Chickens

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Chickens

  • broiler chicken
  • day-old chicken
  • domestic chicken
  • female chicken

  • Terms modified by Chickens

  • chicken breast
  • chicken breast fillet
  • chicken breast meat
  • chicken breed
  • chicken carcass
  • chicken egg
  • chicken embryo
  • chicken genome
  • chicken leg
  • chicken liver
  • chicken manure
  • chicken meat
  • chicken muscle
  • chicken patty
  • chicken population
  • chicken retina

  • Selected Abstracts


    FACTORS AFFECTING LIPID OXIDATION IN BREAST AND THIGH MUSCLE FROM CHICKEN, TURKEY AND DUCK

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2010
    Y. GONG
    ABSTRACT Lipid oxidation occurred rapidly in turkey muscle, intermediate in duck and slowest in chicken. pH was lowest in turkey muscle. Chicken muscle had a lower content of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with turkey and duck muscles. The aqueous fraction of duck breast inhibited hemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed muscle more effectively than aqueous fractions from turkey and chicken muscle. ,-Tocopherol content was highest in duck muscle, intermediate in chicken and lowest in turkey. Depletion of tocopherols during frozen storage was more rapid in turkey and duck compared with chicken. It was thought that the elevated tocopherol level in chicken muscle may be caused by less efficient catabolism via the omega hydroxylation pathway. However, tocopherol hydroxylase activity was similar in chicken compared with turkey liver microsomes. Heme pigment content was around sixfold higher in duck breast compared with chicken and turkey breast. Duck thigh had especially elevated pH. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This work describes a number of factors that explain the wide variation in oxidative stability (chicken > duck > turkey) when comparing muscle tissues from the three avian species. These factors include muscle pH, concentration of heme pigments, fatty acid unsaturation, inhibitors of lipid oxidation in the aqueous fraction of the muscle, tocopherol content in lipid phases and depletion rates of tocopherol. These factors should be considered when developing strategies to inhibit lipid oxidation in muscle foods. The relatively high content of ,-tocopherol in chicken muscle compared with turkey should be a subject of further research to better understand the mechanisms by which certain animal species preferentially deposit the molecule into muscle. [source]


    ATTEMPTS TO UTILIZE BACTERIOPHAGE TO COMBAT SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTEMTIDIS INFECTION IN CHICKENS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 1 2001
    IAN B. SKLAR
    ABSTRACT Bacteriophage capable of lysing a nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis strain (SeE Nalr) were tested for the ability to reduce cecal Salmonella counts in young chickens infected with the bacterium. Qualitative analysis of cloacal swabs suggested that phage treatment can possibly reduce shedding of SeE Nalr, but average SeE Nalr counts of between 105 and 107 cfu of SeE Nalr per g of cecum were obtained even from phage-treated 14-day old birds and even when more than 107 plaque forming units of phage were present per gram of cecal content. The average cecal SeE Nalr counts were generally between 0.3 and 1.3 orders of magnitude lower in phage-treated chickens than in untreated controls birds. The difference in counts was statistically not significant in three animal trials, but significant in two trials using feed particles as delivery vehicles for the phage. Although some of the SeE Nalr in the cecae of phage-treated chickens had developed resistance to some of the phage used, factors other than phage resistance must have contributed to the failure of the phage to substantially reduce SeE Nalr counts. [source]


    Images from the Woods Hole Summer of 2009 Embryology Course

    GENESIS: THE JOURNAL OF GENETICS AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 9 2009
    Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Shown are images of Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly), Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog), Schmidtea mediterranea (Planaria), Hydroides (Serpulid worm), Schistocerca americana (American bird grasshopper), Euprymna scolopes (Hawaiian bobtail squid), Ciona intestinalis (Vase tunicate), Phalangium opilio (Daddy longlegs), Artemia franciscana (Brine shrimp), Mustelus canis (Dogfish), Danio rerio (Zebrafish), Gallus gallus domesticus (Chicken), Mnemiopsis leidyi (Warty comb jelly), Oscarella carmela (Desmosponge), Chaetopterus variopedatus (Parchment worm), and the Marbled crayfish that were generated and taken by members of the Woods Hole Embryology Course in the summer of 2009. Photo credits: Neel Aluru, Otger Campas, Carlos Carmona-Fontaine, Sheng-hong Chen, Katrien De Mulder, April Dinwiddie, Adele M. Doyle, Antje Fischer, Claudiu Giurumescu, Lauretta Grasso, Alysha Heimberg, Francie Hyndman, Erin Kaltenbrun, Dov Lerman-Sinkoff, Dede Lyons, Chema Martin-Durn, Lara Marxreiter, Jeremy Mosher, Malea Murphy, Lee Niswander, Vincent Pasque, Nipam H. Patel, Alberto Rosell, Prashant Sharma, Ashley Siegel, Ajay Thomas, Frank Tulenko, Alex Vasilyev, and Naveen Wijesena. For more information on the Embryology Course, please visit http://www.mblembryology.org/. [source]


    Evaluation of Antioxidant Effects of Raisin Paste in Cooked Ground Beef, Pork, and Chicken

