Changing

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Changing

  • changing attitude
  • changing belief
  • changing circumstance
  • changing climate
  • changing composition
  • changing concept
  • changing condition
  • changing context
  • changing demand
  • changing demographic
  • changing discourse
  • changing distribution
  • changing dynamics
  • changing environment
  • changing environmental condition
  • changing epidemiology
  • changing form
  • changing geography
  • changing incidence
  • changing meaning
  • changing nature
  • changing need
  • changing pattern
  • changing practice
  • changing priority
  • changing relation
  • changing relationship
  • changing role
  • changing social
  • changing structure
  • changing time
  • changing trend
  • changing world

  • Selected Abstracts


    Turning the Ship Around Changing the policies and culture of a government agency to make ecosystem management work

    CONSERVATION, Issue 4 2001
    Jennifer M. Belcher
    [source]


    Faculty development for problem-based learning

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DENTAL EDUCATION, Issue 2 2004
    Elizabeth A. Farmer
    Changing to a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum represents a substantial challenge because many faculty members are unfamiliar with the process. Faculty development is a crucial component of successful curriculum change to PBL. This paper describes a logical process for designing and implementing a comprehensive faculty development programme at three main stages of change: curriculum transition, curriculum implementation and curriculum advancement. The components of each stage are discussed with reference to the literature and practice. Future advances in faculty development include harnessing the potential of complex adaptive systems theory in understanding and facilitating the change process, and incorporating the results of research, which illuminates the relationships of the PBL tutorial process to student achievement. There is a continuing need for rigorous outcome-based research and programme evaluation to define the best components and strategies for faculty development. [source]


    What is Changing in Academic Research?

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, Issue 2 2006
    Futures Scenarios, Trends
    What is changing in academic research? What has changed over the past decades and what might change in the coming ones? Could the research mission of universities be carried out in slightly or radically different ways in the medium term? This article aims to cast light on the trends and driving forces that can be observed in academic research over the past two decades in the OECD area. It gives an outlook of the main current characteristics of academic research at a macro level in terms of funding and activities in comparison with research performed by other sectors. It also highlights future challenges and sketches a few possible futures scenarios in a 20-year time frame. [source]


    Assessment of fire protection performance of water mist applied in exhaust ducts for semiconductor fabrication process

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 5 2005
    Yi-Liang Shu
    Abstract Fume exhaust pipes used in semiconductor facilities underwent a series of fire tests to evaluate the performance of a water mist system. The parameters considered were the amount of water that the mist nozzles used, the air flow velocity, the fire intensity and the water mist system operating pressure. In order to make a performance comparison, tests were also performed with a standard sprinkler system. The base case served as a reference and applied a single water mist nozzle (100 bar operating pressure, 7.3 l/min water volume flux and 200 m mean droplet size) installed in the pipe (60 cm in diameter) subjected to a 350C air flow with an average velocity of 2 m/s. In such a case, the temperature in the hot flow dropped sharply as the water mist nozzle was activated and reached a 60C saturation point. Under the same operating conditions, four mist nozzles were applied, and made no further contribution to reducing the fire temperature compared with the case using only a single nozzle. Similar fire protection performances to that in the base case were still retained when the exhaust flow velocity increased to 3 m/s and the inlet air temperature was increased to 500C due to a stronger input fire scenario, respectively. Changing to a water mist system produced a better performance than a standard sprinkler. With regard to the effect of operating pressure of water mist system, a higher operating pressure can have a better performance. The results above indicate that the droplet size in a water-related fire protection system plays a critical role. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Changing with herbs: findings from a randomised, waiting-list controlled pilot study of care of women in the menopause by herbal practitioners

    FOCUS ON ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY THERAPIES AN EVIDENCE-BASED APPROACH, Issue 2007
    A Denham
    [source]


    What Are the Unintended Consequences of Changing the Diagnostic Paradigm for Subarachnoid Hemorrhage After Brain Computed Tomography to Computed Tomographic Angiography in Place of Lumbar Puncture?

