Clinical Care (clinical + care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Clinical Care

  • routine clinical care

  • Selected Abstracts

    Moving Microarrays Into Clinical Care,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 9 2008
    Michael S. Watson
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Screening, Diagnosis, and Clinical Care for Depression

    ANP-C, Mary Jo Goolsby EdD
    Depression is an extremely common condition, which usually responds well to prescribed treatment. Many patients have undiagnosed depression or related illnesses. There are a variety of screening tools that can be applied in practice settings. It is recommended that adult patients be screened for depression in practice sites able to coordinate the actual diagnosis and treatment of depression. This column reviews two sets of recommendations specific to the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of depression. Readers are invited to submit suggestions for future CPG columns and manuscripts reviewing CPGs. NPs interested in contributing to the column are invited to contact the column editor, Dr. Goolsby, to discuss their ideas. JAANP's readership is broad, covering all NP specialties. CPGs applicable to any areas of care can be submitted (from acute care to long term care, from neonatal care to geriatric care). [source]

    Treatment options for hydroxyurea-refractory disease complications in myeloproliferative neoplasms: JAK2 inhibitors, radiotherapy, splenectomy and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    Elena Mishchenko
    Abstract Clinical care of patients with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and myelofibrosis (MF) requires not only a broad understanding of general treatment principles but also familiarity with the management of hydroxyurea-refractory disease complications. The latter include progressive splenomegaly, symptomatic portal hypertension (e.g. ascites, variceal bleeding), pulmonary hypertension, bone pain, intractable pruritus, constitutional symptoms (e.g. fatigue, night sweats) and cachexia (i.e. loss of lean body mass, general ill health, poor appetite). Some of these symptoms are directly or indirectly related to extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) and others to proinflammatory cytokine excess. Results from recent clinical trials of JAK inhibitors suggest remarkable activity in MF-associated constitutional symptoms, cachexia, pruritus and hydroxyurea-refractory splenomegaly. Involved-field radiotherapy is best utilized in the setting of EMH-associated symptoms, including ascites, bone (extremity) pain and pulmonary hypertension. Splenectomy is indicated in the presence of drug-refractory splenomegaly and frequent red cell transfusion requirement. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is used to alleviate symptoms of portal hypertension. [source]

    How is geriatrics different from general internal medicine?

    Thomas E Finucane
    Geriatrics and general internal medicine overlap greatly: most sick patients seen by a generalist are elderly and geriatricians care for nearly the full spectrum of diseases seen in internal medicine. Differences between the two disciplines can be seen in the areas of patient care, research and administration. As a group, geriatric patients are different from young adults because they are more likely to have multiple chronic illnesses, to depend on others, to be frail and to die in the near future. Each of these characteristics requires special knowledge on the part of the physician. The research agenda in geriatrics extends from attempts to find the molecular basis of sarcopenia and frailty to clinical research on the support of caregivers, who are themselves critically important to patients. In the US, nursing homes are required to have medical directors; this position is largely administrative and requires a distinct set of knowledge and attitudes. Clinical care, research and administrative efforts must all respond to the enormous number of patients who will develop cognitive impairment over the next three decades. Because the number of elderly patients so far exceeds the ability of geriatricians to provide care, education and ,geriatricizing' other specialties will also be an important mission for geriatricians. Proper reimbursement presents a serious challenge to physicians who care for the frail elderly. If geriatricians take care of the frailest, sickest and most vulnerable patients, but reimbursement mechanisms cannot recognize this fact, then all geriatricians will soon go bankrupt. [source]

    Errors in completion of referrals among older urban adults in ambulatory care

    Michael Weiner MD MPH
    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives, Clinical care often requires referrals, but many referrals never result in completed evaluations. We determined the extent to which referral-based consultations were completed in a US medical institution. Factors associated with completion were identified. Method, In a cross-sectional analysis, we analysed billing records and electronic and paper-based medical records for patients aged 65 years or older receiving health care between July 2000 and June 2002 in an integrated, urban, tax-supported medical institution on an academic campus. All referrals in ambulatory care, scheduling of consultation within 180 days, and completion were assessed. We conducted a multivariate survival analysis to identify factors associated with completion. Results, We identified 6785 patients with encounters. Mean age was 72 years, and, of the participants, 66% were women, 55% were African-American and 32% were Medicaid eligible. Of the 81% with at least one primary-care visit in ambulatory care, 63% had at least one referral. About 8% of referrals required multiple orders before an appointment was scheduled. Among 7819 orders for specialty consultation in ambulatory care, 71% led to appointments, and 70% of appointments were kept (completed = 0.71*0.70 or 50%). Scheduling of consultations varied (12% to 90%) by specialty. Medicare, singular orders, location of referral and lack of hospitalization were independently significantly associated with scheduling of appointments. Conclusions, Among older adults studied, half of medical specialty referrals were not completed. Multiple process errors, including missing information, misguided referrals and faulty communications, likely contribute to these results. Information systems offer important opportunities to improve the referrals process. [source]

