Changing Attitudes (changing + attitude)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Money Attitudes, Credit Card Use, and Compulsive Buying among American College Students

The consumer culture has evolved into one of the most powerful forces shaping individuals and societies (Roberts and Sepulveda 1999 a, b). The desire to become a member of the consumer culture appears to be universal (Droge and Mackoy 1995). Changing attitudes toward money are an important catalyst behind the spread of the consumer culture. Money is important,especially to American college students who have been raised in a credit card society where debt is used freely (Ritzer 1995). Schor (1998) believes that access to easy credit is one of the causes of overspending. Using a causal modeling approach, the present study investigated the role money attitudes and credit card use play in compulsive buying within a sample of American college students (see Figure 1). Findings suggest that the money attitudes powerprestige, distrust, and anxiety (Yamauchi and Templer 1982) are closely related to compulsive buying and that credit card use often moderates these relationships. Study results have important public policy, marketing, and research implications. [source]

Forensic nursing education in North America: Social factors influencing educational development

Arlene E. Kent-Wilkinson RN
Abstract In the mid 1990s, some of the first formal forensic nursing educational programs were established. Now more than a decade later, courses exist at educational levels from certificate to doctorate programs, with little educational research having been conducted. This recent study explored forensic nursing knowledge as a specialty area of study and factors influencing educational development. This paper reports on social factors that facilitated and impeded educational development in the forensic nursing specialty from the perspective of forensic nurse educators in North America. Changing attitudes to previously sanctioned professional roles in society provided discussion for implications for forensic nursing practice. [source]

Changing attitudes to sex assignment in intersex

S.M. Creighton
First page of article [source]

Deterrents to Intercountry Adoption in Britain

Peter Hayes
Some local authority social workers in Britain have used their responsibility to make parental assessments to deter parents from adopting abroad. Prospective parents of foreign children may respond to these deterrents by making unauthorized adoptions. Central government officials have condemned both unauthorized adoptions and the obstructive policies towards intercountry adoption found in some local authorities. Prospects for reform depend partly on changing attitudes, and partly on expanding the role of independent intercountry adoption agencies. [source]

Review: evaluating information systems in nursing

Cristina Oroviogoicoechea MSc
Aims., To review existing nursing research on inpatient hospitals' information technology (IT) systems in order to explore new approaches for evaluation research on nursing informatics to guide further design and implementation of effective IT systems. Background., There has been an increase in the use of IT and information systems in nursing in recent years. However, there has been little evaluation of these systems and little guidance on how they might be evaluated. Methods., A literature review was conducted between 1995 and 2005 inclusive using CINAHL and Medline and the search terms ,nursing information systems', ,clinical information systems', ,hospital information systems', ,documentation', ,nursing records', ,charting'. Results., Research in nursing information systems was analysed and some deficiencies and contradictory results were identified which impede a comprehensive understanding of effective implementation. There is a need for IT systems to be understood from a wider perspective that includes aspects related to the context where they are implemented. Conclusions., Social and organizational aspects need to be considered in evaluation studies and realistic evaluation can provide a framework for the evaluation of information systems in nursing. Relevance to clinical practice., The rapid introduction of IT systems for clinical practice urges evaluation of already implemented systems examining how and in what circumstances they work to guide effective further development and implementation of IT systems to enhance clinical practice. Evaluation involves more factors than just involving technologies such as changing attitudes, cultures and healthcare practices. Realistic evaluation could provide configurations of context-mechanism-outcomes that explain the underlying relationships to understand why and how a programme or intervention works. [source]

Uncertainty and the Rise of the Work-Family Dilemma

Mark Evan Edwards
Existing research argues that women's wages, consumerism, and changing attitudes dismantled the male bread-winner system. Families' economic need is dismissed with the suggestion that mothers' rhetoric of "need" was a smoke screen to defend against social stigma for working mothers. Drawing on biennial data from 1965 to 1987, I suggest that consumptive certainty of the 1950s and 1960s gave way to economic uncertainty in the 1970s and beyond. Economic uncertainty provided impetus, legitimacy, and justification for young families to adopt new work-family arrangements. Hence, economic uncertainty is conceptualized as a real circumstance that substantiates families' reasonable perceptions of need. [source]

Testing the effectiveness of an educational intervention aimed at changing attitudes to self-harm

P. PATTERSON phd ba (hons) rmn rgn cert ed
Nurses' attitudes toward service users who repeatedly self-harm can be negative and may interfere with the user's willingness to engage with services. The effectiveness of an educational intervention aimed at improving nurses' attitudes in this area was tested in this study. The intervention consisted of attendance on an accredited course on self-harm over a period of 15 weeks and the outcome of interest was attitudes as measured by the Self Harm Antipathy Scale. When deployed in a before-and-after design with two non-randomly allocated groups, there was evidence of a 20% reduction in antipathy toward self-harm among course attenders maintained over a period of at least 18 months (compared with a 9% reduction in a comparison group). Three of the six Self Harm Antipathy Scale attitude dimensions showed significant short-term change with some further long-term effects. This is preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the chosen intervention in reducing overall antipathy toward self-harm clients and enhancing a sense of competence, a valuing of the care process and an awareness of the factors contributing to self-harm. [source]