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 9 2010
    Jonathan A. Edlow MD
    First page of article [source]


    Transformative Education and its Potential for Changing the Lives of Children in Disempowering Contexts

    IDS BULLETIN, Issue 1 2009
    Felix Bivens
    For millions of children around the world, disempowerment is not just a part of life , it becomes their life, to the point where any alternative way of living may be unimaginable to them. Intergenerational transmission (IGT) of inequality is deeply embedded, even where education is available; this leads us to question whether many forms of education, experienced by children who are already disempowered, may further entrench that condition by reproducing the norms, values and drivers within society that have brought about this disempowerment in the first place. In this article we explore the extent to which access to good-quality, transformative education has a key role to play in overcoming IGT of marginalised children and their communities, with positive outcomes not only for the individuals themselves but also for wider social processes. [source]


    In reply to Commentary: "What Are the Unintended Consequences of Changing the Diagnostic Paradigm for Subarachnoid Hemorrhage After Brain Computed Tomography to Computed Topographic Angiography in Place of Lumbar Puncture?"

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 9 2010
    Robert F. McCormack MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Healing and Salvation in Late Modernity: the Use and Implication of Such Terms in the Ecumenical Movement

    INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF MISSION, Issue 380-381 2007
    Vebjrn Horsfjord
    This article explores developments over the last decades in the way ecumenical texts, primarily originating from world conferences organized by the Commission on World Mission and Evangelism, speak about soteriology. Under the headlines, "Salvation Today" (1973) and "Your Kingdom Come" (1980), terminology inspired by liberation theology took centre stage, and a predominantly immanent understanding of salvation was promoted. In recent years a different terminology has taken over, and it is one that focuses on "healing" and "the fullness of life". At its best, the holistic healing approach manages to take up the important concerns from earlier times, such as economic justice, racism and environmental issues, while at the same time giving more room for existential issues and the experiences of the individual The new healing discourse appears to reflect two different modalities of the church's healing ministry, viz. that which is concerned with the causes of suffering, and that which addresses the experience of suffering. The latter was often ignored in the recent past. The healing discourse gives room for new explorations of practices that have been central in the church throughout its history, such as anointing the sick, and praying for and with them, and hearing individual confessions. Openness towards subjective experience also has implications for the contextualization of the Christian faith. There is a new awareness that not only do the causes of suffering vary from situation to situation but so does the understanding of (what constitutes) suffering itself. Changing or varying understandings of suffering give rise to different approaches to its alleviation, and can inspire a rethinking of how we understand salvation in different contexts. The new healing discourse can also be studied in its relationship to cultural trends known as post-modernity or late modernity. The texts under study display very ambivalent approaches to these developments. There might be a tendency for texts that have concrete experience as their starting point to take a more positive view of these cultural developments than do texts that begin with more general theological observations. [source]


    Are Paradigms Changing in Favor of Biocatalysis?

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 6-7 2003
    Wolf-Dieter Fessner
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Ageing of soft thermoplastic starch with high glycerol content

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2007
    Rui Shi
    Abstract In this study, a soft and thermoplastic starch with an improved ageing-resistant property was prepared by melt blending method for a biodegradable biomaterial. The glycerol content varies from 30 to 60 wt %. The aging temperature and humidity of the glycerol-plasticized thermoplastic starch (GTPS) was 37C and 50 5 RH %, respectively. The retrogradation was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and the stress-strain mechanical properties. The XRD results suggest that high content of glycerol promotes the formation of single helix structure of V-type, but inhibits double helix structure of B-type. Changing of the tan ,, storage modules (E,), and the glass transition temperatures as a function of glycerol content and ageing time was detected by DMTA. FTIR result shows that the shifting speed of the peak of hydroxyl group stretching fell as the glycerol content increased. The glycerol content has no obvious effect on the mechanical properties when it is high enough. Results from all characterizations demonstrate that the ageing speed is closely relative to the plasticizers content. The higher content of glycerol possesses an obviously inhibitory effect on the ageing. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 103: 574,586, 2007 [source]


    Changing from a mixed to self-selected vegetarian diet , influence on blood lipids

    JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 5 2002
    F. Robinson
    Abstract Objective To observe any changes in serum concentrations of lipids, when UK meat-eaters switch to a self selected vegetarian diet for 6 months. Design Observational study using capillary blood samples and 3-day estimated dietary diary. Setting Free-living subjects in the North-West of England. Subjects Twelve male and 31 female adult volunteers aged between 18 and 42 years. Outcome measures Serum lipids; nutrient intake and anthropometric measurements at baseline and 6 months after switching to a self-selected vegetarian diet. Results Total energy intake and amount of energy derived from saturated fatty acids decreased significantly after changing to a vegetarian diet (P < 0.05) whereas energy derived from carbohydrate, and intakes of nonstarch polysaccharide intake increased. On switching to a vegetarian diet, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations were not significantly changed, but HDL-C was 21% higher than at baseline (1.21 mmol L,1 vs. 1.47 mmol L,1; P = 0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that beneficial changes to diet occurred on changing to a self-selected vegetarian diet. Changing to a self-selected vegetarian diet appears to be one way of achieving a better blood lipid profile. [source]


    Changing of fat content and fatty acid profile of reared pike (Esox lucius) fed two different diets

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 1 2006
    Balzs Kucska
    Abstract Fat content and fatty acid profile of two pike yearling groups grown on two different diets were compared. The groups originated from culture on artificial feed. One group (cultured pike fed first pellet then prey-fish (PF)) was fed with natural food, live prey-fish, while the other one (cultured pike fed exclusively pellet (PP)) by trout feed through a 3-month experimental period. Growth of pike was lower with PP than with PF. The trout feed resulted in an increase of the fat content of fillet and the formation of abdominal fat depots. Feeding of natural food decreased the fat content. The proportion of the saturated fatty acids in fillet was higher in the (PF) group. The n-6 fatty acids (arachidonic C20:4n-6 and docosatetraenic C22:4n-6 acids) were lowest in PP-fed pike. Regarding total n-3 fatty acids ratio there was no significant difference between the groups, but the level of ,-linolenic (C:18:3n-3) acid showed significant difference among groups. [source]


    The status of women and minority faculty: Changing or unchanging?

    ASHE HIGHER EDUCATION REPORT, Issue 6 2000
    Article first published online: 6 JUN 200
    First page of article [source]


    The Influence of Corporate Governance on Corporate Performance and Value after Changing the CEO: Evidence from Taiwan,

    ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF FINANCIAL STUDIES, Issue 6 2009
    Hsu-Huei Huang
    Abstract Can corporate performance be improved by changing the CEO? The answer to this question may vary from country to country or from firm to firm. This study proposes that, generally speaking, firms in countries with a better corporate governance environment or firms with better governing mechanisms are more likely to see improvements in performance after a change in their CEOs than those without this environment or these mechanisms. To test this corporate governance hypothesis, we compared corporate performance and value measures of 155 listed companies in Taiwan that had their CEOs replaced between 1996 and 2002. At the national level, we found that in Taiwan corporate performance did not generally improve by merely replacing the CEO. At the firm level, companies with better corporate governance in terms of ownership structure and board structure were found to have better performance and higher corporate value after changing the CEO, and they were also found to have a better net improvement in performance. [source]


    Changing of the guard

    ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION D, Issue 1 2003
    Ted Baker
    First page of article [source]


    ChemInform Abstract: Switchable Reactivity of Acylated ,,,-Dehydroamino Ester in the Friedel,Crafts Alkylation of Indoles by Changing the Lewis Acid.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 49 2008
    Elena Angelini
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]


    Changing of the guard

    CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY, Issue 1 2009
    Article first published online: 6 JAN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Hybrid Simulation of Miscible Mixing with Viscous Fingering

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 2 2010
    Seung-Ho Shiny
    Abstract By modeling mass transfer phenomena, we simulate solids and liquids dissolving or changing to other substances. We also deal with the very small-scale phenomena that occur when a fluid spreads out at the interface of another fluid. We model the pressure at the interfaces between fluids with Darcy's Law and represent the viscous fingering phenomenon in which a fluid interface spreads out with a fractal-like shape. We use hybrid grid-based simulation and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate intermolecular diffusion and attraction using particles at a computable scale. We have produced animations showing fluids mixing and objects dissolving. [source]