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 4 2006
    M.N. Vasavada
    ABSTRACT:, The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible antioxidant activity of raisin paste added to raw ground beef, pork, or chicken before cooking to 163 C. Samples were held at 2 C for up to 14 d. TBA values were measured using a distillation method, to avoid yellow color interference found in "wet" TBA methods. Sample meat flavor intensity, rancid flavor intensity, and raisin flavor intensity were evaluated by a trained panel (n = 6). Addition of raisin paste lowered (p < 0.05) TBA values and decreased panel scores for rancid flavor scores of all meat samples in a concentration-dependent manner. Highest antioxidant effects were obtained with a minimum of 1.5%, 2.0%, or 2.0% raisin paste in cooked ground beef, pork, or chicken, respectively. There was a high correlation (0.93, 0.94, 0.94) between TBA values and sensory rancid flavor scores in beef, pork, and chicken samples respectively. Addition of a reducing sugar (glucose) was nearly as effective as raisins for maintenance of low TBA values and rancid flavor scores, probably due to antioxidant effects of Maillard browning products. There was no detectable raisin flavor in cooked ground beef samples with added raisins. However, all meats with added glucose had a higher raisin flavor intensity score than controls, indicating that panelists associated sweetness with raisin flavor. Maillard browning (sample darkening) was evident after cooking of ground chicken with either raisins or glucose. [source]


    Cytotoxicity evaluation of enzyme inhibitors and absorption enhancers in Caco-2 cells for oral delivery of salmon calcitonin

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Issue 4 2004
    Rakhi B. Shah
    Abstract The usefulness of enzyme inhibitors and absorption enhancers with least mucosal cell cytotoxicity was evaluated on Caco-2 cell monolayers. The temporal cytotoxicity of several protease inhibitors at 500 ,g/mL (e.g., turkey and chicken ovomucoids, aprotinin, and Protease Inhibitor Cocktail) and absorption enhancers [e.g., cholate (3%), glycocholate (3%), glycosursodeoxycholate (3%), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, 0.1%), hydroxypropyl-,-cyclodextrin (HP-,-CD, 5%), hydroxypropyl-,-cylcodextrin (HP-,-CD, 5%), ,-cylcodextrin (,-CD, 5%), tetradecyl-,- D -maltoside (0.25%), octylglucoside (0.25%), citric acid (10%), glycyrrhetinic acid (0.34 mM), and Tween-80 (0.1%)] was measured by monitoring their effect on Caco-2 cell viability. Cell viability was measured by mannitol permeability measurements, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements, DNA-propidium iodide staining assay, and WST-1 assay (tetrazolium salt based assay). Sodium dodecyl sulfate (0.1%), a potent surfactant, was used as a positive control. Chicken and turkey ovomucoids were nontoxic to cells as evaluated by all the methods used. Aprotinin decreased the TEER, whereas plasma membrane damage was seen with Protease Inhibitor Cocktail after a 24-h period. With respect to the absorption enhancers, the toxicity increased directly as a result of an increase in the time of incubation. The enhancers EDTA and HP-,-CD can be used safely for a short period of time, whereas glycosursodeoxycholate, glycyrrhetinic acid, octylglucoside, HP-,-CD, and ,-CD can be used for a longer period. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 93: 1070,1082, 2004 [source]


    Vascularization of the Fleshy Comb in the Domestic Chicken

    ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 2005
    B. Vollmerhaus
    Up to now little is known about the vascularization of the chicken fleshy comb (crista carnosa). In order to evaluate the vascularization of the crista carnosa of the cook (breed White Leghorn), corrosion casts were created by injecting Plastoid into the internal carotid as described by Schummer (1951). Specimens were investigated by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Generally the dermis is highly vascularized by two capillary networks, which are localized beneath the epithelium and beneath the dermal papillas. The dense subepithelial network is characterized by the presence of sinusoid vessels. In the subcutaneous plexus numerous arteriovenous anastomoses of different types occur. Additionally there are arteriovenous anastomoses between the main vessels reaching the indentations of the comb. Our results show the presence of superficial and dense capillary networks and arteriovenous anastomoses are the anatomical basis for the functions of the chicken comb in mating behaviour and thermoregulation. Reference, Schummer, A. 1951: Simplified method for plastoid corrosion. Anat. Anaz. 98, 288,290. [source]


    Corporate Chickens and Community Conflict in East Texas

    CULTURE, AGRICULTURE, FOOD & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 1 2005
    Douglas H. Constance
    First page of article [source]


    Evidence for species differences in the pattern of androgen receptor distribution in relation to species differences in an androgen-dependent behavior

