Children

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Children

  • AIDS-orphan child
  • English-speak child
  • HIV-infect child
  • Medicaid-enroll child
  • School-Age child
  • Torre strait islander child
  • aboriginal child
  • abused child
  • additional child
  • adhd child
  • adolescent child
  • adopted child
  • adult child
  • affected child
  • african american child
  • african child
  • african-american child
  • after child
  • age child
  • age-matched child
  • aggressive child
  • allergic asthmatic child
  • allergic child
  • american child
  • another child
  • anxious child
  • asian child
  • asthmatic child
  • asylum-seeking child
  • asymptomatic child
  • at-risk child
  • atopic child
  • australian child
  • autistic child
  • background child
  • bilingual child
  • biological child
  • birthweight child
  • black child
  • brazilian child
  • british child
  • canadian child
  • caucasian child
  • cd child
  • cf child
  • chinese child
  • comparing child
  • comparison child
  • conclusion child
  • consecutive child
  • control child
  • czech child
  • danish child
  • deaf child
  • dependent child
  • developing child
  • diabetic child
  • diagnosed child
  • disabled child
  • disadvantaged child
  • disordered child
  • ds child
  • dutch child
  • dyslexic child
  • egyptian child
  • elementary school child
  • eligible child
  • epileptic child
  • european child
  • exposed child
  • febrile child
  • female child
  • fewer child
  • fifth-grade child
  • finnish child
  • first child
  • first-born child
  • firstborn child
  • five-year-old child
  • food allergic child
  • food-allergic child
  • forty-one child
  • foster child
  • french child
  • full-term child
  • german child
  • grade child
  • haemophilic child
  • healthy child
  • healthy control child
  • hearing-impaired child
  • high-risk child
  • hispanic child
  • hiv-positive child
  • hospitalized child
  • human child
  • i child
  • ii child
  • ill child
  • immigrant child
  • immunocompetent child
  • immunocompromised child
  • impaired child
  • index child
  • indian child
  • indigenous child
  • individual child
  • infected child
  • injured child
  • inner-city child
  • involving child
  • islander child
  • israeli child
  • italian child
  • japanese child
  • jordanian child
  • kenyan child
  • kindergarten child
  • korean child
  • lankan child
  • latino child
  • least one child
  • looked after child
  • low birthweight child
  • low-income child
  • malawian child
  • male child
  • malnourished child
  • maltreated child
  • many child
  • maori child
  • methods child
  • mexican child
  • migrant child
  • minority child
  • monolingual child
  • month old child
  • month-old child
  • nation child
  • native child
  • negative child
  • new zealand child
  • newborn child
  • no child
  • non-aboriginal child
  • non-asthmatic child
  • non-diabetic child
  • non-disabled child
  • non-obese child
  • nonasthmatic child
  • nonexposed child
  • normal child
  • norwegian child
  • obese child
  • obese japanese child
  • old child
  • older child
  • one affected child
  • one child
  • only child
  • only one child
  • other child
  • overweight child
  • own child
  • pacific child
  • participating child
  • particular child
  • polish child
  • poor child
  • portuguese child
  • positive child
  • pre-adolescent child
  • pre-pubertal child
  • pre-school child
  • preadolescent child
  • premature child
  • prepubertal child
  • preschool child
  • preschool-age child
  • preschool-aged child
  • preterm child
  • preverbal child
  • previous child
  • primary school child
  • pubertal child
  • refugee child
  • result child
  • rican child
  • right-handed child
  • rural child
  • safeguarding child
  • same child
  • saudi child
  • school age child
  • school child
  • school-age child
  • school-aged child
  • second child
  • secondary school child
  • selected child
  • sensitized child
  • sga child
  • short child
  • sick child
  • singleton child
  • six-year-old child
  • small child
  • south african child
  • south australian child
  • spanish child
  • sri lankan child
  • strait islander child
  • study child
  • support child
  • surviving child
  • susceptible child
  • swedish child
  • symptomatic child
  • taiwanese child
  • term child
  • thai child
  • their child
  • time child
  • traumatized child
  • treated child
  • treating child
  • turkish child
  • type 1 diabetic child
  • u.s. child
  • uk child
  • undernourished child
  • underweight child
  • uninfected child
  • uninsured child
  • untreated child
  • urban child
  • urban school child
  • us child
  • vaccinated child
  • ventilator-dependent child
  • very preterm child
  • very young child
  • vlbw child
  • vulnerable child
  • way child
  • weight child
  • wheezing child
  • wheezy child
  • white child
  • year old child
  • young adult child
  • young child
  • younger child
  • youngest child
  • yr-old child
  • zealand child

