Clinic Visit (clinic + visit)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Echocardiographic Left Ventricular Mass in African-Americans

The Jackson Cohort of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study
Characterization of target organ damage from hypertension is of particular interest in African-Americans, and evidence from electrocardiographic studies suggests that left ventricular hypertrophy is a frequent clinical finding of considerable prognostic importance. Echocardiographic studies may permit more precise characterization of the pathologic impact of hypertension on cardiac structure and function. The objective of this study is to characterize left ventricular (LV) structure including measures of wall thickness, septal thickness, internal dimension, and mass in a middle-aged sample of African-Americans using echocardiography. This study is a cohort (cross-sectional) study in which 2445 middle-aged African-American study participants from a population-based sample initially enrolled by the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, Jackson, Mississippi Examination Center in 1987,1989 underwent an M-mode echocardiograpic examination at their third or fourth clinic visit in 1993,1996. Measures of LV mass, even where indexed by size were conspicuously greater in men compared to women, and men exhibited a demonstrably steeper gradient of LV mass across the rather restricted age range of the study. However, when gender specific thresholds for LV hypertrophy were utilized, African-American men appear to have lower prevalence of LV hypertrophy than women. The lowest prevalence of LV hypertrophy was observed in African-American men who did not have hypertension (28.4%). The findings confirm previous suggestions from electrocardiographic investigations that cardiac hypertrophy is common, if not epidemic in middle-aged African-American men and women, whether or not they have hypertension. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 20, February 2003) [source]

The Impact of a Microfinance Program on Client Perceptions of the Quality of Care Provided by Private Sector Midwives in Uganda

Sohail Agha
Objective. To assess the impact of a microfinance program that provided business skills training and revolving loans to private sector midwives on perceived quality of services and client loyalty. Study Design. A quasi-experimental study with a pretest, posttest design was used to evaluate the impact of the intervention. Exit interviews were conducted at 15 clinics that received the intervention and 7 clinics that did not. Baseline exit interviews were conducted between November and December 2000. Five days of business skills training were provided to midwives, and loans (averaging $454) were given during January and February 2001. A follow-up clinic visit was made to assess whether midwives were implementing what was emphasized during the training. The loans were to be repaid with interest within 6 to 12 months, at an interest rate that is standard within the local commercial market. For those who repaid the first set of loans (11 clinics), a second set of loans (averaging $742) was provided after June 2001. Follow-up exit interviews were conducted at the same clinics between February and March 2002. We assessed the effect of the intervention at both clinic and client levels. T-tests, the analysis of variance, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted. Principal Findings. These findings should be interpreted cautiously since secular trends were observed during the study period. The intervention was associated with improvement in clients' perceptions of the quality of care received at intervention clinics. The intervention was also associated with a higher level of client loyalty. Conclusions. The enthusiastic response of midwives and the high loan repayment rate indicate that midwives were very receptive to the microfinance program. Overall, these findings suggest that microfinance may have an important role in strengthening private sector health services by increasing private providers' business skills and clients' satisfaction with services. [source]

Long-term utility of measuring adherence by self-report compared with pharmacy record in a routine clinic setting

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 5 2005
CK Fairley
Objectives To compare long-term adherence to antiretroviral therapy in an HIV service, as measured by self-report and by pharmacy records. To determine the level of adherence by each measure required to suppress viral load in a majority of patients. Methods The percentage of prescribed doses taken was calculated from (a) the number of missed doses in the previous 28 days reported by patients in a questionnaire at each clinic visit, and (b) pharmacy dispensing records. These were compared with each other and with HIV viral load data. Results Mean adherence was 96.2% by pharmacy record over 44 months and 98.6% by self-report over 25 months. The two methods correlated with each other (P<0.001) and the proportion of patients with viral load <400 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL increased with adherence as measured by self-report (P=0.001) and pharmacy record (P=0.004). Fewer than 60% of patients always had viral loads <400 copies/mL if adherence fell below 95% (pharmacy record) or 97% (self-report). Adherence was higher for once-daily than for twice-daily therapy (by pharmacy record: 97.2% vs. 96.0%; P<0.001). Adherence by both measures increased over time. Conclusions Self-reported antiretroviral adherence correlates with pharmacy dispensing records and predicts suppression of viral load at levels ,97%. It is practical to adopt this into routine HIV clinical care. [source]

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy: are we doing enough?