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
    Brian K. Shaw
    Abstract Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), two closely related gallinaceous bird species, exhibit a form of vocalization,crowing,which differs between the species in two components: its temporal acoustic pattern and its accompanying postural motor pattern. Previous work utilizing the quail-chick chimera technique demonstrated that the species-specific characteristics of the two crow components are determined by distinct brain structures: the midbrain confers the acoustic pattern, and the caudal hindbrain confers the postural pattern. Crowing is induced by androgens, acting directly on androgen receptors. As a strategy for identifying candidate neurons in the midbrain and caudal hindbrain that could be involved in crow production, we performed immunocytochemistry for androgen receptors in these brain regions in both species. We also investigated midbrain-to-hindbrain vocal-motor projections. In the midbrain, both species showed prominent androgen receptor immunoreactivity in the nucleus intercollicularis, as had been reported in previous studies. In the caudal hindbrain, we discovered characteristic species differences in the pattern of androgen receptor distribution. Chickens, but not quail, showed strong immunoreactivity in the tracheosyringeal division of the hypoglossal nucleus, whereas quail, but not chickens, possessed strong immunoreactivity in a region of the ventrolateral medulla. Some of these differences in hindbrain androgen receptor distribution may be related to the species differences in the postural component of crowing behavior. The results of the present study imply that the spatial distribution of receptor proteins can vary even between closely related species. Such variation in receptor distribution could underlie the evolution of species differences in behavior. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 52: 203,220, 2002 [source]


    A polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class II-like locus maps outside of both the chicken B-system and Rfp-Y-system

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMMUNOGENETICS, Issue 2 2000
    H. R. Juul-Madsen
    Chickens have two major regions encoding major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, genes and MHC class II genes, the serological and functional B-system and the Rfp-Y-system. Recently, they have been shown to assort in a genetically independent way although still located on the same microchromosome. Moreover, the monomorphic MHC class II, gene maps at a third locus located 5 c m from the nearest class II genes, located in the B-system ( Kaufman et al., 1995 ). A pedigree family was studied in three generations in order to assign MHC class II restriction fragments observed in Southern blot analyses to either the B-system, the Rfp-Y-system or the B-L, locus. In this study, we demonstrate by classical genetic testing of chickens within this fully pedigreed family the existence of an MHC class II-like polymorphic restriction fragment that segregates independently of the B-system, the Rfp-Y-system and of the B-L, locus. [source]


    Two-dimensional psychophysics in chickens and humans: Comparative aspects of perceptual relativity

    JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH, Issue 4 2008
    PETRA HAUF
    Abstract:, Whereas the contextual basis of psychophysical responding is well founded, the compound influence of sensory and perceptual frames of reference constitutes a challenging issue in comparative one- and multidimensional psychophysics (e.g., Sarris, 2004, 2006). We refer to previous investigations, which tested the assumption that the chicken's relational choice in the one-dimensional case is systematically altered by context conditions similar to the findings stemming from human participants. In this paper mainly the context-dependent stimulus coding was investigated for the important, but largely neglected, two-dimensional case in humans and chickens. Three strategies were predicted for the generalization of size discriminations, which had been learned in a different color context. In two experiments, which varied in the testing procedure, both species demonstrated profound contextual effects in psychophysics; they differed, however, in the way the information from either dimension was used: Chickens throughout used color as a cue to separate the respective size discriminations and generalizations. Whereas humans predominantly generalized according to size information only or according to absolute stimulus properties, the chickens showed some important species-specific differences. Common and heterogeneous findings of this line of comparative research in multidimensional psychophysics are presented and discussed in various ways. [source]


    Immunostimulating effects of the polyphenol-rich fraction of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) extract in chickens

    PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 2 2007
    Kenji Hikosaka
    Abstract The phagocytic activity of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) in chickens orally administered sugar cane extracts (SCE) or polyphenol-rich fraction (PRF) of SCE (500 mg/kg/day) for 3 consecutive days increased significantly, when compared with that of saline-administered control chickens. Chickens orally administered SCE or PRF (500 mg/kg/day) for 3 consecutive days showed significantly higher antibody responses against sheep red blood cells and Brucella abortus than control chickens. In addition, oral administration of SCE or PRF also resulted in a significant increase in the number of IgM- and IgG-plaque forming cell responses of PBL, intestinal leukocytes and splenocytes, when compared with those of control chickens. Furthermore, delayed type hypersensitivity responses to human , globulin significantly increased in chickens orally administered SCE or PRF, compared with those of control chickens when evaluated on the basis of net increased wattle thickness at 24, 48 and 72 h after challenge. These results suggest that PRF of SCE has an immunostimulating effect in chickens. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Influence of herring (Clupea harengus) and herring fractions on metabolic status in rats fed a high energy diet

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
    H. Lindqvist
    Abstract Aim:, Few dietary studies have looked beyond fish oil to explain the beneficial metabolic effects of a fish-containing diet. Our aim was to study whether addition of herring, or sub-fractions of herring, could counteract negative metabolic effects known to be induced by a high-fat, high-sugar diet. Methods:, Rats were given six different diets: standard pellets; high energy diet with chicken mince (HiE control); high energy diet with herring mince (HiE herring); and high energy diet with chicken mince and either herring oil (HiE herring oil), herring press juice, PJ (HiE PJ) or herring low molecular weight PJ (HiE LMW-PJ). Factors associated with the metabolic syndrome were measured. Results:, There were no differences in energy intake or body weight between the groups, but animals fed high energy diets had a higher body fat content compared with the pellet group, although not statistically significant in all groups. Mesenteric adipocyte size was smaller in the HiE herring oil group compared with the HiE control. Glucose clamp studies showed that, compared with the pellet group, the HiE control and HiE herring diets, but not the HiE herring oil diet, induced insulin resistance. Addition of herring or herring oil to the high energy diet decreased total cholesterol levels, triacylglycerols and the atherogenic index compared with the HiE control group. Conclusions:, The results suggest that addition of herring or herring oil counteracts negative effects on blood lipids induced by a high energy diet. The lipid component of herring thus seems to be responsible for these beneficial effects. [source]