    Clinical care and technical recommendations for 90yttrium microsphere treatment of liver cancer

    S-C Wang
    Summary Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with 90yttrium microspheres is a relatively new clinical modality for treating non-resectable malignant liver tumours. This interventional radiology technique employs percutaneous microcatheterisation of the hepatic arterial vasculature to selectively deliver radioembolic microspheres into neoplastic tissue. SIRT results in measurable tumour responses or delayed disease progression in the majority of eligible patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatic metastases arising from colorectal cancer. It has also been successfully used as palliative therapy for non-colorectal malignancies metastatic to the liver. Although most adverse events are mild and transient, SIRT also carries some risks for serious and , rarely , fatal outcomes. In particular, entry of microspheres into non-target vessels may result in radiation-induced tissue damage, such as severe gastric ulceration or radiation cholecystitis. Radiation-induced liver disease poses another significant risk. By careful case selection, considered dose calculation and meticulous angiographic technique, it is possible to minimise the incidence of such complications to less than 10% of all treatments. As the number of physicians employing SIRT expands, there is an increasing need to consolidate clinical experience and expertise to optimise patient outcomes. Authored by a panel of clinicians experienced in treating liver tumours via SIRT, this paper collates experience in vessel mapping, embolisation, dosimetry, microsphere delivery and minimisation of non-target delivery. In addition to these clinical recommendations, the authors propose institutional criteria for introducing SIRT at new centres and for incorporating the technique into multidisciplinary care plans for patients with hepatic neoplasms. [source]

    ,-cell preservation: a potential role for thiazolidinediones to improve clinical care in Type 2 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 8 2005
    L. A. Leiter
    Abstract Type 2 diabetes is caused by progressively increasing insulin resistance coupled with deteriorating ,-cell function, and there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that both of these defects precede hyperglycaemia by many years. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of maintaining ,-cell function in patients with Type 2 diabetes. This review explores parameters used to indicate ,-cell dysfunction, in Type 2 diabetes and in individuals with a predisposition to the disease. A genetic element undoubtedly underlies ,-cell dysfunction; however, a number of modifiable components are also associated with ,-cell deterioration, such as chronic hyperglycaemia and elevated free fatty acids. There is also evidence for a link between pro-inflammatory cytokines and impairment of insulin-signalling pathways in the ,-cell, and the potential role of islet amyloid deposition in ,-cell deterioration continues to be a subject for debate. The thiazolidinediones are a class of agents that have demonstrated clinical improvements in indices of ,-cell dysfunction and have the potential to improve ,-cell function. Data are accumulating to show that this therapeutic group offers a number of advantages over traditionally employed oral agents, and these data demonstrate the growing importance of thiazolidinediones in Type 2 diabetes management. [source]

    The quality of clinical care in diabetes in Britain , could do better

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 5 2000
    Article first published online: 24 DEC 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Pharmacogenomics in Cardiovascular Medicine

    John F. Carlquist
    Abstract The completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP) holds promise for further insight into how genetic differences contribute to an individual's response to a medicine(s). Even before the completion of the HGP, cardiovascular medicine was thrust into the arena of pharmacogenomics by the observation that many drugs, cardiovascular and noncardiovascular, promote cardiac arrhythmias. It is now recognized that these adverse responses as well as beneficial responses to cardiovascular medicines can be influenced by alterations in the genes for metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters, and drug targets. To the present, much basic information regarding gene,drug interactions has accumulated, but translation to clinical care has been slow. It is anticipated that the pace of clinical cardiovascular pharmacogenomics will increase as the result of better-designed studies and technological advances. The final adoption of this area of investigation into clinical practice will also be influenced by financial, psychosocial, and legal factors. Drug Dev. Res. 62:180,190, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Novel SDHD germ-line mutations in pheochromocytoma patients