T. Read
Abstract Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is a powerful predictor of response to therapy. For optimal antiretroviral therapy response, individuals need to take more than 95% of their prescribed medication. The most widely used method for measuring adherence is self-report of the number of missed doses and this should be done at every clinic visit. There are several well-recognized predictors of poor adherence, such as illicit drug use, depression, limited knowledge or ambivalence about starting treatment. Adherence can be improved by addressing these issues or through other means such as pill boxes or electronic reminders. (Intern Med J 2003; 33: 254,256) [source]

Clinical utility of computed tomography in the assessment of dementia: a memory clinic study

Kelly A. Condefer
Abstract Objective To define the influence of computed tomography (CT) on clinical decision-making in the outpatient evaluation of dementia. Design A case series in which two physicians reviewed standardised data extracted from clinical records, first blind to CT results, and then with CT results. Clinical decisions made with and without the input of CT were compared. The study was based in an outpatient referral centre for the assessment of memory disorders and dementia. The study involved 146 participants who were diagnosed with dementia after their first clinic visit, had Mini Mental State Examination scores >12, were aged >65 years, and had no history of neurologic disease. Results CT impacted on diagnosis in an average of 12% (2), and on treatment plan in 11% (2) of cases. Physicians predicted a priori which cases CT may influence with an average sensitivity of 28% (2), and specificity of 78.5% (1.5). There was no statistically significant relationship between diagnostically uncertain cases and helpful CT scans [average ,2,=,1.121 (1.116), p,=,ns]. Blind to CT physicians appropriately identified cerebrovascular disease with an average sensitivity of 63% (3), and specificity of 93.5% (3.5). Conclusions In the outpatient setting, CT may be expected to impact on diagnosis and treatment of dementia in 10% to 15% of cases. Memory clinic physicians recognise and treat cerebrovascular risk factors with reasonable sensitivity and specificity without the input of CT. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Self-Reported Sleep and Nap Habits and Risk of Falls and Fractures in Older Women: The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures

Katie L. Stone PhD
OBJECTIVES: To test the association between self-reported sleep and nap habits and risk of falls and fractures in a large cohort of older women. DESIGN: Study of Osteoporotic Fractures prospective cohort study. SETTING: Clinical centers in Baltimore, Maryland; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Portland, Oregon; and the Monongahela Valley, near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS: Eight thousand one hundred one community-dwelling Caucasian women aged 69 and older (mean 77.0). MEASUREMENTS: Sleep and nap habits were assessed using a questionnaire at the fourth clinic visit (1993/94). Fall frequency during the subsequent year was ascertained using tri-annual questionnaire. Incident hip and nonspinal fractures during 6 years of follow-up were confirmed using radiographic reports. RESULTS: Five hundred fifty-three women suffered hip fractures, and 1,938 suffered nonspinal fractures. In multivariate models, women who reported napping daily had significantly higher odds of suffering two or more falls during the subsequent year (odds ratio=1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.03,1.69) and were more likely to suffer a hip fracture (hazard ratio (HR)=1.33, 95% CI=0.99,1.78) than women who did not nap daily. Those sleeping at least 10 hours per 24 hours had a higher risk of nonspinal fracture than (HR=1.26, 95% CI=1.00,1.58) and a similar but nonsignificant increased risk of hip fracture to (HR=1.43, 95% CI=0.95,2.15) those who reported sleeping between 8 and 9 hours. CONCLUSION: Self-reported long sleep and daily napping are associated with greater risk of falls and fractures in older women. Interventions to improve sleep may reduce their risk of falls and fractures. Future research is needed to determine whether specific sleep disorders contribute to these relationships. [source]

Effects of Current and Discontinued Estrogen Replacement Therapy on Hip Structural Geometry: The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures,

Thomas J. Beck
Abstract It is assumed that estrogen influences bone strength and risk of fractures by affecting bone mineral density (BMD). However, estrogen may influence the mechanical strength of bones by altering the structural geometry in ways that may not be apparent in the density. Repeated dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) hip scan data were analyzed for bone density and structural geometry in elderly women participating in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). Scans were studied with a hip structural analysis program for the effects of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on BMD and structural geometry. Of the 3964 women with ERT-use data, 588 used ERT at both the start and end of the ,3.5-year study, 1203 had past use which was discontinued by clinic visit 4, and 2163 women had never used ERT. All groups lost BMD at the femoral neck, but the reduced BMD among users of ERT was entirely due to subperiosteal expansion and not bone loss, whereas both bone loss and expansion occurred in past or nonusers. BMD increased 0.8%/year at the femoral shaft among ERT users but decreased 0.8%/year among nonusers. Section moduli increased at both the neck and shaft among ERT users but remained unchanged in past and nonusers. Current, but not past, use of estrogen therapy in elderly women seems to increase mechanical strength of the proximal femur by improving its geometric properties. These effects are not evident from changes in femoral neck BMD. [source]

Nurse practitioner,client interaction as resource exchange in a women's health clinic: an exploratory study

Rebecca K. Donohue PhD
Summary ,,Empirical research has thoroughly documented the success of nurse practitioners (NPs) in terms of patient satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. What is missing is the in-depth knowledge of the interactive process through which this is accomplished during a clinic visit. ,,The aim of this study was to understand the special nature and processes of NP and client encounters in the ambulatory primary care context using a resource exchange perspective. ,,An exploratory descriptive design was used to address the following research questions: (i) What do midlife female clients expect in terms of resources to be exchanged prior to a visit with a NP in an ambulatory clinic visit? (ii) What resources are actually exchanged during the clinic visit? (iii) To what extent is there congruence between a woman's expectations and what she is actually receiving from the clinic visit in terms of resources exchanged? ,,The participants included two women health NPs and eight midlife female clients. ,,Data for the study were comprised of audiotaped pre- and postencounter interviews with the clients, audiotapes of the entire clinic visits with the NP and field notes recorded by the researcher of the client visits. Content analysis was conducted using ETHNOGRAPH software. ,,Findings indicated that clients of both NPs had surprisingly similar expectations of receipt of services as well as actual receipt of services. Resources expected and received from the visits included some combination of services, health information, trust, self-disclosure, support, affirmation, time, acceptance and respect. ,,Results of this study suggest that resource exchange theoretical formulations can be applied to NP,client interactions to understand and explain the specific nature of resources the clients expect and receive from a NP during a woman's health clinic visit. [source]

