Child Care (child + care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Child Care

  • early child care

  • Terms modified by Child Care

  • child care center
  • child care social work

  • Selected Abstracts


    THE EFFECT OF MATERNAL EMPLOYMENT AND CHILD CARE ON CHILDREN'S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT,

    INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 4 2008
    Raquel Bernal
    This article develops and estimates a dynamic model of employment and child care decisions of women after childbirth to evaluate the effects of these choices on children's cognitive ability. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate it. Results indicate that the effects of maternal employment and child care on children's ability are negative and sizable. Having a mother that works full-time and uses child care during one year is associated with a reduction in ability test scores of approximately 1.8% (0.13 standard deviations). We assess the impact of policies related to parental leave and child care on children's outcomes. [source]


    Books and Materials Reviews

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2001
    Article first published online: 19 FEB 200
    Baumeister, R. F. (Ed.). (1999). The Self in Social Psychology. Carter, B., & McGoldrick, M. (1999). The Expanded Family Life Cycle: Individual, Family, and Social Perspectives. Dwyer, D. (2000). Interpersonal Relationships. Knauer, S. (2000). No Ordinary Life: Parenting the Sexually Abused Child and Adolescent. McNair-Blatt, S. (2000). A Guidebook for Raising Foster Children. Stafford-Upshaw, F., & Myers-Walls, J. A. (1999). Learning Centers in Child Care Settings. Seymour, S. C. (1999). Women, Family and Child Care in India: A World in Transition. Berger, R. (1998). Stepfamilies: A Multi-Dimensional Perspective. [source]


    The Value of Employer-Sponsored Child Care to Employees

    INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, Issue 4 2004
    Rachel Connelly
    This article uses the contingent valuation method for calculating the value of employer-sponsored child care to employees. Like many environmental amenities, there may be a nonuse or existence value of working for a company that offers employer-sponsored child care (ESCC), as well as a use value to parents who have children in the center. We test this hypothesis using data from three firms, two of which have on-site child care. Our findings indicate that price is a determinant of willingness to pay for the continued existence or establishment of an on-site center. We find evidence of the existence value, even for employees without young children, and a greater valuation among recent hires than among longer-term employees. [source]


    Do maternal stress and home environment mediate the relation between early income-to-need and 54-months attentional abilities?

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2007
    Janean E. Dilworth-Bart
    Abstract Using Ecological Systems Theory and stage sequential modelling procedures for detecting mediation, this study examined how early developmental contexts impact preschoolers' performances on a measure of sustained attention and impulse control. Data from 1273 European-American and African-American participants in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care were used to identify the potential mediators of the relation between early household income-to-need (INR) and 54-month impulsivity and inattention. Exploratory analyses were also conducted to determine whether the relationships between early income, home environment, parenting stress, and the outcome variables differ for African-American versus European-American-American children. We found modest support for the study hypothesis that 36-month home environment quality mediated the INR/attention relationship. INR accounted for more home environment score variance and home environment accounted for more Impulsivity score variance for African-American children. Home environments were related to inattention in the European-American, but not African-American, group. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Familial Factors Associated With the Use of Multiple Child-Care Arrangements

    JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 2 2008
    Taryn W. Morrissey
    This study examined the use of multiple, concurrent, nonparental child-care arrangements among children under 5 with employed mothers in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N= 759). Older children, those primarily cared for in informal child care, those living in cohabitating or single-parent households, and those whose mothers were employed for 40 or fewer hours per week were likely to be in multiple arrangements. Higher quality primary child-care and lower maternal satisfaction with primary care predicted the subsequent use of multiple arrangements. Little support for income differences in selection into multiple arrangements was found. Findings highlight the importance of child-care characteristics and structure in child-care choice. Policy implications are discussed. [source]