    C. Neumayer
    Abstract Background,SDHD germ-line mutations predispose to pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL). Material and methods, The incidence and types of SDHD germ-line mutations are determined in 70 patients with apparently sporadic adrenal and extra-adrenal PCC. Results,SDHD sequence variants were identified in the germ line of five patients. Two of three novel mutations were in exon 1 and one in exon 3. One patient had a codon 1 missense mutation (M1K) and a concurrent 3-bp deletion in intron 1. Three of 10 family members had only the exon 1 mutation, whereas one had only the intron 1 mutation. The other exon 1 mutation resulted from a deletion of nucleotides 28,33 with a 12-bp in-frame insertion (c.28_33 del ins TAGGAGGCCCTA). This mutation generated a premature stop codon after codon 9 and was also present in the brother who had a bilateral PCC. The third patient with a carotid body tumour, with an abdominal and a thoracic PGL had a 12-bp deletion in exon 3 (codons 91,94, c.271_282 del). Her father carried the same mutation and had bilateral carotid body tumours. Two further patients, one with six PGL, carried a previously described H50R polymorphism, whose disease-specific relevance is currently unclear. The three patients with bona fide SDHD mutations were younger than those without germ-line mutations. Conclusion,SDHD germ-line mutations are rare in patients with PCC, but their identification is an important prerequisite for the clinical care and appropriate management of affected individuals and their families. [source]

    EFNS task force on management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: guidelines for diagnosing and clinical care of patients and relatives

    An evidence-based review with good practice points
    Despite being one of the most devastating diseases known, there is little evidence for diagnosing and managing patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although specific therapy is lacking, correct early diagnosis and introduction of symptomatic and specific therapy can have a profound influence on the care and quality of life of the patient and may increase survival time. This document addresses the optimal clinical approach to ALS. The final literature search was performed in the spring of 2005. Consensus recommendations are given graded according to the EFNS guidance regulations. Where there was lack of evidence but consensus was clear we have stated our opinion as good practice points. People affected with possible ALS should be examined as soon as possible by an experienced neurologist. Early diagnosis should be pursued and a number of investigations should be performed with high priority. The patient should be informed of the diagnosis by a consultant with a good knowledge of the patient and the disease. Following diagnosis, the patient and relatives should receive regular support from a multidisciplinary care team. Medication with riluzole should be initiated as early as possible. PEG is associated with improved nutrition and should be inserted early. The operation is hazardous in patients with vital capacity <50%. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation improves survival and quality of life but is underused. Maintaining the patients ability to communicate is essential. During the entire course of the disease, every effort should be made to maintain patient autonomy. Advance directives for palliative end of life care are important and should be fully discussed early with the patient and relatives respecting the patients social and cultural background. [source]

    The WFH Haemophilia Centre Twinning Programme: 10 years of growth, 1993,2003

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 3 2003
    P. L. F. Giangrande
    Summary. The World Federation of Haemophilia (WFH) Twinning Programme celebrates its tenth anniversary this year. Twinning is one of several international WFH programmes designed to improve haemophilia care at a global level. There are two types of twinning, and the haemophilia treatment centre twinning programme should be distinguished from the WFH haemophilia organization twinning involving national member organizations. The WFH Haemophilia Treatment Centre Twinning Programme helps emerging haemophilia treatment centres develop partnerships with well-established and experienced centres. Twinning can improve diagnosis and clinical care through coaching, training and transfer of expertise, ultimately leading to improved quality of life for patients. Twinning can also enhance the profile and recognition of treatment centres in emerging countries, which can be valuable in raising awareness among politicians and the media. Examples of activities include consultation on the management of specific cases, clinical and laboratory training, donation of equipment and publications as well as research projects. The centre twinning programme also benefits centres in developed countries by giving them the opportunity to gain exposure to clinical problems no longer encountered in their own countries, as well as experience of new cultures. Currently, a total of 23 treatment centres around the world are linked through the twinning programme and applications for new partnerships are welcome. Twinning links are not permanent, but are reviewed on an annual basis and typically remain in place for periods of 3,5 years. Limited financial support from WFH is available to twinned centres in the form of money for an initial assessment visit, as well as regular annual grants to established partners and the possibility of applying for additional funding to support specific projects. In addition, continuing support and advice are available from the WFH regional programme officers. [source]

    Evaluating the impact of a cancer supportive care project in the community: patient and professional configurations of need