Side Effects of and Compliance with Malaria Prophylaxis in Children

Theresa A. Albright
Background: We wanted to determine the frequency of side effects and compliance with mefloquine and chloroquine used for antimalarial prophylaxis in children 0 to 13 years compared with side effects in same-age children taking prophylactic chloroquine. Methods: Subjects and treatment were identified by retrospective medical record review for children , 13 years not on other medications who visited a travel clinic between November 1997 and January 2000. Parents were interviewed via telephone in January through March 2000 regarding compliance and side effects. Results: We reviewed 286 records and contacted 190 of 286 parents (66%). Of these, 177 (93%) parents had first-hand knowledge about the child's compliance with the medication regimen and were interviewed. Subjects were 47% male (median age 6.3 years), contacted a median of 12.4 months (range 2.8 to 28 months) following their clinic visit. Of these, 148 (84%) were prescribed mefloquine, and 29, chloroquine with 77% (136/177) taking the prescribed antimalarial. Most children (30 of 41 [73%]) not receiving their prophylaxis traveled unprotected to endemic area. Sixteen subjects (12% of those taking antimalarials) reported side effects. Eleven of 115 subjects (10%) who took mefloquine, and 5 of 22 subjects (23%) who took chloroquine reported a side effect. Side effects for mefloquine included diarrhea, anorexia, vivid dreams, headache, changes in sleep, hallucinations, and vomiting with 2 subjects stopping mefloquine after seeking medical care. Side effects for chloroquine were headache, nausea, and changes in sleep. No child stopped taking chloroquine. Groups reporting or not reporting a side effect were similar for gender, age, travel destination, antimalarial prescribed, and elapsed time from clinic visit to telephone contact. Conclusions: Side effects from antimalarial drug administration occurred in 10 to 23% of patients who took their medication but rarely resulted in stopping prophylaxis. Prescribed antimalarials were sometimes never given. Appropriate counseling on side effects and reasons for faithful administration should accompany antimalarial prophylaxis. [source]

Pediatric Travel Consultation in an Integrated Clinic

John C. Christenson
Background: In May 1997, a pediatric travel service was created within a larger integrated University-County Health Department international travel clinic. The purpose of the service was to further enhance the travel advice and care provided to children and their parents or guardians. The current study was designed to describe the care of children in this setting and to compare the care of children seen in the Pediatric Travel Service with that of children seen by other providers. Methods: All pediatric patients (defined as individuals , 18 years of age) receiving care in the travel clinic were considered candidates for inclusion in the analysis. Patients seen by the Pediatric Travel Service were compared to those seen by other staff members in the travel clinic (referred to as Regular Clinic). The following information was noted: basic demographic data, medical history including allergies, prior immunization records, intended place and duration of travel, and immunizations and medications prescribed at the time of visit. Travel advice covering water and food precautions, preventive measures against insect bites, injury prevention, malaria prevention, prevention of parasitic infections, and environmental-related problems was provided to all patients in both groups when necessary. Results: Between May 1997 and December 1999, 287 pediatric age individuals were given pretravel care by the Pediatric Travel Service (median age, 6 years; range, 1 month-18 years). During the same time period, 722 pediatric age travelers (median age, 14 years; range, 8 months-18 years) were evaluated in the Regular Clinic by other staff members. Travel destinations most commonly traveled by both groups in descending order were: Africa, Central America and Mexico, South America, and Southeast Asia. When compared to travelers seen in the Regular Clinic, individuals in the Pediatric Travel Service group were more likely to travel for humanitarian work, and for parental work relocation. Persons in the Regular Clinic were more likely to travel to Mexico and Central America. They were also more likely to travel on vacation and for missionary work or study. Hepatitis B and tetanus-diphtheria booster vaccinations were given more frequently to travelers seen in the Regular Clinic. Also, ciprofloxacin and antimotility agents were more commonly prescribed in this group. No differences were noted in the duration of travel or in the time interval between clinic visit and departure. Conclusions: While general travel advice was considered to be similar in both clinic groups, some differences were observed in the frequency of administration of certain vaccines and prescriptions of medications. These differences were likely due to a difference in age in the two study groups. The high volume and success of the clinic suggest that integrated pediatric and adult travel services in a coordinated setting can be effective. [source]

Reproducibility of spirometry during cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbations,,