    Child Care and Work Absences: Trade-Offs by Type of Care

    JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 1 2008
    Rachel A. Gordon
    Parents face a trade-off in the effect of child-care problems on employment. Whereas large settings may increase problems because of child illness, small group care may relate to provider unavailability. Analyzing the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, we find that child-care centers and large family day care lead to mothers' greater work absences because of a sick child, but not to maternal job exits. Greater work absences because of unavailability of small home-based providers are associated with mothers' job exits, especially when mothers have low earnings and use nonrelative caregivers. Our findings accentuate the need for improved hygiene practices in child care, expanded personal leave coverage for parents, and greater backup care for sick and well children. [source]


    Taking Pressure Off Families: Child-Care Subsidies Lessen Mothers' Work-Hour Problems

    JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 1 2006
    Julie E. Press
    We use the Philadelphia Survey of Child Care and Work to model the effect of child-care subsidies and other ecological demands and resources on the work hour, shift, and overtime problems of 191 low-income urban mothers. Comparing subsidy applicants who do and do not receive cash payments for child care, we find that mothers who receive subsidies are 21% less likely to experience at least one work hour,related problem on the job. Our results suggest that child-care subsidies do more than allow women to enter the labor force. Subsidies help make it easier for mothers in low-wage labor both to comply with employer demands for additional work hours and to earn the needed wages that accompany them. [source]


    Longitudinal Studies of Anger and Attention Span: Context and Informant Effects

    JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 2 2010
    Jungmeen Kim
    ABSTRACT This study examined stabilities of informant and context (home vs. classroom) latent factors regarding anger and attention. Participants included children from the National Institute of Child Health and Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development who were measured at 54 months, first grade, and third grade. Latent factors of anger and attention span were structured using different indicators based on mothers', fathers', caregivers', teachers', and observers' reports. We used structural equation modeling to examine the autoregressive effects within a context (stability), the concurrent associations between home and classroom contexts, and informant effects. The results indicated that for both anger and attention (1) there were significant informant effects that influenced stability in a context, (2) there was higher stability in home context than nonhome context, and (3) stability within a context increased over time. The findings suggested that anger was more prone to context effects and informant effects than attention. [source]


    An Analysis of Kin-Provided Child Care in the Context of Intrafamily Exchanges

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS AND SOCIOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    Linking Components of Family Support for Parents Raising Young Children
    Little is known about why parents choose kin-provided child care and less is known about how kin-provided child care is related to other forms of in-kind support from relatives close-at-hand. Previous models of the choice of kin-provided child care assumed that the presence of other forms of in-kind support from relatives nearby was inconsequential to estimating effects of economic and demographic factors on the decision to use kin-provided child care. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of the Class of 1972, this study shows that this assumption is incorrect because use of kin-provided child care and intrafamily in-kind resource exchanges are interrelated. When the association between use of kin-provided child care and the presence of other family in-kind exchanges is ignored, the study shows that estimated effects for income, the price of child care, and maternal characteristics are underestimated. The findings provide a better understanding of why parents choose kin-provided child care by confirming that this decision is a part of a larger set of parental decisions about involvement in resource exchanges within extended families. My findings support recent child care bills aiming to increase parental choice of child care provider, broaden the definition of a provider to include non-coresident relatives, and expand price subsidies for kin-provided child care. [source]


    Maternal Work and Child Care in China: A Multi-Method Analysis

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW, Issue 1 2002
    Susan E. Short
    The majority of women in China, including mothers of young children, are in the labor force. This article investigates the relationship between mothers' work and child care and explores how type of work affects level of involvement in children's care. Substantive understandings of the relationship between mothers' work and child care may well depend on the way work is conceptualized and measured, especially nonwage work. Nearly two-thirds of women in China live in rural areas, where nonwage work predominates. Analysis of data from eight provinces indicates that wage workers spend less time in child care, but so do women with heavy nonwage demands. Women's involvement in multiple economic activities has consequences for both work-child care compatibility and work intensity, and may be especially important in efforts to categorize women's work in industrializing economies. Because the majority of the world's women do not work in the wage sector, the implications of these findings extend beyond China. [source]