    Kristian Pollock PhD MA PGCHE
    Abstract Advances in cancer care and treatment have created a new and somewhat anomalous category of patients with a diagnosis of non-curative disease who still have a considerable period of life remaining. During much of this time they may remain relatively well, without manifest need for clinical care. The responses of patients to this challenging situation are largely unknown. However, it has been assumed that because they confront a difficult experience they will need, or can benefit from, professional intervention. The implementation of pre-emptive support measures is anticipated to improve patients' resilience in coping with their illness and approaching death. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the keyworker role in a 3-year cancer supportive community care project to identify and provide for the needs of patients with a diagnosis of non-curative cancer. It was a qualitative study incorporating face-to-face interviews and focus groups with 19 healthcare professionals and 25 patients and carers from an urban East Midlands locality and a thematic analysis of qualitative interview and focus group transcripts. The project was positively evaluated by patients, carers and professionals. However, the findings raised questions about the different configuration of ,need' within the lay and professional perspectives and how this should most appropriately be addressed. In contrast to widespread professional assumptions about patients' need for counselling, many patients preferred to turn to their friends and families for support, and to adopt a stance of emotional and personal self-reliance as a strategy for coping with their predicament. The study highlights the continuing orientation of services around professional, rather than patient, agendas and the momentum towards increasing specialisation of professional roles and the medicalisation of everyday life that flows from this. [source]

    Decision aids in routine practice: lessons from the breast cancer initiative

    Kerry A. Silvia BA
    Abstract Background, Many decision aids have been developed to help patients make treatment and screening decisions; however, little is known about implementing them into routine clinical practice. Objective, To assess the feasibility of implementing a patient decision aid (PtDA) for the early stage breast cancer surgical decision into routine clinical care. Design, Structured individual interviews. Setting and participants, A convenience sample of providers from nine sites, including two community resource centres, a community hospital and six academic centres. Main outcome measures, Usage data, barriers to and resources for implementing the PtDAs. Results, Six of the nine sites were using the PtDAs with patients. Two sites were primarily using a scheduling system and four sites relied on a lending system. For the academic centres, the keys to successful implementation included integrating the PtDA into the flow of patients through the centre and having physicians who recommended it to patients. At the community centres, the keys to successful implementation included an informed staff and the flexibility to get the PtDAs to patients in different ways. Barriers that limited or prevented sites from using the PtDA included a lack of clinical support, a lack of system support, competing priorities and scheduling problems. Conclusions, It is feasible to implement a breast cancer PtDA into routine clinical care at academic centres and community resource centres. Future research should assess the effectiveness of PtDAs in routine clinical care as well as resources and barriers to their implementation in community hospitals. [source]

    Development of an Algorithm to Identify Pregnancy Episodes in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

    Mark C. Hornbrook
    Objective. To develop and validate a software algorithm to detect pregnancy episodes and maternal morbidities using automated data. Data Sources/Study Setting. Automated records from a large integrated health care delivery system (IHDS), 1998,2001. Study Design. Through complex linkages of multiple automated information sources, the algorithm estimated pregnancy histories. We evaluated the algorithm's accuracy by comparing selected elements of the pregnancy history obtained by the algorithm with the same elements manually abstracted from medical records by trained research staff. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. The algorithm searched for potential pregnancy indicators within diagnosis and procedure codes, as well as laboratory tests, pharmacy dispensings, and imaging procedures associated with pregnancy. Principal Findings. Among 32,847 women with potential pregnancy indicators, we identified 24,680 pregnancies occuring to 21,001 women. Percent agreement between the algorithm and medical records review on pregnancy outcome, gestational age, and pregnancy outcome date ranged from 91 percent to 98 percent. The validation results were used to refine the algorithm. Conclusions. This pregnancy episode grouper algorithm takes advantage of databases readily available in IHDS, and has important applications for health system management and clinical care. It can be used in other settings for ongoing surveillance and research on pregnancy outcomes, pregnancy-related morbidities, costs, and care patterns. [source]

    Long-term utility of measuring adherence by self-report compared with pharmacy record in a routine clinic setting