Don B. Sanders MD
Abstract Objectives: To compare the within day variation of spirometry between hospital admission, discharge, and outpatient follow up among children with cystic fibrosis (CF) hospitalized for a pulmonary exacerbation. Hypothesis: Within day variation of spirometry will be greater at hospital admission than at hospital discharge or outpatient follow up. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of spirometry data for all patients with CF ,6 years old admitted to our pediatric CF center for a pulmonary exacerbation in 2004 or 2005. For patients who had previously performed spirometry successfully, measurements were used from one admission only during 2004,2005 if the spirometry occurred within 3 days of hospital admission, 3 days of discharge, or at a follow up clinic visit when well. We compared the within day coefficients of variation (CV) for FVC, FEV1, and FEF25,75 between time points using the Wilcoxon signed rank-test. We also determined the change in spirometry that is likely to be beyond measurement variability during inpatient treatment of a pulmonary exacerbation. Results: Spirometry data were available from 40 subjects at admission and follow up and 35 at hospital discharge. There was no significant difference in CV at admission, discharge, and follow up for FVC, FEV1, or FEF25,75. The mean (SD) CV was 3.1% (2.7) for FVC, 3.2% (2.1) for FEV1, and 9.7% (7.0) for FEF25,75 at admission, 2.8% (2.2) for FVC, 3.1% (2.1) for FEV1, and 8.1% (6.7) for FEF25,75 at discharge, and 2.7% (1.7) for FVC, 2.8% (2.0) for FEV1, and 8.4% (7.8) for FEF25,75 at follow up. These are similar to previous reports of outpatients with CF. The improvement in spirometry that exceeded measurement variability for our cohort was 80 ml for FVC, 70 ml for FEV1, and 220 ml/sec for FEF25,75. Conclusions: The presence of an acute pulmonary exacerbation in children and adolescents with CF does not substantially contribute to the within day variation in spirometry. Within day variation of spirometry for children with CF during pulmonary exacerbations is similar to previously reported values from clinically stable CF patients. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 2008; 43:1142,1146. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Parent-Child Relations Among Minor Females Attending U.S. Family Planning Clinics

Rachel K. Jones
CONTEXT: Relatively little is known about parent-child relations among minor females who use family planning clinics. Such information could inform the debate on parental involvement legislation and help clinics develop effective strategies to promote positive parental engagement. METHODS: Self-administered surveys were completed in 2003,2004 by 1,526 women younger than 18 attending 79 U.S. family planning clinics, providing measures of parent-child relations, perceived parental attitudes toward sex and birth control, and parental knowledge of the clinic visit. Associations between relationships with parents and parental knowledge of clinic visits were examined using t tests and logistic regression. RESULTS: Many adolescents had talked to parents about sexual issues (50,80%, depending on the topic) and reported high levels of connectedness with parents (68%). A substantial minority (19%) perceived that parents disapprove of their both having sex and using birth control. The majority (60%) reported that a parent knew of their clinic visit; such reports were most common among those who had high levels of connectedness to parents and communication with parents about sexual issues, and those who did not perceive parents to disapprove of sex and birth control. Adolescents aged 15 and younger were more likely than 17-year-olds to indicate that a parent knew they were at the clinic and to report that a parent suggested the clinic. CONCLUSIONS Overall, minors attending family planning clinics have good relations with parents. The youngest adolescents may be at family planning clinics specifically because parents are involved in their reproductive health decisions. [source]

Outcome Analysis of Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck and Hepatitis C Virus,

Jason Hunt MD
Abstract Objective/Hypothesis: Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global problem with over 170 million people infected. Recently, we have noticed that a large number of patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) have also been diagnosed with HCV. A review of the literature reveals little information concerning this patient population. The objective of this study was to compare the outcome of SCCHN patients who have been exposed to HCV with nave SCCHN patients. Study Design: Retrospective chart review. Methods: A retrospective chart review from June 1991 through December 2002 was performed to identify patients diagnosed with SCCHN who were screened for HCV. Patients were stratified into two groups (HCV positive and HCV negative). Data were recorded on patients for status of disease at last clinic visit, pretreatment serum albumin and hematocrit levels, and RNA quantities of HCV. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t test to compare serum albumin and hematocrit levels. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to compare outcomes. The log-rank test was used to determine significance. Cox regression was used to examine the association of prognostic predictor variables with overall survival and disease-free survival. Results: There was no difference noted in 5 year survival between hepatitis C positive and hepatitis C negative groups in overall outcomes (66.7% vs. 67.9%, P = 1.000) or 5 year disease-free survival (90.5% vs. 80.8%, P = .514). The two groups, HCV positive versus HCV negative, also had similar serum albumin levels (3.62 g/dL vs. 3.72 g/dL, P = .37) as well as serum hematocrit levels (42.9% vs. 41.0%, P = .12). Serum levels of hepatitis C RNA were obtained in seven patients, with only one being undetectable. The only prognostic predictor variable that was significantly associated with overall survival was age. None of the predictor variables were significantly associated with disease-free survival. Conclusion: Co-infection with HCV, although prevalent in the Veterans Administration Hospital population, did not affect patient outcome as defined by disease-free survival. Patients who were seropositive for HCV had comparable serum albumin levels as well as serum hematocrit when compared with HCV negative patients. [source]

Predicting Coronary Heart Disease after Kidney Transplantation: Patient Outcomes in Renal Transplantation (PORT) Study