  • Terms modified by Children

  • child ability
  • child abuse
  • child act
  • child activity
  • child adjustment
  • child age
  • child aggression
  • child allowance
  • child and adolescent mental health
  • child and adolescent mental health service
  • child and adolescent mental health services
  • child and adolescent psychiatry
  • child behavior
  • child behavior checklist
  • child behavior problem
  • child behaviour
  • child behaviour checklist
  • child behaviour problem
  • child being
  • child best interest
  • child birth
  • child care
  • child care center
  • child care social work
  • child characteristic
  • child cohort study
  • child communication
  • child condition
  • child conflict
  • child custody dispute
  • child custody evaluation
  • child death
  • child development
  • child development study
  • child development supplement
  • child diagnosis
  • child dyad
  • child education
  • child environment
  • child exhibiting
  • child experience
  • child exposure
  • child factor
  • child first
  • child form
  • child functioning
  • child gender
  • child group
  • child groups
  • child growth
  • child health
  • child health care
  • child health centre
  • child health clinic
  • child health nurse
  • child health outcome
  • child health questionnaire
  • child health record
  • child health services
  • child health status
  • child home
  • child hospitalization
  • child illness
  • child interaction
  • child iq
  • child labor
  • child labour
  • child level
  • child life
  • child malnutrition
  • child maltreatment
  • child measure
  • child mental health
  • child mortality
  • child mother
  • child neglect
  • child neurologist
  • child neurology
  • child nutrition
  • child older
  • child only
  • child oral health
  • child outcome
  • child pain
  • child pair
  • child participation
  • child patient
  • child physical abuse
  • child play
  • child population
  • child poverty
  • child poverty rate
  • child present
  • child problem
  • child protection
  • child protection case
  • child protection practice
  • child protection services
  • child protection system
  • child protection work
  • child protective services
  • child psychiatric disorders
  • child psychiatrist
  • child psychiatry
  • child psychopathology
  • child psychotherapy
  • child quality
  • child rating
  • child rearing
  • child relationship
  • child relationship quality
  • child relationships
  • child report
  • child resident
  • child school
  • child score
  • child self-report
  • child sex
  • child sexual abuse
  • child sexual abuse case
  • child soldier
  • child study
  • child support
  • child support enforcement
  • child support guideline
  • child survey
  • child survival
  • child survivor
  • child temperament
  • child transmission
  • child undergoing mri
  • child used
  • child variable
  • child version
  • child victim
  • child voice
  • child weight
  • child welfare
  • child welfare agencies
  • child welfare system
  • child well-being
  • child witness
  • child worldwide
  • child younger

  • Selected Abstracts


    THE DIVIDED WORLD OF THE CHILD: DIVORCE AND LONG-TERM PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 3 2010
    Gordon E. Finley
    This study evaluated the extent to which divorce creates the "divided world of the child," as well as consequences of this "divided world" for long-term adjustment. An ethnically diverse sample of 1,375 young-adult university students completed retrospective measures of parental nurturance and involvement, and current measures of psychosocial adjustment and troubled ruminations about parents. Results indicated that reports of maternal and paternal nurturance and involvement were closely related in intact families but uncorrelated in divorced families. Across family forms, the total amount of nurturance or involvement received was positively associated with self-esteem, purpose in life, life satisfaction, friendship quality and satisfaction, and academic performance; and negatively related to distress, romantic relationship problems, and troubled ruminations about parents. Mother-father differences in nurturance and involvement showed a largely opposite set of relationships. Implications for family court practices are discussed. [source]