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 5 2005
    CK Fairley
    Objectives To compare long-term adherence to antiretroviral therapy in an HIV service, as measured by self-report and by pharmacy records. To determine the level of adherence by each measure required to suppress viral load in a majority of patients. Methods The percentage of prescribed doses taken was calculated from (a) the number of missed doses in the previous 28 days reported by patients in a questionnaire at each clinic visit, and (b) pharmacy dispensing records. These were compared with each other and with HIV viral load data. Results Mean adherence was 96.2% by pharmacy record over 44 months and 98.6% by self-report over 25 months. The two methods correlated with each other (P<0.001) and the proportion of patients with viral load <400 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL increased with adherence as measured by self-report (P=0.001) and pharmacy record (P=0.004). Fewer than 60% of patients always had viral loads <400 copies/mL if adherence fell below 95% (pharmacy record) or 97% (self-report). Adherence was higher for once-daily than for twice-daily therapy (by pharmacy record: 97.2% vs. 96.0%; P<0.001). Adherence by both measures increased over time. Conclusions Self-reported antiretroviral adherence correlates with pharmacy dispensing records and predicts suppression of viral load at levels ,97%. It is practical to adopt this into routine HIV clinical care. [source]

    Caregiving behavior and interactions of prenatally depressed mothers (antidepressant-treated and non-antidepressant-treated) during newborn acute pain,

    Fay F. Warnock
    This exploratory study aimed to examine time-based measures of the behaviors and interactions of prenatally depressed serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI)-medicated mothers to their infant's pain (n = 10) by comparing them with similar measures obtained from prenatally depressed nonmedicated mothers and their infants (n = 10), and nondepressed mothers and their infants (n = 10). During the second trimester of their pregnancy, the 30 study mothers were assessed for depression and anxiety, with no further measures of maternal mood taken. Maternal and infant interactions were continuously videorecorded while the infant underwent a scheduled heel lance for routine blood screening that occurred when study infants were between the ages of 24 and 60 hr. Maternal behavior and infant cry, for all 30 cases, were coded second-by-second for the full duration of each infant's heel lance using a reliable coding system and analyzed using odds ratio and regression analyses. Infants exposed to prenatal SRIs and depressed maternal mood were more likely to have lower Apgar scores and to exhibit weak and absent cry. Even when duration of the heel lance was controlled for, women with depression during the second trimester were more likely to exhibit depressed behavior at 2 days' postpartum despite sustained SRI antidepressant treatment. Both groups of prenatally depressed mothers were more likely to exhibit diminished response to their infants' pain cue although nonmedicated mothers' expressions of depressed behavior were more similar to healthy controls. Comprehensive understanding is essential to optimize the clinical care of mothers and their infants in this complex setting. This study contributes preliminary new findings that warrant prospective and longitudinal studies to clarify further the impacts of prenatal SRI and maternal mental mood (e.g., chronic depression and anxiety) effects on the mother,infant interaction and infant pain and stress reactivity. [source]

    Intervention program to reduce waiting time of a dermatological visit: Managed overbooking and service centralization as effective management tools

    Yuval Bibi MD
    Background, Long waiting times are an impediment of dermatological patient care world-wide, resulting in significant disruption of clinical care and frustration among carers and patients. Objective, To reduce waiting times for dermatological appointments. Methods, A focus group including dermatologists and management personnel reviewed the scheduling process, mapped potential problems and proposed a comprehensive intervention program. The two major approaches taken in the intervention program were revision of the scheduling process by managed overbooking of patient appointments and centralization of the dermatological service into a centralized dermatological clinic. Results, Following the intervention program, the average waiting time for dermatological appointments decreased from 29.3 to 6.8 days. The number of scheduled appointments per 6 months rose from 17,007 to 20,433. Non-attendance proportion (no-show) decreased from 33% to 28%. Dermatologist work-hours were without significant change. Conclusions, Waiting lists for dermatological consultations were substantially shortened by managed overbooking of patient appointments and centralization of the service. [source]

    Spirituality and clinical care in eating disorders: A qualitative study

    Patricia Marsden MA
    Abstract Objective: Historical and contemporary research has posited links between eating disorders and religious asceticism. This study aimed to examine relationships between eating disorders, religion, and treatment. Method: Qualitative study using purposeful sampling, applying audiotaped and transcribed depth interview, subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: Participants were 10 adult Christian women receiving inpatient treatment for anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Five dominant categories emerged: locus of control, sacrifice, self-image, salvation, maturation. Appetitive control held moral connotations. Negative self-image was common, based more on sin than body-image. Medical treatment could be seen as salvation, with religious conversion manifesting a quest for healing, but treatment failure threatened faith. Beliefs matured during treatment, with prayer, providing a healing relationship. Conclusion: Religious beliefs impact on attitudes and motivation in eating disorders. Clinicians' sensitivity determines how beliefs influence clinical outcome. Treatment modifies beliefs such that theological constructs of illness cannot be ignored. 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2006 [source]