A. K. Israni
Traditional risk factors do not adequately explain coronary heart disease (CHD) risk after kidney transplantation. We used a large, multicenter database to compare traditional and nontraditional CHD risk factors, and to develop risk-prediction equations for kidney transplant patients in standard clinical practice. We retrospectively assessed risk factors for CHD (acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery revascularization or sudden death) in 23 575 adult kidney transplant patients from 14 transplant centers worldwide. The CHD cumulative incidence was 3.1%, 5.2% and 7.6%, at 1, 3 and 5 years posttransplant, respectively. In separate Cox proportional hazards analyses of CHD in the first posttransplant year (predicted at time of transplant), and predicted within 3 years after a clinic visit occurring in posttransplant years 1,5, important risk factors included pretransplant diabetes, new onset posttransplant diabetes, prior pre- and posttransplant cardiovascular disease events, estimated glomerular filtration rate, delayed graft function, acute rejection, age, sex, race and duration of pretransplant end-stage kidney disease. The risk-prediction equations performed well, with the time-dependent c-statistic greater than 0.75. Traditional risk factors (e.g. hypertension, dyslipidemia and cigarette smoking) added little additional predictive value. Thus, transplant-related risk factors, particularly those linked to graft function, explain much of the variation in CHD after kidney transplantation. [source]

Analysis of intracellular methotrexate polyglutamates in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Effect of route of administration on variability in intracellular methotrexate polyglutamate concentrations

Mara L. Becker
Objective Intracellular methotrexate (MTX) polyglutamates (MTXGlu) have been shown to be potentially useful biomarkers of clinical response in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The present study was undertaken to measure intracellular MTXGlu concentrations in a cohort of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to determine the predictors of MTXGlu variability in these patients. Methods Blood samples were obtained from patients with JIA who were being treated with a stable dose of MTX for ,3 months. Clinical data were collected by chart review. Concentrations of MTXGlu1,7 in red blood cell lysates were quantitated using an innovative ion-pairing chromatography procedure, with detection by mass spectrometry. Results Patients with JIA from a single center (n = 99; mean SD age 117.8 56.5 months, 69 female) were included in the analysis. The mean SD dose of MTX was 0.51 0.25 mg/kg per week, with a median treatment duration of 18 months (interquartile range 3,156 months). MTX was administered subcutaneously in 66 patients (67%). Fifty-six patients (57%) had active arthritis at the time of the clinic visit. Total intracellular MTXGlu (MTXGluTOT) concentrations varied 40-fold, with a mean SD total concentration of 85.8 48.4 nmoles/liter. Concentrations of each MTXGlu subtype (MTXGlu1,7) were measured individually and as a percentage of MTXGluTOT in each patient. MTXGlu3 was the most prominent subtype identified, comprising 42% of MTXGluTOT, and the interindividual variability in the concentration of MTXGlu3 was the most highly correlated with that of MTXGluTOT (r = 0.96). The route of MTX administration was significantly associated with MTXGlu1,5 subtypes; higher concentrations of MTXGlu1 + 2 were observed in patients receiving oral doses of MTX, whereas higher concentrations of MTXGlu3,5 were observed in patients receiving subcutaneous doses of MTX (P < 0.0001). Conclusion In this cohort of patients with JIA, the MTXGluTOT concentration varied 40-fold. Individual MTXGlu metabolites (MTXGlu1,7), which have, until now, not been previously reported in patients with JIA, were detected. The route of MTX administration contributed to the variability in concentrations of MTXGlu1,5. [source]

A multidisciplinary primary healthcare clinic for newly arrived humanitarian entrants in regional NSW: model of service delivery and summary of preliminary findings

Gillian Gould
Abstract Objective: To describe a multidisciplinary primary healthcare clinic for newly arrived humanitarian entrants in regional New South Wales and report health problems and issues encountered during the initial period of operation. Methods: A quality assurance study of the Coffs Harbour Refugee Health Clinic (a collaboration between the Area Health Service and general practitioners) was undertaken from February to December 2006. Results: Seventy-six patients received a comprehensive health assessment: 69 of these within 12 months of arrival. The median time from arrival in Australia to the first clinic visit was five days. Problems detected were categorised according to their management options. GP clinic providers expressed concern about referring patients to GPs in the community for ongoing care. Conclusions: The Coffs Harbour Refugee Health Clinic represents a successful collaboration between relevant stakeholders. It was well utilised by the target community. Implications: The service delivery model used in the clinic could be replicated in other areas in regional Australia, provided financial and human resources are available. [source]

Prevalence of health behaviours in pregnancy at service entry in a Queensland health service district