    A LAWYER FOR EVERY CHILD: CLIENT-DIRECTED REPRESENTATION IN DEPENDENCY CASES

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 4 2009
    LaShanda Taylor
    The article begins with a due process analysis concluding that children are legally entitled to counsel and continues by presenting examples of federal and state legislation, court decisions, and public policy arguments that support this right. The article then goes a step further to advocate for a traditional, client-directed model of representation, which empowers children and leads to better judicial decision making. Finally, the article discusses the impact of high caseloads and lack of training on attorney performance. This article serves as an important addition to the academic literature examining the need for and role of the child's attorney in dependency proceedings. [source]


    THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD AND THE NEED FOR ITS INCORPORATION INTO A BILL OF RIGHTS

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2006
    Hon. Alastair Nicholson
    In this article I discuss the failure of most democratic countries to accept or properly implement the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, despite, except in the case of the United States, having ratified it. I consider the domestic implementation of treaties. I discuss, from an Australian perspective, that country's failure to enact a Bill of Rights and argue that children in Australia have suffered as a result. I also discuss judicial approaches to international law and compare the situation in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and New Zealand and suggest that even in those countries that do have a Bill of Rights, it is not oriented toward children and therefore does not properly recognize their rights. [source]


    COMMENTARY ON KELLY AND JOHNSTON'S "THE ALIENATED CHILD: A REFORMULATION OF PARENTAL ALIENATION SYNDROME"

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 4 2004
    Richard A. Gardner
    In a previous issue of this journal, Joan B. Kelly and Janet R. Johnston describe their reformulation of the parental alienation syndrome (PAS). Here, I present areas in which I agree with the authors and areas in which I disagree. Particular focus is placed on these PAS-related issues: the syndrome question, PAS versus parental alienation, the medical model, custodial transfer, gender bias, DSM-IV. empirical studies, and the misapplication of PAS. [source]


    REJOINDER TO GARDNER'S "COMMENTARY ON KELLY AND JOHNSTON'S ,THE ALIENATED CHILD: A REFORMULATION OF PARENTAL ALIENATION SYNDROME'"

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 4 2004
    Janet R. Johnston
    In this reply to Richard Gardner, we outline our points of disagreement with his formulation of parental alienation syndrome (PAS), showing that his focus on the alienating parent as the primary cause of children's negative attitudes and rejecting behavior toward the other parent is overly simplistic and not supported by findings from recent empirical research. It follows that we strongly object to Gardner's recommendations for legal and mental health interventions with alienated children as well as the use of the term PAS when referring to this problem. [source]


    THE ALIENATED CHILD:A Reformulation of Parental Alienation Syndrome

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 3 2001
    Joan B. Kelly
    In this article, controversies and problems with parental alienation syndrome are discussed. A reformulation focusing on the alienated child is proposed, and these children are clearly distinguished from other children who resist or refuse contact with a parent following separation or divorce for a variety of normal, expectable reasons, including estrangement. A systemic array of contributing factors are described that can create and/or consolidate alienation in children, including intense marital conflict, a humiliating separation, parental personalities and behaviors, protracted litigation, and professional mismanagement. These factors are understood in the context of the child's capacities and vulnerabilities. [source]


    JUVENILE FIBROADENOMA IN 13-MONTH-OLD FEMALE CHILD

    JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 1-2 2005
    YS Jung
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    PARENTS OF CHILD WITH INCURABLE ILLNESS LAUNCH ONLINE SUPPORT FORUM

    JOURNAL OF RENAL CARE, Issue 2 2009
    Ian Davies
    [source]


    EXTENSIVE PITYRIASIS ALBA IN A CHILD WITH ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    PEDIATRIC DERMATOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    KAMALDEEP SANDHU M.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    IDIOPATHIC PYODERMA GANGRENOSUM IN A CHILD

    PEDIATRIC DERMATOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    KAMALDEEP SANDHU M.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    EMOTION REGULATION AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE DEVELOPING CHILD

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2008
    Article first published online: 12 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    AN ECONOMY ILL-SUITED TO YOUNGER WORKERS: CHILD AND YOUTH WORKFORCE PARTICIPATION IN COLONIAL QUEENSLAND, 1886,1901

    AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW, Issue 2 2006
    Bradley Bowden
    child labour; demographic economics; history; labour demand; Queensland This article explores the extent and significance of child and youth work in late 19th century Australia. It demonstrates that, while demographic changes meant that almost half the population was aged 19 years or less, this age cohort never comprised more than 18 per cent of the recorded workforce. It is argued that this under-representation reflects the fact that children and youths were ill-suited to the work demands of most colonial occupations. They did not threaten the position of adult males in the key areas of the economy such as construction, heavy engineering, pastoral work, mining and transport. [source]


    REVISITING CHILD-BASED OBJECTIONS TO COMMERCIAL SURROGACY

    BIOETHICS, Issue 7 2010
    JASON K.M. HANNA
    ABSTRACT Many critics of commercial surrogate motherhood argue that it violates the rights of children. In this paper, I respond to several versions of this objection. The most common version claims that surrogacy involves child-selling. I argue that while proponents of surrogacy have generally failed to provide an adequate response to this objection, it can be overcome. After showing that the two most prominent arguments for the child-selling objection fail, I explain how the commissioning couple can acquire parental rights by paying the surrogate only for her reproductive labor. My explanation appeals to the idea that parental rights are acquired by those who have claims over the reproductive labor that produces the child, not necessarily by those who actually perform the labor. This account clarifies how commercial surrogacy differs from commercial adoption. In the final section of the paper, I consider and reject three further child-based objections to commercial surrogacy: that it establishes a market in children's attributes, that it requires courts to stray from the best interests standard in determining custodial rights, and that it requires the surrogate to neglect her parental responsibilities. Since each of these objections fails, children's rights probably do not pose an obstacle to the acceptability of commercial surrogacy arrangements. [source]


    THE PARENTAL OBLIGATION TO EXPAND A CHILD'S RANGE OF OPEN FUTURES WHEN MAKING GENETIC TRAIT SELECTIONS FOR THEIR CHILD

    BIOETHICS, Issue 4 2007
    ERIC B. SCHMIDT
    ABSTRACT As parents become increasingly able to make genetic trait selections on behalf of their children, they will need ethical guidance in deciding what genetic traits to select. Dena Davis has argued that parents act unethically if they make selections that constrain their child's range of futures. But some selections may expand the child's range of futures. And other selections may shift the child's range of futures, without either constraining or expanding that range. I contend that not only would parents act unethically if they make selections that constrain the range of their child's futures, they would act unethically if they make selections that shift the range of their child's futures, because selections that shift the range of the child's futures would allow parents to over-determine their child's futures. Thus, I contend that parents would act ethically only if they make selections that expand their child's range of futures. [source]


    Child health indicators for Europe.

    CHILD: CARE, HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2004
    A priority for a caring society
    Background Measurement of children's health is important for two reasons: first, because young people are citizens in their own right, yet largely unable to act as self-advocates, particularly at the population level; and second, because their health determines the health of the future population. Indicators based on measurements of child health are important for identifying progress, problems and priorities, changes over time, and newly emergent issues. The European Community Health Monitoring Programme (HMP) is a comprehensive programme to develop and implement a set of national-level indicators. The Child Health Indicators of Life and Development (CHILD) project is the only population group-specific project, seeking to determine a holistic set of measures. Methods The project endeavoured to address all aspects of child health and its determinants, balancing positive and negative aspects. It undertook a structured search of published evidence to seek to identify, and validate, indicators of health and illness, health determinants and challenges to health, quality of healthcare support and health-promoting national policies. A systematic approach was used in identifying valid indicators, and in assembling a balanced composite list. All ages from infancy to adolescence were covered. Results The project's final report identifies 38 core desirable national indicators, citing purpose and evidence for each. Of equal importance, it also identifies 17 key child health topics on which further research work is needed in order to identify and validate indicators appropriate across different national settings. [source]