    Correlation between Musashi-1 and c-hairy-1 expression and cell proliferation activity in the developing intestine and stomach of both chicken and mouse

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 8 2005
    Rieko Asai
    Musashi-1 (Msi-1) is an RNA-binding protein that plays key roles in the maintenance of neural stem cell states and in their differentiation into neural cells. Msi-1 has also been proposed as a candidate marker gene of mammalian intestinal stem cells and their immediate lineages. In this study, we examined Msi-1 expression in the small intestine and the stomach of both chicken and mouse during embryonic, fetal and postnatal development. In addition, we analyzed the expression of c-hairy-1, a chicken homologue of mouse Hes1, and assessed the proliferative activity of the cells expressing both of these factors. Significantly, during the development of these digestive organs in both species Msi-1 expression showed dynamic changes, suggesting that it is important for digestive organ development, particularly for epithelial differentiation. Based on our observations of the expression patterns of Msi-1 and c-hairy-1 in the adult small intestine, we speculate that Msi-1 is also a stem cell marker of the chicken small intestinal epithelium. [source]


    Requirement for ,B1-crystallin promoter of Xenopus laevis in embryonic lens development and lens regeneration

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 3 2005
    Nobuhiko Mizuno
    Regulation of the lens-specific ,B1-crystallin promoter in Xenopus laevis was investigated using transgenic larvae and tadpoles. Comparison of the promoter sequence with that of chicken ,B1-crystallin gene indicates significant sequence similarity over a span of several hundred base pairs starting from the transcriptional start site. Remarkably, PL-1 and PL-2 sequences identified in the chicken promoter as essential binding sites of MAF, Pax6 and Prox1 transcription factors were conserved. Mutations of X (Xenopus) PL-1 and XPL-2 sequences eliminated the promoter activity, indicating a conserved mechanism regulating ,B1-crystallin promoter among vertebrate species. A stepwise deletion of the promoter sequence starting from 2800 bp indicated that the proximal 260 bp directly upstream of the transcription initiation site is sufficient for eliciting lens-specific expression, but the 150 bp promoter sequence is inactive despite it containing the XPL-1 and XPL-2 sequences, suggesting the presence of an additional and essential regulatory sequence located between ,150 and ,260 bp. Activity of the ,B1-crystallin promoter during lens regeneration from cornea was examined using transgenic tadpoles and found to have the same dependence on promoter regions as in embryonic lens development, indicating that gene regulation is largely shared by the two lens-generating processes. [source]


    The lim domain only protein 7 is important in zebrafish heart development

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 12 2008
    Elisabeth B. Ott
    Abstract The LIM domain only protein 7 (LMO7), a member of the PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein family is a candidate gene with possible roles in embryonic development and breast cancer progression. LMO7 has been linked to actin cytoskeleton organization through nectin/afadin and to cell,cell adhesion by means of E-cadherin/catenin. In addition, LMO7 has been shown to regulate transcription of the nuclear membrane protein Emerin and other muscle relevant genes. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to investigate LMO7 expression during embryonic development in three widely used vertebrate model species: the zebrafish, the chicken and the mouse. Our temporal and spatial gene expression analysis revealed both common and distinct patterns between these species. In mouse and chicken embryos we found expression in the outflow tract, the inflow tract, the pro-epicardial organ and the second heart field, structures highly important in the developing heart. Furthermore, gene knockdown experiments in zebrafish embryos resulted in severe defects in heart development with effects on the conduction system and on heart localization. In summary, we present here the first developmental study of LMO7. We reveal the temporal and spatial expression patterns of this important gene during mouse, chicken and fish development and our findings suggest essential functions for LMO7 during vertebrate heart development. Developmental Dynamics 237:3940,3952, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Expression patterns of the opsin 5,related genes in the developing chicken retina

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 7 2008
    Sayuri Tomonari
    Abstract The opsin gene family encodes G protein,coupled seven-transmembrane proteins that bind to a retinaldehyde chromophore for photoreception. It has been reported that opsin 5 is expressed in mammalian neural tissue, but its function has been elusive. As a first step to understand the function for opsin 5 in the developing eye, we searched for chicken opsin 5 -related genes in the genome by a bioinformatic approach and isolated opsin 5 cDNA fragments from the embryonic retina by RT-PCR. We found that there are three opsin 5,related genes, designated cOpn5m (chicken opsin 5, mammalian type), cOpn5L1 (chicken opsin 5 - like 1), and cOpn5L2 (chicken opsin 5 - like 2), in the chicken genome. Quantitative PCR analysis has revealed that cOpn5m is the most abundant in the developing and early posthatching neural retina. In situ hybridization analysis has shown that cOpn5m is specifically expressed in subsets of differentiating ganglion cells and amacrine cells. These results suggest that the mammalian type opsin 5 may contribute to the development of these retinal cells in the chicken. Developmental Dynamics 237:1910,1922, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Comparative analysis of Gata3 and Gata2 expression during chicken inner ear development