Shelley A. Wilkinson
Abstract Objective: Limited prevalence data for unhealthy pregnancy health behaviours make it difficult to prioritise primary prevention efforts for maternal and infant health. This study's objective was to establish the prevalence of cigarette smoking, sufficient fruit and vegetable intake and sufficient physical activity among women accessing antenatal clinics in a Queensland (Australia) health service district. Method: Cross-sectional self-reported smoking status, daily fruit and vegetable intake, weekly physical activity and a range of socio-demographic variables were obtained from women recruited at their initial antenatal clinic visit, over a three-month recruitment phase during 2007. Results: Analyses were based on 262 pregnant women. The study sample was broadly representative of women giving birth in the district and state, with higher representation of women with low levels of education and high income. More than one quarter of women were smoking. Few women met the guidelines for sufficient fruit (9.2%), vegetables (2.7%) or physical activity (32.8%) during pregnancy. Conclusions: There were low levels of adherence to health behaviour recommendations for pregnancy in this sample. Implications: There is a clear need to develop and evaluate effective pregnancy behaviour interventions to improve primary prevention in maternal and infant health. Brief minimal contact interventions that can be delivered through primary care to create a greater primary prevention focus for maternal and infant health would be worth exploring. [source]

Early childhood factors influencing health-related quality of life in adolescents at 13 years

Elise Maher
Early childhood factors influencing health-related quality of life in adolescents at 13 years . Wilkins, A.J., O'Callaghan, M.J., Najman, J.M., Williams, G.M. & Shuttlewood, G. ( 2004 ) Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health40 , 102 , 109 . Objective To understand the relationship of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) to early life experience. Methodology Eight thousand five hundred and fifty-six women enrolled in a prospective study at their first antenatal clinic visit. At 13 years, of 5345 women remaining, a consecutive sample of 901 mother/child pairs provided data on adolescent HRQOL using the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Report form (CHQ-PF50) and the Dartmouth COOP Functional Assessment Charts for Adolescents. The CHQ-PF50 yielded physical (PHS) and psychosocial (PSS) summary scores. We examined the relationship between HRQOL and early childhood predictive variables. Results PHS was related to gestation, maternal health symptoms in pregnancy, maternal anxiety at 6 months, child health and hours of childcare at 5 years (P < 0.05). PSS was related to maternal age at index visit, maternal attitude to pregnancy, maternal satisfaction with caregiving and maternal depression at 6 months, and child health and behaviour problems at 5 years (internalizing and social/attentional/thought (SAT) domains) (P < 0.05). Findings from adolescent self-reports were similar. Conclusions This study has identified a number of early childhood determinants of adolescent HRQOL. These findings add to the evidence of the effects of early adversity on the developmental pathways of children and support the need for effective early intervention. [source]

Assessment of childhood diabetes-related quality-of-life in West Sweden

J E Chaplin
Abstract Aim: To investigate health-related quality-of-life (HrQoL) in childhood diabetes and the level of agreement between West Sweden and European reference data for the new multi-cultural European questionnaire , DISABKIDS. Method: Twenty percent of the Swedish paediatric diabetes population was included in the survey. Child-parent pairs completed the DISABKIDS chronic generic (37 questions) and diabetes modules (10 questions) during their routine clinic visit. A one-page results summary, based on positive domains, was used to provide feedback to clinicians. Results: Three hundred and sixty-one child-parent pairs were included in the analysis. In Sweden, diabetes was perceived by the children as having less impact than the European average. Swedish parents rated the HrQoL of their children lower than did the European parents. Swedish girls had a lower HrQoL than boys and greater difficulty accepting their diabetes; adolescents had greater difficulty accepting the diagnosis than younger children. Parents reported greater impact of diabetes on their children than the children themselves but reported no difference between boys and girls. Parents reported better acceptance of treatment in boys. The child's reported quality-of-life (QoL) is related to age and gender. Conclusion: Our results confirm the applicability of DISABKIDS to the Swedish paediatric diabetes population. [source]

Do patients require outpatient follow-up after rapid referral double contrast barium enema?

O. Odofin
Abstract Introduction, In our hospital, patients above the age of 40 years referred with a change in bowel habit without rectal bleeding undergo a double contrast barium enema (DCBE) ideally within 2 weeks. Results of benign studies are sent to a consultant colorectal surgeon and a routine clinic visit arranged. The aim of this study was to identify whether, following DCBE, patients (i) presented at a later date with colorectal cancer and (ii) needed assessment in clinic. Method, This is a review looking at all patients who underwent DCBE prior to routine clinic visit between January 2004 and December 2005. Hospital databases were cross-referenced to identify any patients presenting with a new diagnosis of colorectal malignancy between DCBE and April 2007. Clinic letters were reviewed to identify the number of outpatient visits prior to discharge and reasons for continued follow-up. Results, During the study period, 521 patients (age range 31,93 years, 316 female) had DCBE prior to assessment in clinic. Diagnoses: cancer 48 (9.2%), polyps 13 (2.5%), colitis 3 (0.6%), no significant pathology 457 (87.7%). Of this latter cohort, 387 (84.7%) were discharged after one clinic visit; 54 (11.9%) attended twice and 11 (2.4%) were seen more than twice. Reasons for multiple attendances were management of haemorrhoids/anal fissure or investigations of unrelated symptoms. No new cancers were identified in this cohort between January 2004 and April 2007. Conclusion, Double contrast barium enema is a safe screening tool following a ,2-week rule' referral with CIBH. Following a report of no significant pathology, there is no need to arrange routine follow-up. [source]