    ENDOSCOPIC IDENTIFICATION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI GASTRITIS IN CHILDREN

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 2 2010
    Nao Hidaka
    Aim:, The role of endoscopic findings in deciding whether to biopsy the gastric mucosa of children remains unclear. The present study attempted, for the first time, to identify the value of endoscopic features for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in children. Methods:, Hp status of consecutive children receiving esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was established by combinations of histology, 13C-urea breath test, and serum Hp immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody. After routine EGD using a conventional endoscope, the presence of RAC (regular arrangement of collecting venules) was scored by close observation, which was carried out at two sites of lower corpus lesser curvature and upper corpus greater curvature. RAC-positive was defined as the presence of minute red points in a regular pattern. Antral nodularity was also scored as present/absent. Results:, Eighty-seven consecutive children (38 boys, median age 13 years, range 9,15 years) were evaluated; 25 (29%) were Hp positive. Antral nodularity was seen in 21 (84%) all of whom were Hp positive. The RAC-negative pattern based on examination of the upper and lower corpus yielded a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the presence of Hp infection of 100%, 90%, 81%, and 100%. Magnifying endoscopy confirmed that the RAC pattern corresponded to collecting venules in the gastric corpus. Conclusions:, The absence of RAC pattern suggests that gastric mucosa biopsies should be taken despite otherwise normal-appearing gastric mucosa for the diagnosis of Hp infection in children. [source]


    GORDON BROWN COUNTS DEAD CHILDREN: THE TRUE IMPACT OF INHERITANCE TAX

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 3 2006
    Cliff Pratten
    In the Budget and the supporting documents Gordon Brown and the Treasury reported that only 6% of estates pay Inheritance Tax and that the tax is a fair and targeted system. This article shows that for several reasons the tax affects far more than 6% of the community, is iniquitous and poorly targeted. [source]


    GOVERNMENT'S CONSTRUCTION OF THE RELATION BETWEEN PARENTS AND SCHOOLS IN THE UPBRINGING OF CHILDREN IN ENGLAND: 1963,2009

    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 3 2010
    David Bridges
    In this essay David Bridges argues that since most families choose to realize their responsibility for the major part of their children's education through state schools, then the way in which the state constructs parents' relation with these schools is one of its primary levers on parenting itself. Bridges then examines the way in which parent-school relations have been defined in England through government and quasi-government interventions over the last forty-five years, tracing these through an awakening interest in the relation between social class and unequal school success in the 1960s, passing through the discourse of accountability in the 1970s, marketization in the 1980s and 1990s, performativity extending from this period into the first decade of the twenty-first century, and, most recently, more direct interventions into parenting itself and the regulation of school relations with parents in the interests of safeguarding children. These have not, however, been entirely discrete policy themes, and the positive and pragmatic employment of the discourse of partnership has run throughout this period, albeit with different points of emphasis on the precise terms of such partnership. [source]


    GOVERNING FOR RESPONSIBILITY AND WITH LOVE: PARENTS AND CHILDREN BETWEEN HOME AND SCHOOL

    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 1 2008
    Benjamin Baez
    Where these two objectives converge is in their techniques: they both use the parent-child relationship and what appears to motivate it. Drawing on Michel Foucault's conceptualization of government as "the conduct of conduct," Baez and Talburt analyze two pamphlets with an eye to several themes: the "commonsensical" nature of its address to loving parents; the "responsibilization" of parents and children; the insidious entry of school goals and behavioral norms into homes; and the seeming empowerment of the parent as partner in his or her child's learning. Finally, the authors discuss how the logic of modern forms of governing families and schools might be contested. [source]


    GUEST EDITORS' INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL ISSUE ON ALIENATED CHILDREN IN DIVORCE AND SEPARATION: EMERGING APPROACHES FOR FAMILIES AND COURTS

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2010
    Barbara Jo Fidler
    First page of article [source]