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 1 2007
    Kersti Lillevli
    Abstract The inner ear is a complex sensory organ with hearing and balance functions. Gata3 and Gata2 are expressed in the inner ear, and to gain more insight into their roles in otic development, we made a detailed expression analysis in chicken embryos. At early stages, their expression was highly overlapping. At later stages, Gata2 expression became prominent in vestibular and cochlear nonsensory epithelia. In contrast to Gata2, Gata3 was mainly expressed in the developing sensory epithelia, reflecting the importance of this factor in the sensory,neural development of the inner ear. While the later expression patterns of both Gata3 and Gata2 were highly conserved between chicken and mouse, important differences were observed especially with Gata3 during early otic development, providing indications of divergent molecular control during placode invagination in mice and chickens. We also found indications that the regulatory hierarchy observed in mouse, where Gata3 is upstream of Gata2 and Fgf10, could be conserved in chicken. Developmental Dynamics 236:306,313, 2007. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    MicroRNA expression during chick embryo development

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 11 2006
    Diana K. Darnell
    Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, abundant, noncoding RNAs that modulate protein abundance by interfering with target mRNA translation or stability. miRNAs are detected in organisms from all domains and may regulate 30% of transcripts in vertebrates. Understanding miRNA function requires a detailed determination of expression, yet this has not been reported in an amniote species. High-throughput whole mount in situ hybridization was performed on chicken embryos to map expression of 135 miRNA genes including five miRNAs that had not been previously reported in chicken. Eighty-four miRNAs were detected before day 5 of embryogenesis, and 75 miRNAs showed differential expression. Whereas few miRNAs were expressed during formation of the primary germ layers, the number of miRNAs detected increased rapidly during organogenesis. Patterns highlighted cell-type, organ or structure-specific expression, localization within germ layers and their derivatives, and expression in multiple cell and tissue types and within sub-regions of structures and tissues. A novel group of miRNAs was highly expressed in most tissues but much reduced in one or a few organs, including the heart. This study presents the first comprehensive overview of miRNA expression in an amniote organism and provides an important foundation for investigations of miRNA gene regulation and function. Developmental Dynamics 235:3156,3165, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Cloning of vertebrate Protogenin (Prtg) and comparative expression analysis during axis elongation

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 10 2006
    Christine Vesque
    Abstract A murine cDNA encoding Protogenin, which belongs to the DCC/Neogenin family, was cloned in a screen performed to identify novel cDNAs regionally expressed in the neural plate. Isolation of the putative zebrafish orthologues allowed a comparative analysis of the expression patterns of Protogenin genes during embryogenesis in different vertebrate species. From mid-gastrulation to early somite stages, Protogenin expression is restricted to posterior neural plate and mesoderm, with an anterior limit at the level of the rhombencephalon in mouse, chicken, and zebrafish. During somitogenesis, the expression profiles in the three species share features in the neural tube but present also species-specific characteristics. The initiation of Protogenin expression just before somitogenesis and its maintenance in the neural tube and paraxial mesoderm during this process suggest a conserved role in axis elongation. Developmental Dynamics 235:2836,2844, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Monocilia on chicken embryonic endocardium in low shear stress areas

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 1 2006
    Kim Van der Heiden
    Abstract During cardiovascular development, fluid shear stress patterns change dramatically due to extensive remodeling. This biomechanical force has been shown to drive gene expression in endothelial cells and, consequently, is considered to play a role in cardiovascular development. The mechanism by which endothelial cells sense shear stress is still unidentified. In this study, we postulate that primary cilia function as fluid shear stress sensors of endothelial cells. Such a function already has been attributed to primary cilia on epithelial cells of the adult kidney and of Hensen's node in the embryo where they transduce mechanical signals into an intracellular Ca2+ signaling response. Recently, primary cilia were observed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These primary cilia disassembled when subjected to high shear stress levels. Whereas endocardial,endothelial cells have been reported to be more shear responsive than endothelial cells, cilia are not detected, thus far, on endocardial cells. In the present study, we use field emission scanning electron microscopy to show shear stress-related regional differences in cell protrusions within the cardiovasculature of the developing chicken. Furthermore, we identify one of these cell protrusions as a monocilium with monoclonal antibodies against acetylated and detyrosinated alpha-tubulin. The distribution pattern of the monocilia was compared to the chicken embryonic expression pattern of the high shear stress marker Krppel-like factor-2. We demonstrate the presence of monocilia on endocardial,endothelial cells in areas of low shear stress and postulate that they are immotile primary cilia, which function as fluid shear stress sensors. Developmental Dynamics 235:19,28, 2006. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Conservation and expression of IQ-domain-containing calpacitin gene products (neuromodulin/GAP-43, neurogranin/RC3) in the adult and developing oscine song control system