Evaluation of knowledge and anxiety level of patients visiting the colorectal pelvic floor clinic

J. C. G. Coolen
Abstract Objective, Discussing defaecating disorders is difficult for patients and many view anal physiology investigations (ultrasound, manometry, electromyography and pudendal nerve studies) as distasteful. This pilot study sought to assess whether present information sheets supplied to patients and the visit to the colorectal Pelvic Floor Clinic itself influenced patients' knowledge and anxiety. Patients and methods, Thirty Pelvic Floor Clinic patients from Auckland City Hospital were included. Each patient filled in a questionnaire before and after the clinic. This included objective questions about their knowledge of the structure and function of the pelvic floor and satisfaction with and understanding of the information sheet. Both visual analogue scale (VAS) and multiple choice questions (MCQ) were used. Their subjective and objective knowledge were compared. Anxiety was assessed on a visual analogue anxiety scale (VAAS). Results were expressed as VAS scores or percentage correct and relationships were tested using Fisher's Exact test and paired T -test. Results, Subjective knowledge increased in 93% of the patients. The doctor's explanation led to a greater increase in subjective knowledge than the information sheet (35/100 mm, P < 0.001 and 10/100 mm, P = 0.01, respectively). Subjective improvement in knowledge did not however, translate into an increase in objective knowledge (P = 0.63). The information sheet was read by 87% of the patients. The information sheet had reduced anxiety only in 23% of the patients and increased in 10%. Anxiety levels were not significantly influenced by the information sheet, but reduced significantly by the clinic visit in 87% of patients (P < 0.001). The mean anxiety level reduced from 44/100 to 12/100 after the clinic visit. Conclusion, Anxiety levels are high in those visiting the Pelvic Floor Clinic. It appears that it is the interaction with the doctor that has a profound influence on anxiety levels and subjective knowledge rather than written information. [source]

A randomized controlled trial of Sweet Talk, a text-messaging system to support young people with diabetes

V. L. Franklin
Abstract Aims To assess Sweet Talk, a text-messaging support system designed to enhance self-efficacy, facilitate uptake of intensive insulin therapy and improve glycaemic control in paediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes. Methods One hundred and twenty-six patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria; Type 1 diabetes for > 1 year, on conventional insulin therapy, aged 8,18 years. Ninety-two patients were randomized to conventional insulin therapy (n = 28), conventional therapy and Sweet Talk (n = 33) or intensive insulin therapy and Sweet Talk (n = 31). Goal-setting at clinic visits was reinforced by daily text-messages from the Sweet Talk software system, containing personalized goal-specific prompts and messages tailored to patients' age, sex and insulin regimen. Results HbA1c did not change in patients on conventional therapy without or with Sweet Talk (10.3 1.7 vs. 10.1 1.7%), but improved in patients randomized to intensive therapy and Sweet Talk (9.2 2.2%, 95% CI ,1.9, ,0.5, P < 0.001). Sweet Talk was associated with improvement in diabetes self-efficacy (conventional therapy 56.0 13.7, conventional therapy plus Sweet Talk 62.1 6.6, 95% CI +2.6, +7.5, P = 0.003) and self-reported adherence (conventional therapy 70.4 20.0, conventional therapy plus Sweet Talk 77.2 16.1, 95% CI +0.4, +17.4, P = 0.042). When surveyed, 82% of patients felt that Sweet Talk had improved their diabetes self-management and 90% wanted to continue receiving messages. Conclusions Sweet Talk was associated with improved self-efficacy and adherence; engaging a classically difficult to reach group of young people. While Sweet Talk alone did not improve glycaemic control, it may have had a role in supporting the introduction of intensive insulin therapy. Scheduled, tailored text messaging offers an innovative means of supporting adolescents with diabetes and could be adapted for other health-care settings and chronic diseases. [source]

European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the clinical management and treatment of HIV-infected adults

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 2 2008
N Clumeck
A working group of the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) have developed these guidelines for European clinicians to help them in the treatment of adults with HIV infection. This third version of the guidelines includes, as new topics, the assessment of patients at initial and subsequent clinic visits as well as post-exposure prophylaxis. A revision of the 2005 guidelines based on current data includes changes in the sections on primary HIV infection, when to initiate therapy, which drug combinations are preferred as initial combination regimens for antiretroviral-nave patients, how to manage virological failure and the treatment of HIV during pregnancy. In Europe, there is a wide range of clinical practices in antiretroviral therapy depending on various factors such as drug registration, national policies, local availability, reimbursement and access to treatment. These can vary greatly from one country to another, especially in Central and Eastern parts of Europe. These guidelines are intended to help clinicians achieve the best care for their patients. In some countries, particularly where the quality of and access to care are not optimal, these guidelines should help AIDS societies and physicians or patient group organizations to negotiate with their national health authorities with a view to implementing what should be the standard of care for HIV-infected patients all over Europe. [source]

The natural history of parallel transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunts using uncovered stent: the role of host-related factors