    IRC 71 MAY IMPOVERISH CHILDREN, ENDANGER EX-WIVES, AND DISRUPT FEDERALISM1

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 4 2008
    Michael Waggoner
    The Internal Revenue Code provides that alimony will be deductible to the payor and taxable to the payee. Although this treatment may seem contrary to the payee's interest, compared to making the payments non-deductible and nontaxable, it can increase the payee's after-tax income. The payor's deduction will allow larger payments at no after-tax cost increase; if the payee is in a lower tax bracket, then even after paying taxes the payee will have more resources. Because this favorable treatment of alimony does not apply to child support, children of divorce are poorer. Nor does the favorable treatment apply to lump-sum payments, making this option less generous, even though many states have phased down the grant of alimony. Because the definition of alimony requires that it end with the payee's death,to protect the treatment provided for lump sums,the tax system is on the wrong side of the issue of violence against ex-spouses (typically the ex-wife). The article proposes extending to other similar payments the favorable tax treatment now provided for alimony. [source]


    SUMMIT ON UNIFIED FAMILY COURTS: SERVING CHILDREN AND FAMILIES EFFICIENTLY, EFFECTIVELY, AND RESPONSIBLY

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2008
    Karen J. Mathis
    As president of the American Bar Association when the "Summit on Unified Family Courts" convened in May 2007, Karen J. Mathis welcomed summit attendees. Recounting the many reasons children wind up in court, Mathis observed that society is lucky if these problems even come before the courts. Too often, she said, the underlying problems of destructive behavior among youth are lost in the shuffle of too many lawyers, case workers, and judges. "Many times they're ignored by the professionals among us who are not trained to be aware that the problems even exist," she said. The solution to this fragmented approach is unified family courts, she concluded. [source]


    FINDING THE BALANCE: ETHICAL CHALLENGES AND BEST PRACTICES FOR LAWYERS REPRESENTING PARENTS WHEN THE INTERESTS OF CHILDREN ARE AT STAKE

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2008
    William J. Howe
    This article explores ethical and practical issues facing attorneys in representing parents in a contested custody matter. The article traces the history of the way this matter has been handled historically and presents the latest thinking reflected by the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers in their most recent publication of ethical guidelines for attorneys. The article also presents perspectives from several jurisdictions including Australia and Oregon. [source]


    "I WANT MY MOMMIES": THE CRY FOR MINI-DOMAS TO RECOGNIZE THE BEST INTERESTS OF THE CHILDREN OF SAME-SEX COUPLES*

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2007
    Oren Goldhaber
    In child custody cases, courts will look to the best interests of a child to maintain visitation/custody rights only with the child's biological parent, not third parties. However, with a same-sex couple, it is inevitable that one parent will not be the biological parent. Thus, when that parent is in a mini-DOMA state, where same-sex couples from non-mini-DOMA states do not have to be recognized, that parent will be viewed as a third party and lose all visitation/custody rights if the couple separates. This note advocates that mini-DOMAs allow both the biological and nonbiological parents of a same-sex couple to have visitation/custody rights of their children if it would be in the best interest of the children to do so. [source]


    ALL CHILDREN ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL: PRWORA'S UNCONSTITUTIONAL RESTRICTION ON IMMIGRANT CHILDREN'S ACCESS TO FEDERAL HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 3 2006
    Hyejung Janet Shin
    The lack of health insurance for children is a serious problem in the United States, especially for those children in families that earn too little to get private health insurance and too much to qualify for Medicare. Even within this subclass of children, immigrant children are particularly vulnerable to the problems faced by lack of health care. Nevertheless, with the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) by Congress, equality interests of low-income immigrant children are undermined when immigrant children are denied federal benefits for the first 5 years of residency in the United States. The first part of this Note examines the importance of child health care and the long-term problems with uninsured children, especially with uninsured immigrant children and pregnant women. The next part introduces Medicaid as well as State Children's Health Insurance Program, a supplemental federal program designed to increase health care coverage to all children, while contrasting these programs in light of the restrictive anti-immigrant PRWORA provisions. The third part explains the passage of PRWORA, its anti-immigrant provisions, and how these provisions prevent needy immigrant children from receiving federally funded health care. Then, the fourth part uses both the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment to argue the unconstitutionality of the anti-immigrant provisions. Finally, the last part lays out the recommendation to amend the Social Security Act so that the PRWORA barriers can be removed and recent immigrant children can receive federally funded health care. [source]