    Screening for major depression in persons with HIV infection: the concurrent predictive validity of the Profile of Mood States Depression-Dejection Scale

    Katherine Patterson
    Abstract Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is among the most prevalent but underdiagnosed psychiatric disorders in persons with HIV infection. Given the known adverse impact of comorbid MDD on HIV disease progression and health-related quality of life, it is important both for research and for efficient, effective clinical care, to validate existing screening measures that may discriminate between MDD and the somatic symptoms of HIV (such as fatigue). In the current study, we evaluated the concurrent predictive validity of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) Depression-Dejection scale in detecting current MDD in 310 persons with HIV infection. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) diagnosis of MDD and the Cognitive-Affective scale from the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-CA) served as comparative diagnostic and severity measures of depression, respectively. Results demonstrated that the POMS Depression-Dejection scale accurately classified persons with and without MDD SCID diagnoses, with an overall hit rate of 80%, sensitivity of 55%, specificity of 84%, and negative predictive power of 91% using a recommended cutpoint of 1.5 standard deviations above the normative mean. Moreover, the POMS performed comparably to the BDI-CA in classifying MDD. Findings support the predictive validity of the POMS Depression-Dejection scale as a screening instrument for MDD in persons with HIV disease. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Workplace violence: Differences in perceptions of nursing work between those exposed and those not exposed: A cross-sector analysis

    Desley Hegney RN PhD
    Hegney D, Tuckett A, Parker D, Eley RM. International Journal of Nursing Practice 2010; 16: 188,202 Workplace violence: Differences in perceptions of nursing work between those exposed and those not exposed: A cross-sector analysis Nurses are at high risk of incurring workplace violence during their working life. This paper reports the findings on a cross-sectional, descriptive, self-report, postal survey in 2007. A stratified random sample of 3000 of the 29 789 members of the Queensland Nurses Union employed in the public, private and aged care sectors resulted in 1192 responses (39.7%). This paper reports the differences: between those nurses who experienced workplace violence and those who did not; across employment sectors. The incidence of workplace violence is highest in public sector nursing. Patients/clients/residents were the major perpetrators of workplace violence and the existence of a workplace policy did not decrease levels of workplace violence. Nurses providing clinical care in the private and aged care sectors experienced more workplace violence than more senior nurses. Although workplace violence was associated with high work stress, teamwork and a supportive workplace mitigated workplace violence. The perception of workplace safety was inversely related to workplace violence. With the exception of public sector nursing, nurses reported an inverse relationship with workplace violence and morale. [source]

    Revisiting the evaluation of clinical practice

    Matthew J Leach PhD BN(Hons) ND RN MATMS
    The evaluation of patient care is an ongoing process that is aimed at improving clinical outcomes, as well as advancing clinical practice. However, a number of elements need to be taken into account when evaluating clinical practice, including social, structural and process factors. Consideration of these factors, together with comprehensive and holistic assessment, clinical expertise, reflective thinking, and valid and reliable instrumentation, will allow practitioners to better evaluate clinical care, and in effect, improve client outcomes. [source]

    Burden of stroke in Singapore

    N. Venketasubramanian
    Stroke is Singapore's fourth leading cause of death, with a crude death rate of 404/100 000 in 2006, a prevalence of 365% and an incidence of 18/1000, and is among the top 10 causes of hospitalization. Approximately one-quarter of strokes are hemorrhagic. Hospital care for acute stroke costs about US$5000. Subsidized healthcare is widely available for primary level and hospital care, as are rehabilitative services. A national stroke support group has been established. With our rapidly aging population, coupled with the high prevalence of stroke risk factors in the community, the burden of stroke is expected to increase dramatically in the years to come, posing challenges to the healthcare system and society. A national disease management plan incorporating high-quality clinical care coupled with research would be essential. [source]

    Transfusion practice in clinical care

    J. P. Isbister

    The Pregnant Women with HIV Attitude Scale: development and initial psychometric evaluation

