal disease, and aggressive medical therapy using a subpalpebral catheter was instituted. Treatment and outcome variables were evaluated with and without conjunctival graft surgery. Forty-one horses, 21 that had surgery and 20 for whom surgery was recommended but not performed, were included. Horses were hospitalised for an average of 24 days, with 37/41 melting ulcers, 17/41 descemetoceles and 3/41 iris prolapses, with no statistical difference in frequencies between groups. Bacterial or fungal organisms were cultured from 22/39 cases, with 10 Aspergillus spp. and 8 Pseudomonas spp. Infectious organisms were seen on corneal cytology in 23/30 cases. Surgical cases were hospitalised for an average of 4.9 days prior to surgery. Abdominal discomfort was observed in 8/41 hospitalised horses, with 5/8 operated horses developing caecal impactions. Thirty-five horses retained an intact globe, including 18/20 treated medically and 17/21 that had surgery. Hospitalisation cost was 24% more for cases that had surgery than for medical cases. It was concluded that there was no statistical difference in length or cost of hospitalisation between surgical and nonsurgical groups. Outcomes from both groups were similar, with a high frequency of globe retention. [source]

    Prognostic factors for classifying extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, as lymphoid neoplasia

    Im I. Na
    Abstract This study evaluated the applicability of prognostic factors commonly used for diagnosis of classical lymphoma outcomes to extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (NTCL). Clinical features and their associations with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated in 70 patients. RLDH was defined as the ratio of LDH to the upper normal limit. RLDH was associated with stage (I,II vs. III,IV), lymph node involvement (LNI), and International Prognostic Index score (<2 vs. ,2). Poor performance status and advanced stage were common in patients with local tumor invasiveness (LTI). LDH level, classified into three levels (low, high, and very high) was associated with survival (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the predictive values of LDH level, B symptom, performance status, and stage remained significant whereas those of LTI and LNI did not. Scoring was performed by weighting each factor with 0.5 or 1.0 according to its hazard ratio. Scores were classified into four groups. Groups with high scores were associated with unfavorable outcomes (P < 0.001). Current study suggests that prognostic factors for NHL may be useful to predict the outcome of NTCL but the model should take LDH level and the prognostic weight of each factor into account. [source]

    Clinical features of non-hypertensive lobar intracerebral hemorrhage related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    M. Hirohata
    Background and purpose: The present study aims to clarify the clinical features of non-hypertensive cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (CAA-L-ICH). Methods: We investigated clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging findings in 41 patients (30, women; 11, men) with pathologically supported CAA-L-ICH from 303 non-hypertensive Japanese patients aged ,55, identified via a nationwide survey as symptomatic CAA-L-ICH. Results: The mean age of patients at onset of CAA-L-ICH was 73.2 ± 7.4 years; the number of patients increased with age. The corrected female-to-male ratio for the population was 2.2, with significant female predominance. At onset, 7.3% of patients received anti-platelet therapy. In brain imaging studies, the actual frequency of CAA-L-ICHs was higher in the frontal and parietal lobes; however, after correcting for the estimated cortical volume, the parietal lobe was found to be the most frequently affected. CAA-L-ICH recurred in 31.7% of patients during the average 35.3-month follow-up period. The mean interval between intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) was 11.3 months. The case fatality rate was 12.2% at 1 month and 19.5% at 12 months after initial ICH. In 97.1% of patients, neurosurgical procedures were performed without uncontrollable intraoperative or post-operative hemorrhage. Conclusions: Our study revealed the clinical features of non-hypertensive CAA-L-ICH, including its parietal predilection, which will require further study with a larger number of patients with different ethnic backgrounds. [source]

    Clinical features associated with medically unexplained stroke-like symptoms presenting to an acute stroke unit

    F. S. Nazir
    In many areas of secondary care, symptoms unexplained by disease account for around one-third of all patients seen. We sought to investigate patients presenting with medically unexplained stroke-like symptoms to identify distinguishing features which may help to identify a non-organic aetiology. Patients given a discharge diagnosis of medically unexplained stroke-like symptoms over the preceding 11 years were identified retrospectively from a prospectively completed stroke unit database. Age- and sex-matched controls with ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke or transient ischaemic attack were also identified. Clinical features on presentation, ischaemic risk factors, alcohol history, marital status and history of depression or anxiety were examined. Previous or subsequent admissions with medically unexplained syndromes were also examined via record linkage with hospital discharge records. A medically unexplained syndrome was assumed to be present if an International Classification of Diseases 9 discharge code for one or more of the thirteen conditions forming recognized functional syndromes was given. Logistic regression was applied to determine predictors of non-organicity. One hundred and five patients and controls, 1.6% of all stroke unit admissions were identified, 62% (65 patients) were females. Mean age was 50.3 ± 14.9. Compared with age- and sex-matched controls patients with medically unexplained stroke-like symptoms were significantly more probable to have a headache at presentation (47% vs. 26%, P = 0.0004), have a diagnosis of one or more additional medically unexplained syndromes (24% vs. 11%, P = 0.007) but significantly less probable to present with symptoms of vertebrobasilar dysfunction (32% vs. 61%, P < 0.0001). A history of anxiety or depression, as recorded in the notes, was not found to be associated with a medically unexplained presentation. Medically unexplained stroke-like presentations are common (1.6% of all stroke presentations), they are most strongly predicted by the presence of other functional somatic syndromes, headache and the absence of symptoms of vertebrobasilar dysfunction. [source]

    Myotonic dystrophy type 2

    J. Finsterer
    Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a clinically but not genetically heterogeneous, multisystem disorder, that is clinically similar to, but distinct from myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Initially, different phenotypes of DM2 were described by Ricker (proximal myotonic myopathy, PROMM), Ranum (myotonic dystrophy 2, DM2) and Udd (proximal myotonic dystrophy, PDM). Clinical features these three phenotypes had in common were diffuse, proximal or distal weakness, wasting, myotonia, cataract, cerebral, endocrine and cardiac abnormalities. Initially, the clinical differences between DM1 and PROMM seemed unmistakable, but meanwhile it has become apparent that the clinical differences between these entities are blurring. In 1999, Day et al., Meola et al. and Ricker et al. mapped the mutated gene of all three phenotypes to chromosome 3q. In 2001, the three different phenotypes were found to rely on the same mutation in the ZNF9 gene on chromosome 3q21.3. Although DM2 may be clinically heterogeneous, it is by result of a mutation in a single gene. The mutation responsible for DM2 is a CCTG-repeat expansion of 75,11 000 repeats in intron 1 of the ZNF9 gene on chromosome 3q21.3. Because of the clinical heterogeneity, the diagnosis of DM2 should rely on DNA analysis alone. [source]