    EMPOWERING CHILDREN IN MEDIATION

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 3 2004
    An Intervention Model
    The available research in the mediation arena regarding child custody disputes indicates a lack of and growing need for effective intervention techniques. The authors present practicing mediators with a specific intervention model for interviewing, safeguarding, and empowering children in the process of mediating custody disputes. The mediation model utilizes a structured, strategic, and process-oriented approach with a family systems theoretical orientation and may be used in private or court-connected settings. The model presented here goes beyond the child-centered interview norm to the inclusion of the child in the process to assist parents in decision making. The model supports the current California statute under Family Code Section 3023, which states that "if a child is of sufficient age and capacity to reason so as to form an intelligent preference as to custody, the court shall consider and give due weight to the wishes of the child in making an award of custody or modification." The model does, however, maintain the position that the final decision continues to lie with the parents or the courts and not the child. [source]


    EXPENDITURES ON CHILDREN AND VISITATION TIME

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2004
    A Reply to Garfinkel, McLanahan, Wallerstein
    In their critique, Garfinkel, McLanahan, and Wallerstein raise concerns about the representativeness of the authors' sample, benchmark approach methodology, and historical review of guidelines, all of which lead them to discount the evidence presented opposing the cliff-model assumption of father expenditures on children, and to laud instead child support guidelines that give little monetary credit or adjustment for visitation. This article presents evidence that (a) this sample is at most little biased, and remains trustworthy for the main implications presented; (b) although only a beginning, the benchmark approach is highly useful and most of the concerns raised about it are ill founded or implausible; and (c) the historical review suggesting that current guidelines assume zero visitation expenses is indeed accurate for the vast majority of states, according to the foremost authority. Thus, notwithstanding the critique, these findings have merit and importance and should be considered by policy makers. The authors also comment on the additional arguments against continuous and generous adjustments for visitation, finding them based on a weak foundation of evidence and reasoning. [source]


    MAKING FAMILIES AND CHILDREN A HIGH PRIORITY IN THE COURTS

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 4 2002
    California's Center for Families, Children & the Courts
    This article describes the California Administrative Office of the Court's (AOC's) Center for Families, Children & the Courts (CFCC). CFCC is an interdisciplinary unit that brings together all of the AOC's work on statewide policies and practices related to families and children in the court system. CFCC thus models the unified family court model within the state AOC. CFCC's projects and activities are described to show the effectiveness of its multidisciplinary and collaborative approach in addressing complex policy and practice issues. It is hoped that readers may discover aspects of CFCC's work that could be adapted to their own jurisdiction or practice. [source]


    USING CHILD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH TO MAKE APPROPRIATE CUSTODY AND ACCESS DECISIONS FOR YOUNG CHILDREN

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 3 2000
    Joan B. Kelly
    Decisions regarding custody and access are most often made without reference to the research on child development, although this literature can be useful in conceptualizing children's needs after separation and divorce. Research on attachment processes, separation from attachment figures, and the roles of mothers and fathers in promoting psychosocial adjustment are reviewed in this article. It concludes with a discussion of the implications for young children's parenting schedules. [source]


    HOW CHILDREN PLACE THEMSELVES AND OTHERS IN LOCAL SPACE

    GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2008
    Danielle Van Der Burgt
    ABSTRACT This study examines the ways in which children aged 11 to 15 in six adjacent neighbourhoods in a medium-sized Swedish town place themselves and others in local space. Special attention is given to how they discuss a neighbourhood stigmatized in the public discourse and how children who live in this neighbourhood react to the negative representations of the place in which they live. The study is based on group interviews and maps. The study shows that children construct representations of their own neighbourhoods as "quiet" neighbourhoods and place objects of "trouble" and "danger" somewhere else. It is argued that this is done both in relation to their personal knowledge of the neighbourhood and in relation to local and/or media representations of their own and other neighbourhoods. It is shown that the children are influenced by media representations of a stigmatized neighbourhood, but also that they are not passive reproducers of these discourses and that some of them are able to offer counter-discourses. The children living in this neighbourhood experience difficulties in defending it as the quiet place which they perceive it to be to outsiders because of the negative discourses. [source]