    The Course and Quality of Intimate Relationships Among Psychologically Distressed Mothers

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 1 2010
    Lauren M. Papp
    The longitudinal course and quality of intimate relationships were tested in relation to maternal depressive symptoms in a sample of 1,275 families from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Assessments of mothers' intimate relationship status, intimate relationship quality, and depressive symptoms were obtained on 11 occasions from the birth of a child through age 15. Consistent with predictions, results from hierarchical linear models indicated that maternal depressive symptoms over time were associated with a lower probability of being married and lower levels of relationship quality. The strength of the association between relationship quality and depression was stronger than the linkage between relationship course and depression. Sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., mother age, child gender, ethnicity) were more predictive of trajectories of relationship course than relationship quality. Findings are discussed in terms of efforts to prevent and treat the longitudinal interplay between poor intimate relationship functioning and partners' psychopathology and its implications for the overall health and well-being of parents, couples, and children. [source]


    Children, Labour Supply and Child Care: Challenges for Empirical Analysis

    THE AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 3 2009
    Guyonne Kalb
    The aim of this article is to give an overview of the important issues relating to the labour supply of the primary carer in a household. Child care plays a central role in allowing the primary carer time away from the young children in a household. Therefore, child-care use is a central topic of this article, as well. There are a number of different aspects to child care, such as the price, quality, availability and type of service. This article discusses the analytical problems and challenges, taking Australian data, policy and experience as a focus, but drawing on a wide range of international empirical studies. It reports the results from previous research on child-care use and labour supply and it outlines the areas requiring more study. The focus of the article is on economic research. [source]


    Emanuel Miller Lecture Developmental Risks (Still) Associated with Early Child Care

    THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 7 2001
    Jay Belsky
    In the mid to late 1980s a major controversy erupted when Belsky's (1986, 1988, 1990) analysis of research produced the conclusion that early and extensive nonmaternal care carried risks in terms of increasing the probability of insecure infant-parent attachment relationships and promoting aggression and noncompliance during the toddler, preschool, and early primary school years. Widespread critiques of Belsky's analysis called attention to problems associated with the Strange Situation procedure for measuring attachment security in the case of day-care reared children and to the failure of much of the cited research to take into consideration child-care quality and control for background factors likely to make children with varying child-care experiences developmentally different in the first place. In this lecture, research concerning the developmental effects of child care and maternal employment initiated in the first year of life that has emerged since the controversy broke is reviewed. Evidence indicating that early, extensive, and continuous nonmaternal care is associated with less harmonious parent-child relations and elevated levels of aggression and noncompliance suggests that concerns raised about early and extensive child care 15 years ago remain valid and that alternative explanations of Belsky's originally controversial conclusion do not account for seemingly adverse effects of routine nonmaternal care that continue to be reported in the literature. [source]


    Differential Effects of Maternal Sensitivity to Infant Distress and Nondistress on Social-Emotional Functioning

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2009
    Esther M. Leerkes
    Associations between maternal sensitivity to infant distress and nondistress and infant social-emotional adjustment were examined in a subset of dyads from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N = 376). Mothers reported on infant temperament at 1 and 6 months postpartum, and maternal sensitivity to distress and nondistress were observed at 6 months. Child behavior problems, social competence, and affect dysregulation were measured at 24 and 36 months. Maternal sensitivity to distress but not to nondistress was related to fewer behavioral problems and higher social competence. In addition, for temperamentally reactive infants, maternal sensitivity to distress was associated with less affect dysregulation. Sensitivity to nondistress only prevented affect dysregulation if sensitivity to distress was also high. [source]


    A Process Model of Attachment,Friend Linkages: Hostile Attribution Biases, Language Ability, and Mother,Child Affective Mutuality as Intervening Mechanisms