Helicobacter pylori and dyspepsia: physicians' attitudes, clinical practice, and prescribing habits

H. J. O'Connor
Background: Consensus guidelines have been published on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection and it is assumed that these guidelines are adhered to in clinical practice. Aim: To assess the changing attitudes of medical practitioners to H. pylori, and the impact of H. pylori infection on everyday clinical practice and prescribing patterns. Methods: Data for this review were gathered up to December 2000 from detailed review of medical journals, the biomedical database MEDLINE, and relevant abstracts. Results: Physician surveys show widespread acceptance of H. pylori as a causal agent in peptic ulcer disease. Gastroenterologists adopted H. pylori therapy for peptic ulcer earlier and more comprehensively than primary care physicians. Despite a low level of belief in H. pylori as a causal agent in nonulcer dyspepsia and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), H. pylori therapy is widely prescribed for these conditions. Proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy is the eradication regimen of choice by all physician groups. In routine clinical practice, there appears to be significant under-treatment of peptic ulcer disease with H. pylori therapy, but extensive use for nonulcer indications. Prescription of H. pylori treatment regimens of doubtful efficacy appears commonplace, and are more likely in primary care. Despite the advent of H. pylori therapy, the prescription of antisecretory therapy, particularly of proton pump inhibitors, continues to rise. Conclusions: Publication of consensus guidelines per se is not enough to ensure optimal management of H. pylori infection. Innovative and ongoing educational measures are needed to encourage best practice in relation to H. pylori infection. These measures might be best directed at primary care, where the majority of dyspepsia is managed. [source]

From Successful Family Planning to the Lowest of Low Fertility Levels: Taiwan's Dilemma

Wan-I Lin
Since the implementation of family planning in the 1960s, Taiwan's fertility rate has rapidly decreased. This was praised as a family planning achievement. However, in the 21st century Taiwan has become one of the lowest of low fertility countries like European countries [Kohler, H. P., Billari, F. C., & Ortega, J. A. (2002). Population and Development Review, 28(4), 641,80]. The government has begun to worry that these extremely low birthrates will result in rapid population aging and bring about other negative socio-economic effects. Thus, in its Mega Warmth Social Welfare Program (MWSWP) of 2006, the Taiwanese government targeted the issue of low birthrates. Based on secondary data analysis, we found that the reasons for rapid decrease in Taiwanese birthrates are: (i) a declining marriage rate; (ii) later marriage; (iii) changing attitudes towards child bearing; (iv) the burdens of child care; and (v) an increase in female labour participation rates. The MWSWP includes maternity leave benefits, parental leave benefits, a childcare subsidy system and early children education and care (ECEC). First, this article presents a chronological understanding of the demography in Taiwan. Second, we attempt to evaluate the reasons contributing to the low birthrates. The policy response to this is discussed next. Finally, the article provides a careful conclusion: that the extent to which these policies can significantly stop the population from declining requires further observation. [source]

Synergy and sustainability in rural procedural medicine: Views from the coalface

Andrew Swayne
Abstract Objective:,The practice of rural and remote medicine in Australia entails many challenges, including a broad casemix and the remoteness of specialist support. Many rural practitioners employ advanced procedural skills in anaesthetics, surgery, obstetrics and emergency medicine, but the use of these skills has been declining over the last 20 years. This study explored the perceptions of rural general practitioners (GPs) on the current and future situation of procedural medicine. Design:,The qualitative results of data from a mixed-method design are reported. Free-response survey comments and semistructured interview transcripts were analysed by a framework analysis for major themes. Setting:,General practices in rural and remote Queensland. Participants:,Rural GPs in Rural and Remote Metropolitan Classification 4,7 areas of Queensland. Main outcome measure:,The perceptions of rural GPs on the current and future situation of rural procedural medicine. Results:,Major concerns from the survey focused on closure of facilities and downgrading of services, cost and time to keep up skills, increasing litigation issues and changing attitudes of the public. Interviews designed to draw out solutions to help rectify the perceived circumstances highlighted two major themes: ,synergy' between the support from medical teams and community in ensuring ,sustainability' of services. Conclusions:,This article presents a model of rural procedural practice where synergy between staff, resources and support networks represents the optimal way to deliver a non-metropolitan procedural service. The findings serve to remind educators and policy-makers that future planning for sustainability of rural procedural services must be broad-based and comprehensive. [source]