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 2-3 2009
    David F. Clayton
    Abstract Songbirds are appreciated for the insights they provide into regulated neural plasticity. Here, we describe the comparative analysis and brain expression of two gene sequences encoding probable regulators of synaptic plasticity in songbirds: neuromodulin (GAP-43) and neurogranin (RC3). Both are members of the calpacitin family and share a distinctive conserved core domain that mediates interactions between calcium, calmodulin, and protein kinase C signaling pathways. Comparative sequence analysis is consistent with known phylogenetic relationships, with songbirds most closely related to chicken and progressively more distant from mammals and fish. The C-terminus of neurogranin is different in birds and mammals, and antibodies to the protein reveal high expression in adult zebra finches in cerebellar Purkinje cells, which has not been observed in other species. RNAs for both proteins are generally abundant in the telencephalon yet markedly reduced in certain nuclei of the song control system in adult canaries and zebra finches: neuromodulin RNA is very low in RA and HVC (relative to the surrounding pallial areas), whereas neurogranin RNA is conspicuously low in Area X (relative to surrounding striatum). In both cases, this selective downregulation develops in the zebra finch during the juvenile song learning period, 25,45 days after hatching. These results suggest molecular parallels to the robust stability of the adult avian song control circuit. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2009 [source]


    Localization of KCNC1 (Kv3.1) potassium channel subunits in the avian auditory nucleus magnocellularis and nucleus laminaris during development

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    Suchitra Parameshwaran-Iyer
    Abstract The KCNC1 (previously Kv3.1) potassium channel, a delayed rectifier with a high threshold of activation, is highly expressed in the time coding nuclei of the adult chicken and barn owl auditory brainstem. The proposed role of KCNC1 currents in auditory neurons is to reduce the width of the action potential and enable neurons to transmit high frequency temporal information with little jitter. Because developmental changes in potassium currents are critical for the maturation of the shape of the action potential, we used immunohistochemical methods to examine the developmental expression of KCNC1 subunits in the avian auditory brainstem. The KCNC1 gene gives rise to two splice variants, a longer KCNC1b and a shorter KCNC1a that differ at the carboxy termini. Two antibodies were used: an antibody to the N-terminus that does not distinguish between KCNC1a and b isoforms, denoted as panKCNC1, and another antibody that specifically recognizes the C terminus of KCNC1b. A comparison of the staining patterns observed with the panKCNC1 and the KCNC1b specific antibodies suggests that KCNC1a and KCNC1b splice variants are differentially regulated during development. Although panKCNC1 immunoreactivity is observed from the earliest time examined in the chicken (E10), a subcellular redistribution of the immunoproduct was apparent over the course of development. KCNC1b specific staining has a late onset with immunostaining first appearing in the regions that map high frequencies in nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and nucleus laminaris (NL). The expression of KCNC1b protein begins around E14 in the chicken and after E21 in the barn owl, relatively late during ontogeny and at the time that synaptic connections mature morphologically and functionally. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 55: 165,178, 2003 [source]


    Changes in mid-to-late latency auditory evoked reponses in the chicken during neural maturation

    DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Rebbekah Atkinson
    Abstract Utilizing the special advantages offered by the protracted maturation of neural circuits in chicken forebrain this study investigates the functional consequence of maturation using auditory evoked response potentials (AERPs) in behaving animals. Repeated measures AERP recordings were undertaken between weeks 1 and 8 posthatch. Quantitative analysis revealed a significant decrease in amplitude of the positive AERP component and a decrease in latency of the negative AERP component with maturation. AERPs were also utilized to investigate perturbed maturation via the induction of chemically induced hypothyroidism. Results from this study showed that the induction of late onset hypothyroidism produces measurable effects on the chicken AERP consistent with perturbation in maturation of neuronal circuits and synapses. This suggests that AERPs may be useful noninvasive functional measures of brain maturation that can be used to study the effects of endogenous or exogenous factors on brain maturation in the chicken. Since human brain also exhibits a protracted maturation period the availability of a well-characterized animal model for protracted brain maturation provides an opportunity to identify molecules, genes and environmental factors that are important in the regulation of maturation. The protracted maturation of neuronal circuits observed in chicken forebrain offers such a model. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 52: 24,34, 2010 [source]


    Bimodal life cycle of the burying beetle Nicrophorus quadripunctatus in relation to its summer reproductive diapause

    ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
    Tomoyosi Nisimura
    Abstract 1. Under natural conditions in Kyoto, Japan, the reproductive activities of Nicrophorus quadripunctatus Kraatz (Coleoptera: Silphidae) decreased in summer and the species showed a bimodal life cycle. 2. In the laboratory, most adult pairs raised at 20 C under a LD 12:12 h regime reproduced when provided with a piece of chicken. In adults raised at 20 C under a LD 16:8 h regime, however, both reproductive behaviour and ovarian development were reduced. It is concluded that these adults entered a reproductive summer diapause. 3. High temperature (25 C) also suppressed the reproductive behaviour even under a favourable LD 12:12 h regime. In the field, therefore, adults reduce their reproductive activity in summer because of diapause induced by long-day photoperiods and direct inhibition of reproduction by high temperatures. 4. When the temperature was changed from 20 C to 25 C immediately after hatching of larvae, they reached the wandering stage in 95% of adult pairs. When the temperature was changed from 20 C to 25 C immediately after oviposition, however, no larvae hatched in 85% of pairs. Egg mortality was significantly higher at 25 C than at 20 and 22.5 C; no eggs hatched at 27.5 C. The physiological mechanisms for reducing reproduction probably prevent the beetles from inefficient oviposition in summer. [source]


    Analysis of chicken and turkey ovalbumins by microchip electrophoresis combined with exoglycosidase digestion

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 18 2003
    Xiuli Mao
    Abstract The polypeptide and carbohydrate patterns of two glycoproteins, chicken ovalbumin (CO) and turkey ovalbumin (TO), were analyzed by microchip electrophoresis (ME), following digestion with proteases and exoglycosidases. Glycopeptides derived from ovalbumin were obtained by digestion with Pronase, followed by dialysis, and then separated by ME. Using CO as model, the method was developed to deduce the structure of glycans from glycoproteins by comparing the electropherograms of glycopeptides with and without digestion of exolycosidases. Applying the same approach, the structure of oligosaccharides linked to TO was determined. TO was found to contain high-mannose type oligosaccharides and oligosaccharides with terminal N -acetylglucosamine residues. The complete primary analysis of CO and TO by ME described in this paper provides a basis for an analysis of glycoproteins with an integrated microfluidic chip. [source]


    2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran is a more potent cytochrome P4501A inducer than 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin in herring gull hepatocyte cultures

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 9 2010
    Jessica C. Herv
    Abstract Concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) on cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) induction were determined in primary cultures of embryonic herring gull (Larus argentatus) hepatocytes exposed for 24,h. Based on the concentration that induced 50% of the maximal response (EC50), the relative potencies of TCDD and TCDF did not differ by more than 3.5-fold. However, also based on the EC50, PeCDF was 40-fold, 21-fold, and 9.8-fold more potent for inducing ethoxyresorufin- O -deethylase (EROD) activity, CYP1A4 mRNA expression, and CYP1A5 mRNA expression than TCDD, respectively. The relative CYP1A-inducing potencies of PeCDF and of other dioxin-like chemicals (DLCs) in herring gull hepatocytes (HEH RePs), along with data on concentrations of DLCs in Great Lakes herring gull eggs, were used to calculate World Health Organization toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ) concentrations and herring gull embryonic hepatocyte toxic equivalent (HEH-TEQ) concentrations. The analysis indicated that, when using avian toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) recommended by the WHO, the relative contribution of TCDD (1.1,10.2%) to total WHO-TEQ concentration was higher than that of PeCDF (1.7,2.9%). These results differ from the relative contribution of TCDD and PeCDF when HEH RePs were used; PeCDF was a major contributor (36.5,52.9%) to total HEH-TEQ concentrations, whereas the contribution by TCDD (1.2,10.3%) was less than that of PeCDF. The WHO TEFs for avian species were largely derived from studies with the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The findings of the present study suggest that it is necessary to determine the relative potencies of DLCs in wild birds and to re-evaluate their relative contributions to the biochemical and toxic effects previously reported in herring gulls and other avian species. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2088,2095. 2010 SETAC [source]


    A nonlethal microsampling technique to monitor the effects of mercury on wild bird eggs

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2009
    Katherine R. Stebbins
    Abstract Methylmercury is the predominant chemical form of mercury reported in the eggs of wild birds, and the embryo is the most sensitive life stage to methylmercury toxicity. Protective guidelines have been based mainly on captive-breeding studies with chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) or on field studies where whole eggs were collected and analyzed and the effects of the mercury were measured based on the reproductive success of the remaining eggs. However, both of these methods have limitations. As an alternative, we developed a technique that involves extracting a small sample of albumen from a live egg, sealing the egg, returning the egg to its nest to be naturally incubated by the parents, and then relating the hatching success of this microsampled egg to its mercury concentration. After first developing this technique in the laboratory using chicken and mallard eggs, we selected the laughing gull (Larus atricilla) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) as test subjects in the field. We found that 92% of the microsampled laughing gull eggs met our reproductive endpoint of survival to the beginning of hatching compared to 100% for the paired control eggs within the same nests. Microsampled black-necked stilt eggs exhibited 100% hatching success compared to 93% for the paired control eggs. Our results indicate that microsampling is an effective tool for nonlethally sampling mercury concentrations in eggs and, as such, can be used for monitoring sensitive species, as well as for improving studies that examine the effects of mercury on avian reproduction. [source]


    The pericyte and stromal cell marker CD248 (endosialin) is required for efficient lymph node expansion