Ahmed Helmy
Abstract: Objectives: Parallel shunts (PS) are used in the management of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt (TIPS) insufficiency, a major limitation of the technique. This study describes the natural history of PS, and uses them as a model to assess the role of host factors in the development of primary shunt insufficiency. Methods: Out of 338 patients with TIPS, 40 (11.8%) patients required insertion of a PS. Baseline and follow-up data of these patients were collected. Regular shunt surveillance involved biannual clinic visits and transjugular portography. Results: The non-PS group (group 1; n=298) and the PS group (group 2; n=40) had similar baseline demographic and disease characteristics. Index shunts of both groups and the PS produced a significant portal pressure gradient drop (P<0.001), which was less in the index shunts of Group 2 (P<0.02 for both). PS had similar cumulative shunt patency rates to those of the index shunts of Group 1, and both were greater than those of index shunts in Group 2 (P<0.001 for both). The intervention rate (number of interventions/number of check portograms 100) was similar for PS and the index shunts of Group 1 (38.7% and 43% respectively), but was significantly higher in the index shunts of Group 2 (85.6%; P<0.01 for both). In Group 1 and Group 2, 144 patients (48.3%) and 21 patients (52.5%) died during follow-up after a median period of 23.4 and 8.9 months respectively. Conclusions: These findings do not support the hypothesis that shunt insufficiency is related to host factors. [source]

Parent-Child Relations Among Minor Females Attending U.S. Family Planning Clinics

Rachel K. Jones
CONTEXT: Relatively little is known about parent-child relations among minor females who use family planning clinics. Such information could inform the debate on parental involvement legislation and help clinics develop effective strategies to promote positive parental engagement. METHODS: Self-administered surveys were completed in 2003,2004 by 1,526 women younger than 18 attending 79 U.S. family planning clinics, providing measures of parent-child relations, perceived parental attitudes toward sex and birth control, and parental knowledge of the clinic visit. Associations between relationships with parents and parental knowledge of clinic visits were examined using t tests and logistic regression. RESULTS: Many adolescents had talked to parents about sexual issues (50,80%, depending on the topic) and reported high levels of connectedness with parents (68%). A substantial minority (19%) perceived that parents disapprove of their both having sex and using birth control. The majority (60%) reported that a parent knew of their clinic visit; such reports were most common among those who had high levels of connectedness to parents and communication with parents about sexual issues, and those who did not perceive parents to disapprove of sex and birth control. Adolescents aged 15 and younger were more likely than 17-year-olds to indicate that a parent knew they were at the clinic and to report that a parent suggested the clinic. CONCLUSIONS Overall, minors attending family planning clinics have good relations with parents. The youngest adolescents may be at family planning clinics specifically because parents are involved in their reproductive health decisions. [source]

Associated factors of rehospitalization among schizophrenic patients

Abstract, The purpose of the present study was to identify the associated factors of rehospitalization in schizophrenic patients. A case-control study was conducted. The cases consisted of rehospitalized patients (n = 67) and controls selected from the outpatients who were matched by age, gender, and the period after the last discharge (n = 62). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, no clinic visits in the second month prior to entry, the number of clinic visits in the previous month, and junior high school graduation as education level were significantly (P < 0.01) associated with rehospitalization after controlling their present function as assessed by the Global Assessment of Functioning. Close monitoring of clinic visits and outreach service appear to be important in preventing rehospitalization of schizophrenic patients. These identified modifiable factors suggest further needs for development and implementation of integrated mental health services in the community. [source]

Antenatal home blood pressure monitoring: a pilot randomised controlled trial

H. Ross-McGill Research Midwife
Objective To measure recruitment to, compliance with, and the acceptability of a trial designed to test whether a reduced schedule of antenatal visits combined with training in self-measurement of blood pressure at home may improve hypertension screening and save money. To test the specific hypothesis that even after taking into account extra unscheduled visits, the reduced schedule with ambulatory monitoring reduces total visits. Design A pilot randomised controlled trial. Setting Four urban and four rural general practices in Yorkshire and Lancashire. Population One hundred and five low risk women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Eighty women participated. Intervention Women were invited to participate at 24,28 weeks. Those who accepted were allocated either to a standard nine subsequent visit schedule (30, 32, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 weeks) or to a reduced schedule (34, 38, 41 weeks). Those in the latter group measured their blood pressure weekly using a portable sphygmomanometer at home. Main outcome measures Recruitment, total number of clinic visits, frequency of blood pressure measurement, schedule preference, and anxiety. Results Although there were more unscheduled visits in the home monitoring group, this did not outweigh the reduction in scheduled visits, (total visits reduced from 7.4 to 4.5, P < 0.001), and blood pressure was measured during more weeks (9 vs 7 weeks, P < 0.001) in the experimental group. Most women expressed a preference for the reduced schedule both when the idea was first suggested, and after they had experienced it, and there were no significant differences in anxiety. Conclusion Replacement of antenatal screening visits with home blood pressure monitoring is acceptable to women. The reduction in clinic visits is not compensated by an increase in visits for other reasons and overall blood pressure measurement is omitted less often. Whether it reduces adverse outcomes or has any rare side effects will require a larger trial, but this pilot study indicates that it is likely to be safe, and that such a large trial would be feasible. [source]