    Lynda A. Tyer-Viola
    tyer-viola l.a. & duffy m.e. (2010) The Pregnant Women with HIV Attitude Scale: development and initial psychometric evaluation. Journal of Advanced Nursing,66(8), 1852,1863. Abstract Title.,The Pregnant Women with HIV Attitude Scale: development and initial psychometric evaluation. Aim., This paper is a report of the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Pregnant Women with HIV Attitude Scale. Background., Previous research has identified that attitudes toward persons with HIV/AIDS have been judgmental and could affect clinical care and outcomes. Stigma towards persons with HIV has persisted as a barrier to nursing care globally. Women are more vulnerable during pregnancy. An instrument to specifically measure obstetric care provider's attitudes toward this population is needed to target identified gaps in providing respectful care. Methods., Existing literature and instruments were analysed and two existing measures, the Attitudes about People with HIV Scale and the Attitudes toward Women with HIV Scale, were combined to create an initial item pool to address attitudes toward HIV-positive pregnant women. The data were collected in 2003 with obstetric nurses attending a national conference in the United States of America (N = 210). Content validity was used for item pool development and principal component analysis and analysis of variance were used to determine construct validity. Reliability was analysed using Cronbach's Alpha. Results., The new measure demonstrated high internal consistency (alpha estimates = 089). Principal component analysis yielded a two-component structure that accounted for 45% of the total variance: Mothering-Choice (alpha estimates = 089) and Sympathy-Rights (alpha estimates = 072). Conclusion., These data provided initial evidence of the psychometric properties of the Pregnant Women with HIV Attitude Scale. Further analysis is required of the validity of the constructs of this scale and its reliability with various obstetric care providers. [source]

    Fatigue in children with long-term conditions: an evolutionary concept analysis

    Margaret McCabe
    Abstract Title.,Fatigue in children with long-term conditions: an evolutionary concept analysis. Aim., This paper is a report of a concept analysis of fatigue in children with long-term conditions. Background., There is little research focused on the experience of fatigue in children. Previous work has focused primarily on children living with cancer. It is necessary to clarify and refine the concept, and add to the knowledge base that supports ongoing theoretical work in order to improve the clinical care of children with long-term conditions who experience fatigue. Method., English language literature published from 1989 to 2007 was searched using the CINAHL, Medline and PsychINFO data bases. Sixty-two papers and two book chapters were used in this concept analysis. Rodgers' method of evolutionary concept analysis was used. This inductive method helps us to view the concept in a sociocultural and temporal context. Findings., The number of publications focusing on fatigue in children is increasing. The analysis yielded two surrogate terms, five attributes, three antecedents and seven consequences. Based on this analysis, fatigue in children with long-term conditions appears to be a subjective experience of tiredness or exhaustion that is multidimensional and includes physical, mental, and emotional aspects. Conclusions., Evidence suggesting children with long-term conditions experience fatigue is increasing, but conceptual gaps remain. This analysis has yielded a view of fatigue in children that illustrates healthcare professionals' limited yet growing awareness of the symptom. Ongoing study as a means to refine our understanding of the concept could potentially lead to important contributions to clinical care of children with long-term conditions. [source]

    Primary mental health workers in child and adolescent mental health services

    Wendy Macdonald BSc PhD
    Background., The interface between primary care and specialist services is increasingly seen as crucial in the effective management of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) problems. In the United Kingdom, a new role of primary mental health worker (PMHW), has been established in order to achieve effective collaboration across the interface through the provision of clinical care in primary care settings and by improving the skills and confidence of primary care staff. However, little is known about the development of this innovative role in service contexts. Issues raised during the early stages of implementation may have important implications for the preparation and development of professionals who undertake the role. Aims., The aim of this paper is to report on a study that examined key issues in implementation of the PMHW role in six health authorities in England. Methods., Case study evaluation was conducted, using thematic analysis of 75 qualitative interviews with key stakeholders from different professions (e.g. PMHWs, general practitioners, health visitors, psychiatrists and service managers) and representing different sectors (primary care, specialist services and community child health services). Findings., The study identified three models of organization (outreach, primary care-based and teams). Each was associated with different advantages and disadvantages in its effects on referral rates to specialist services and the development of effective working relationships with primary care providers. Problems associated with accommodation and effective integration of PMHWs with specialist services, and tensions caused by the two different roles that PMHWs could undertake (direct clinical care vs. consultation-liaison) were common across all sites. Conclusions., The PMHW role is an important development that may go some way towards realizing the potential of primary care services in CAMH. The implementation of new roles and models of working in primary care is complex, but may be facilitated by effective planning with primary care providers, clear goals for staff, and a long-term perspective on service development. [source]