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2008
    Nancy L. McElwain
    This study identified mechanisms through which child,mother attachment security at 36 months was associated with mother- and teacher-reported friendship quality at 3rd grade. Data from a subsample of 1,071 children (536 boys) participating in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were used. Separate structural equation models were tested for mother and teacher reports of peer functioning. For both models, the total indirect effect between attachment security and friendship quality was significant. Tests of specific indirect effects indicated that attachment security was associated with friendship quality via greater mother,child affective mutuality and better language ability at 54 months and fewer hostile attributions (teacher model only) and greater peer competence at first grade. The findings highlight interpersonal and intrapersonal mechanisms of attachment,friend linkages. [source]


    Infant Temperament Moderates Relations Between Maternal Parenting in Early Childhood and Children's Adjustment in First Grade

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2008
    Anne Dopkins Stright
    A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, the current study found that temperament moderated associations between maternal parenting styles during early childhood and children's first-grade academic competence, social skills, and relationships with teachers and peers. Relations between parenting and first-grade outcomes were stronger for difficult than for less difficult infants. Infants with difficult temperaments had better adjustment than less difficult infants when parenting quality was high and poorer adjustment when parenting quality was lower. [source]


    Child Care in Poor Communities: Early Learning Effects of Type, Quality, and Stability

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2004
    Susanna Loeb
    Young children in poor communities are spending more hours in nonparental care because of policy reforms and expansion of early childhood programs. Studies show positive effects of high-quality center-based care on children's cognitive growth. Yet, little is known about the effects of center care typically available in poor communities or the effects of home-based care. Using a sample of children who were between 12 and 42 months when their mothers entered welfare-to-work programs, this paper finds positive cognitive effects for children in center care. Children also display stronger cognitive growth when caregivers are more sensitive and responsive, and stronger social development when providers have education beyond high school. Children in family child care homes show more behavioral problems but no cognitive differences. [source]


    Does Amount of Time Spent in Child Care Predict Socioemotional Adjustment During the Transition to Kindergarten?

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2003
    Early Child Care Research Network, Human Development, National Institute of Child Health
    To examine relations between time in nonmaternal care through the first 4.5 years of life and children's socioemotional adjustment, data on social competence and problem behavior were examined when children participating in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care were 4.5 years of age and when in kindergarten. The more time children spent in any of a variety of nonmaternal care arrangements across the first 4.5 years of life, the more externalizing problems and conflict with adults they manifested at 54 months of age and in kindergarten, as reported by mothers, caregivers, and teachers. These effects remained, for the most part, even when quality, type, and instability of child care were controlled, and when maternal sensitivity and other family background factors were taken into account. The magnitude of quantity of care effects were modest and smaller than those of maternal sensitivity and indicators of family socioeconomic status, though typically greater than those of other features of child care, maternal depression, and infant temperament. There was no apparent threshold for quantity effects. More time in care not only predicted problem behavior measured on a continuous scale in a dose-response pattern but also predicted at-risk (though not clinical) levels of problem behavior, as well as assertiveness, disobedience, and aggression. [source]


    Change in Family Income-to-Needs Matters More for Children with Less

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2001
    Eric Dearing
    Hierarchical linear modeling was used to model the dynamics of family income-to-needs for participants of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care (N= 1,364) from the time that children were 1 through 36 months of age. Associations between change in income-to-needs and 36-month child outcomes (i.e., school readiness, receptive language, expressive language, positive social behavior, and behavior problems) were examined. Although change in income-to-needs proved to be of little importance for children from nonpoor families, it proved to be of great importance for children from poor families. For children in poverty, decreases in income-to-needs were associated with worse outcomes and increases were associated with better outcomes. In fact, when children from poor families experienced increases in income-to-needs that were at least 1 SD above the mean change for poor families, they displayed outcomes similar to their nonpoor peers. The practical importance and policy implications of these findings are discussed. [source]


    Child care before 6 months of age: a qualitative study of mothers' decisions and feelings about employment and non-maternal care