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 7 2010
    Sin Lax
    Abstract CD248 is a cell surface receptor that specifically identifies fibroblasts and pericytes during development and in association with cancer and inflammation. However, its function is poorly defined and its role in lymphoid organs not studied. Here, we used (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl chicken ,-globulin immunisation and mice lacking CD248 to study whether CD248 modulates popliteal LN (pLN) expansion and subsequent immune responses. We have found that CD248 is required for complete pLN expansion but not for co-ordination of B and T cell compartmentalisation or antibody production following (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl chicken ,-globulin immunisation. In vitro, we show that CD248 expression in human MG63 stromal cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts leads to a pro-proliferative and pro-migratory phenotype. This correlates with a proliferating CD248+ population observed in vivo during pLN expansion. Taken together, these data highlight a role for CD248 in secondary lymphoid organ remodelling during adaptive immune responses. [source]


    N -methyl-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine (MBDB): its properties and possible risks

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    L. A. G. J. M. Van Aerts
    MBDB (N -methyl-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-aminobutane) is the ,-ethyl homologue of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine). MBDB is metabolized and excreted similarly to MDMA: presumably, the majority of oral MBDB is excreted in urine unmetabolized. The main metabolic routes in man are thought to be O-dealkylation and subsequent methylation, sulphation and glucuronidation of the newly formed hydroxy groups. The major acute neuropharmacological effects of MBDB in the rat are an increase in serotonin release in the brain and an inhibition of serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake. These effects compare well with those of MDMA, although the latter is more potent. MBDB may also slightly increase dopamine release and inhibit dopamine re-uptake, but to a lesser extent than MDMA. This is important, as dopamine release has been implicated in the reinforcing qualities of substances such as cocaine and amphetamine. The neuroendocrine effects of MBDB resemble those of MDMA. Both substances increase plasma ACTH, corticosterone, prolactin and renin. The neurophysiological effects of MBDB are characterized by a decrease in electrical activity throughout the brain, most notably in the alpha 2 and delta frequency bands. In contrast, hallucinogens increase the activity in the alpha 1 band, especially in the corpus striatum. In drug discrimination tests in the rat, MBDB, like MDMA, can be distinguished clearly from both stimulants and hallucinogens. The class of substances to which MBDB belongs may be named entactogens. MBDB dose-dependently increases locomotor activity and decreases exploratory behaviour in the rat and causes distress vocalization and wing extension in the newly hatched chicken. The rewarding properties of MBDB appear to be smaller than those of MDMA, as suggested by a 2.5 times weaker potency in the conditioned place preference test in rats. The main subjective effects of MBDB in man are a pleasant state of introspection, with greatly facilitated interpersonal communication and a pronounced sense of empathy and compassion between subjects. In this respect, MBDB again resembles MDMA. However, there are also differences. MBDB has a slower and more gentle onset of action than MDMA, produces less euphoria and has less stimulant properties. The few toxicological data available suggest that MBDB may cause serotonergic deficits in the brain, although the potency of MBDB to cause this neurotoxic effect is smaller than that of MDMA. Severe acute reactions in man as have been reported for MDMA have not been published for MBDB. The dependence potential of MBDB appears to be small, probably even smaller than that of MDMA. MBDB has been available at least since 1994 but its position on the synthetic drugs market is marginal. Subjective reports indicate that MBDB is less popular among users than MDMA. The reason may be that MBDB produces less euphoria than MDMA. Another possible explanation is that MBDB largely lacks the stimulant properties of MDMA. We calculated a margin of safety with a method similar to one used in the risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. The results suggest that MBDB is three times less likely to cause serotonergic brain deficits than MDMA. However, it should be noted that for both substances the margin of safety is less than one, indicating that the risk of neurotoxicity is not negligible. In animals, serotonergic brain deficits after exposure to MDMA have been linked to the degeneration of serotonergic nerve terminals. [source]


    Comprehensive survey of carapacial ridge-specific genes in turtle implies co-option of some regulatory genes in carapace evolution

    EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2005
    Shigehiro Kuraku
    Summary The turtle shell is an evolutionary novelty in which the developmental pattern of the ribs is radically modified. In contrast to those of other amniotes, turtle ribs grow laterally into the dorsal dermis to form a carapace. The lateral margin of carapacial primordium is called the carapacial ridge (CR), and is thought to play an essential role in carapace patterning. To reveal the developmental mechanisms underlying this structure, we systematically screened for genes expressed specifically in the CR of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, using microbead-based differential cDNA analysis and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We identified orthologs of Sp5, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein-I (CRABP-I), adenomatous polyposis coli down-regulated 1 (APCDD1), and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor-1 (LEF-1). Although these genes are conserved throughout the major vertebrate lineages, comparison of their expression patterns with those in chicken and mouse indicated that these genes have acquired de novo expression in the CR in the turtle lineage. In association with the expression of LEF-1, the nuclear localization of ,-catenin protein was detected in the CR ectoderm, suggesting that the canonical Wnt signaling triggers carapace development. These findings indicate that the acquisition of the turtle shell did not involve the creation of novel genes, but was based on the co-option of pre-existing genes. [source]