    Enhancing Delphi research: methods and results

    Holly Powell Kennedy PhD CNM FACNM
    Background., The Delphi method provides an opportunity for experts (panelists) to communicate their opinions and knowledge anonymously about a complex problem, to see how their evaluation of the issue aligns with others, and to change their opinions, if desired, after reconsideration of the findings of the group's work. Delphi studies have the potential to provide valuable information, yet few researchers have taken further steps to support or refine their findings. Without this step there is a potential threat to the applicability, or external validity, of the results. Aims., The purpose of this article is to present an argument for further inquiry to enhance and support Delphi findings, and specific approaches to this will be considered. Methods., Methods to enhance, expand, or refine Delphi study findings are described. Mixed method design within a Delphi study on midwifery practice is described, and a follow-up narrative study to examine the findings is presented. Findings., Selected results from the follow up narrative study are presented to convey how the narrative data clarified the Delphi findings. Together, the studies provide a more robust depiction of midwifery practice, process, and outcomes. Although there were similarities to the dimensions identified previously, there was a more dynamic focus and explanation of the interaction between the midwife, the woman who had received midwifery care, and the health care system. Study limitations., Lack of diversity in the sample and the midwives' familiarity with the author's past research represent a potential threat to the findings. Prolonged interviews and multiple narratives were gathered in an effort to control for this. Conclusion., Delphi studies are research exercises conducted by a panel of experts. Designing studies to further enhance, clarify, or refine their findings from the context of practice holds promise for their ability to influence clinical care. [source]

    Discontinuing Medications: A Novel Approach for Revising the Prescribing Stage of the Medication-Use Process

    Kevin T. Bain PharmD
    Thousands of Americans are injured or die each year from adverse drug reactions, many of which are preventable. The burden of harm conveyed by the use of medications is a significant public health problem, and therefore, improving the medication-use process is a priority. Recent and ongoing efforts to improve the medication-use process have focused primarily on improving medication prescribing, and not much emphasis has been put on improving medication discontinuation. A formalized approach for rationally discontinuing medications is a necessary antecedent to improving medication safety and improving the nation's quality of care. This article proposes a conceptual framework for revising the prescribing stage of the medication-use process to include discontinuing medications. This framework has substantial practice and research implications, especially for the clinical care of older persons, who are particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of medications. [source]

    Optimizing Coding and Reimbursement to Improve Management of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias

    Howard Fillit MD
    The objectives of this study were to review the diagnostic, International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), diagnosis related groups (DRGs), and common procedural terminology (CPT) coding and reimbursement issues (including Medicare Part B reimbursement for physicians) encountered in caring for patients with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD); to review the implications of these policies for the long-term clinical management of the patient with ADRD; and to provide recommendations for promoting appropriate recognition and reimbursement for clinical services provided to ADRD patients. Relevant English-language articles identified from MEDLINE about ADRD prevalence estimates; disease morbidity and mortality; diagnostic coding practices for ADRD; and Medicare, Medicaid, and managed care organization data on diagnostic coding and reimbursement were reviewed. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is grossly undercoded. Few AD cases are recognized at an early stage. Only 13% of a group of patients receiving the AD therapy donepezil had AD as the primary diagnosis, and AD is rarely included as a primary or secondary DRG diagnosis when the condition precipitating admission to the hospital is caused by AD. In addition, AD is often not mentioned on death certificates, although it may be the proximate cause of death. There is only one ICD-9-CM code for AD,331.0,and no clinical modification codes, despite numerous complications that can be directly attributed to AD. Medicare carriers consider ICD-9 codes for senile dementia (290 series) to be mental health codes and pay them at a lower rate than medical codes. DRG coding is biased against recognition of ADRD as an acute, admitting diagnosis. The CPT code system is an impediment to quality of care for ADRD patients because the complex, time-intensive services ADRD patients require are not adequately, if at all, reimbursed. Also, physicians treating significant numbers of AD patients are at greater risk of audit if they submit a high frequency of complex codes. AD is grossly undercoded in acute hospital and outpatient care settings because of failure to diagnose, limitations of the coding system, and reimbursement issues. Such undercoding leads to a lack of recognition of the effect of AD and its complications on clinical care and impedes the development of better care management. We recommend continuing physician education on the importance of early diagnosis and care management of AD and its documentation through appropriate coding, expansion of the current ICD-9-CM codes for AD, more appropriate use of DRG coding for ADRD, recognition of the need for time-intensive services by ADRD patients that result in a higher frequency of use of complex CPT codes, and reimbursement for CPT codes that cover ADRD care management services. [source]