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2006
    Penelope Leach
    Abstract Employment of women while their children are infants has increased in the UK in the last decade. This study of 57 employed mothers of infants less than seven months old examined their retrospective reports of planning child care and their contemporaneous feelings about the child care they were using, based on qualitative interviews. Issues addressed included mothers' reasons for returning to employment at that time, their theoretical preferences among a range of child care types and providers and the process of making actual choices, including the range and types of advice received and the involvement of fathers. Mothers were also encouraged to discuss their feelings about how child care was working out once the infant was settled. Continuing concerns expressed by mothers included the importance of open communication with caregivers, their desire to keep control over infants' daily lives and upbringing, worries about infants' safety and concerns about the levels of cognitive stimulation they received. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Persistent Policy Effects on the Division of Domestic Tasks in Reunified Germany

    JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 4 2007
    Lynn Prince Cooke
    We are only beginning to unravel the mechanisms by which the division of domestic tasks varies in its sociopolitical context. Selecting couples from the German SocioEconomic Panel who married between 1990 and 1995 in the former East and West regions of Germany and following them until 2000 (N= 348 couples), I find evidence of direct, interaction, and contextual effects predicting husbands' hours in and share of household tasks but not child care. East German men perform a greater share of household tasks than West German men after controlling for individual attributes and regional factors. Child care remains more gendered, and the first child's age proves the most important predictor of fathers' involvement. These findings further our understanding of how the state shapes gender equity in the home. [source]


    Children, Labour Supply and Child Care: Challenges for Empirical Analysis

    THE AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 3 2009
    Guyonne Kalb
    The aim of this article is to give an overview of the important issues relating to the labour supply of the primary carer in a household. Child care plays a central role in allowing the primary carer time away from the young children in a household. Therefore, child-care use is a central topic of this article, as well. There are a number of different aspects to child care, such as the price, quality, availability and type of service. This article discusses the analytical problems and challenges, taking Australian data, policy and experience as a focus, but drawing on a wide range of international empirical studies. It reports the results from previous research on child-care use and labour supply and it outlines the areas requiring more study. The focus of the article is on economic research. [source]


    Childcare Subsidies and the Transition from Welfare to Work,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 2 2004
    Sandra K. Danziger
    We address how childcare subsidies help in the welfare-to-work transition relative to other factors. We examine how the policy operates, whether childcare problems differ by subsidy receipt, and the effect of subsidy on work. Data are from a random sample panel study of welfare recipients after 1996. Findings show that subsidy receipt reduces costs but not parenting stress or problems with care. It predicts earnings and work duration net of other factors. Increased use of subsidies by eligible families and greater funding for child care would help meet the demand for this important support for working-poor families. [source]


    Beyond the center: Intel gives employees more choices through family child care

    GLOBAL BUSINESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL EXCELLENCE, Issue 4 2005
    Adam Sorensen
    Flexibility and cost effectiveness became priorities for semiconductor giant Intel when it sought employee child care options in the midst of its worst business downturn. An innovative solution leverages community resources at Intel sites around the country to offer locally managed home-based programs as an alternative to center-based child care. In the process, the new program has improved the quality of at-home child care, created more child care spaces, and given providers access to more clients and resources, to the benefit of the community as a whole. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Family-friendly work practices in Britain: Availability and perceived accessibility

    HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2006
    John W. Budd
    Using linked data for British workplaces and employees, we find a low base rate of workplace-level availability, and a substantially lower rate of individual-level perceived accessibility, for five family-friendly work practices' parental leave, paid leave, job sharing, subsidized child care, and working at home. Our results demonstrate that statistics on workplace availability drastically overstate the extent to which employees perceive that family-friendly policies are accessible to them personally. British workplaces appear to be responding slowly, and perhaps disingenuously, to pressures to enhance family-friendly work practices. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    The Value of Employer-Sponsored Child Care to Employees

    INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, Issue 4 2004
    Rachel Connelly
    This article uses the contingent valuation method for calculating the value of employer-sponsored child care to employees. Like many environmental amenities, there may be a nonuse or existence value of working for a company that offers employer-sponsored child care (ESCC), as well as a use value to parents who have children in the center. We test this hypothesis using data from three firms, two of which have on-site child care. Our findings indicate that price is a determinant of willingness to pay for the continued existence or establishment of an on-site center. We find evidence of the existence value, even for employees without young children, and a greater valuation among recent hires than among longer-term employees. [source]


    Child care before 6 months of age: a qualitative study of mothers' decisions and feelings about employment and non-maternal care

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2006
    Penelope Leach
    Abstract Employment of women while their children are infants has increased in the UK in the last decade. This study of 57 employed mothers of infants less than seven months old examined their retrospective reports of planning child care and their contemporaneous feelings about the child care they were using, based on qualitative interviews. Issues addressed included mothers' reasons for returning to employment at that time, their theoretical preferences among a range of child care types and providers and the process of making actual choices, including the range and types of advice received and the involvement of fathers. Mothers were also encouraged to discuss their feelings about how child care was working out once the infant was settled. Continuing concerns expressed by mothers included the importance of open communication with caregivers, their desire to keep control over infants' daily lives and upbringing, worries about infants' safety and concerns about the levels of cognitive stimulation they received. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Family and work predictors of parenting role stress among two-earner families of children with disabilities

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2005
    Marji Erickson Warfield
    Abstract Family resources (i.e. household income and spouse support), parenting challenges (i.e. number of children, difficulty finding reliable child care, and child characteristics), work rewards (i.e. work interest) and work demands (i.e. hours and work overload) were tested as predictors of parenting role stress among mothers and fathers in two-earner families of five-year old children with disabilities. The two-level hierarchical model was adapted to assess mothers and fathers as nested within married couples. Both common and unique predictors of maternal and paternal parenting role stress were found. Having fewer children in the family predicted less stress for both parents. Household income and an interaction between child behaviour problems and work interest were significant predictors of maternal parenting role stress. In contrast, greater difficulty in finding reliable child care predicted higher levels of parenting role stress for fathers but not mothers. The policy and research implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Exposure to child care, parenting style and attachment security

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2004
    Yvonne M. Caldera
    The present study addressed whether security of attachment is differentiated by quality of parenting and quantity of exposure to child care. Sixty mothers participated with their 14-month-old infants, who by the age of 12-months had received either exclusive maternal care, or varying degrees of exposure to child care. Levels of attachment security were assessed through maternal completion of the Attachment Q-Set(AQS); parenting quality was assessed through observations of mother,infant interactions during structured tasks. The scores that less sensitive mothers assign their toddlers is higher when their children are in child care for more hours per week; whereas the scores that more sensitive mothers assign their toddlers is lower when their children are in child care for more hours per week. These contrasting patterns suggest that the effects of parenting style on attachment security are moderated by quantity of exposure to child care. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Supervision and training in child care: Does reflective supervision foster caregiver insightfulness?,

    INFANT MENTAL HEALTH JOURNAL, Issue 1 2010
    Elita Amini Virmani
    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of reflective and traditional supervision and training on caregiver insightfulness. Caregiver insightfulness, or caregiver ability to understand "motives underlying the child's behavior in a complete, open, and accepting way" (D. Oppenheim, D. Goldsmith, & N. Koren-Karie, 2004, p. 352) was assessed at two time points with 21 new caregivers at two university-based childcare sites. Trends suggest that caregiver insightfulness was relatively stable while increased levels of components of caregiver insightfulness over a period of approximately 2.5 months were positively associated with reflective supervision and training. These findings suggest that encouraging caregivers to reflect on their interactions with the children in their care fosters caregivers' ability to see from the child's perspective in an open and accepting way. [source]