    Corporate Governance in Germany: the move to shareholder value

    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, Issue 3 2001
    Florian Schilling
    The paper offers an inside view of the German corporate governance model, based on interviews with over 100 members of supervisory- (Aufsichtsrat) and executive-boards (Vorstand) of major German corporations. The traditional supervisory board with its large size of 20 members, one half elected by the employees, reflects the strong consensus orientation of the German corporate world. This system worked well in times of long innovation cycles and largely separate, national capital markets. It is coming under increasing pressure to adapt to the demands of a fast changing globalised capital market.Keywords: Corporate governance in Germany, supervisory board, codetermination, board composition, professionalisation of boards [source]


    An exploration of research into substance misuse and psychiatric disorder in the UK: what can we learn from history?

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 4 2007
    Ilana B. Crome
    Background and aim,This review explores UK-based research developments in substance misuse and mental illness over the last 25 years. The main body of work comprises policy-orientated projects funded by the Department of Health from the late 1990s. Early research tended to focus on alcohol, especially alcoholic hallucinosis: the relationship of the latter with schizophrenia-like illness was examined, with the finding that very few cases did develop into schizophrenia. Method and implications,Parallels are drawn with the current debate around the link between cannabis and psychosis, urging caution in too rapid an assertion that cannabis is necessarily ,causal'. The clinical and policy implications of the misinterpretation of evidence are discussed. A proposal is put forward that the genesis of psychotic illness in alcohol misuse be revisited using more sophisticated research methodologies. Given the changing landscape of substance use in the UK, particularly the fashion of polysubstance use and the recognition that this is associated with psychotic illness, other drugs that are associated with psychotic illness should be similarly investigated to determine whether there is a common mechanism that might throw light on understanding the relationship between substance use and psychotic illness or schizophrenia. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Name change among offender patients: an English high security hospital sample

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 4 2002
    Birgit Vllm Clinical Research Fellow
    Background There is scant literature on change of name among psychiatric patients but a more substantial amount on the use of aliases among offenders. No one to our knowledge has explored name changes among offender patients. Aim This study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of name change among high security hospital patients and to compare those who changed name with those who did not. Hypothesis It was hypothesized that name change would be associated with male gender, repeated offending and a diagnosis of personality disorder. Method The clinical records of all patients resident in one high security hospital on 31 January 2000 were searched. As all such patients are compulsorily detained, all name changes must be recorded. Any change prior to that date was also noted, together with basic demographic and diagnostic information; supplementary data were obtained from the special hospitals' case register. Results Seventy-one patients (17%) of the resident population changed names (exclusive of a woman changing her surname on marriage). Name changing was associated with disrupted upbringing. Patients with personality disorder were more likely to change names than those with psychosis, regardless of sex, age or ethnic group. Those with psychosis were more likely to select unusual or symbolic names. Conclusions On the evidence of previous literature, people from this serious offender patient population were more likely to change names than other psychiatric patients but less likely than non-mentally-disordered offenders. Changes by people with psychosis seemed related to their illness, whereas changes by those with personality disorder might reflect childhood disruptions in rearing patterns. Copyright 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    Living with uncertainty: Equivocal Pap test results and the evolution of ASC terminology

    DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Lydia Pleotis Howell M.D.
    Abstract Communication of equivocal findings and their significance has been a significant challenge related to Pap testing throughout its history. Terminology to report these findings has changed considerably to accommodate the changes in understanding of cervical neoplasia, and to accommodate new management strategies, tests, and technologies. This article reviews the evolution of terminology for equivocal Pap test findings from the original Papanicolaou classification to the current the Bethesda System 2001 atypical squamous cells terminology, the implication and use of these terms, and the changing landscape of cervical neoplasia screening, which prompted these terminology changes. Emerging issues related to improving risk stratification through the introduction of additional terms and the impact of human papillomavirus testing may alter terminology of equivocal findings in the future. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Large displacement behaviour of a structural model with foundation uplift under impulsive and earthquake excitations

    EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 3 2003
    Giuseppe Oliveto
    Abstract This paper considers the dynamical behaviour of a structural model with foundation uplift. The equations of motion of the system considered are derived for large displacements thus allowing for the eventual overturning of the system. The transition conditions between successive phases of motion, derived in terms of the specific Lagrangian co-ordinates used in the formulation of the equations of motion, present innovative aspects which resolve some previously inexplicable behaviour in the structural response reported in the literature. The dynamical behaviour of the model is considered under impulsive and long-duration ground motions. The minimum horizontal acceleration impulses for the uplift and the overturning of the system are evaluated in analytical form. The sensitivity of the model to uplifting and to overturning under impulsive excitations is established as a function of few significant structural parameters. Numerical applications have been performed changing either the structural parameters or the loading parameter, in order to analyse several dynamical behaviours and also to validate the analytical results. For earthquake ground motions the results, reported in the form of response spectra, show that linearized models generally underestimate, sometimes significantly, the structural response. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Is Reserve-ratio Arithmetic More Pleasant?

    ECONOMICA, Issue 279 2003
    Joydeep Bhattacharya
    Does it matter in a revenue-neutral setting if the government changes the inflation tax base or the inflation tax rate? We answer this question within the context of an overlapping-generations model in which government bonds, capital and cash reserves coexist. We consider experiments that parallel those studied in Sargent and Wallace's ,unpleasant monetarist arithmetic'; the government uses seigniorage to service its debt, choosing between changing either the money growth rate (the inflation tax rate) or the reserve-requirement ratio (the inflation tax base). In the former case we obtain standard unpleasant arithmetic; in the long run a permanent open market sale results in higher money growth, and higher long-run inflation. Somewhat surprisingly, it turns out that, for a given money growth rate, lower reserve requirements fund the government's interest expense. Associated with the lower reserve requirements is lower long-run inflation and higher welfare, compared with the money-growth case. The broad message is that reserve-ratio arithmetic can be pleasant even when money-growth arithmetic is not. [source]


    Basic study of pole change generator for micro windmill generation system

    ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 1 2010
    Kazuto Yukita
    Abstract This paper proposes a pole change generator for a windmill. Since micro windmill systems generate power from natural energy, power generation characteristics across a wide band are necessary. However, the conventional generator, in which the open voltage is simply proportional to the rotational velocity, encounters difficulty in generating power across a wide range of rotational velocities from low to high, because of the power generation characteristics. To develop a generator with a wide power band suitable for a micro windmill, this paper proposes a technique for switching the status of the generator coil connection. To demonstrate the effectiveness of pole changing, we use a pole-changing generator with 16 coils as an example. The coils can be connected using four patterns: 16-pole series, 8-pole 2-parallel, 4-pole 4-parallel, and 2-pole 8-parallel. Theoretical and experimental studies from this point of view demonstrate that this technique is effective. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 171(1): 28,36, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20873 [source]


    Confusion Effect in a Reptilian and a Primate Predator

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 8 2000
    Carsten Schradin
    The confusion effect is claimed to be one benefit of group living with respect to predator avoidance: it is more difficult for predators to capture prey that is surrounded by other conspecifics than to capture an isolated individual. So far, the predictions of the confusion effect have been tested mainly in aquatic predators. As the confusion effect is seen to be a general problem for predators, terrestrial predators of two different vertebrate classes were used to test it. The prey (mealworms and black beetles, Tenebrio molitor) was harmless and had no chance of predator avoidance. Thus, confounding effects of group defence and enhanced vigilance were controlled. Both leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) and common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) took longer to catch one out of several prey compared to one single prey. Leopard geckos showed more fixations (changing of head position) when confronted with 20 mealworms than when confronted with only one mealworm, thus showing indications of being ,confused'. [source]


    The Creation of a Vocational Sector in Swiss Higher Education: balancing trends of system differentiation and integration

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, Issue 4 2003
    Juan-Francisco Perellon
    The article discusses the establishment of a vocational sector in Swiss higher education as a complement to the existing two-tier system of cantonal Universities and federal Institutes of technology. The origins of this new player, its missions and organisational features are discussed. This overall discussion is placed into the context of changing landscape of Swiss higher education policy characterised by increasing pressures for geographical reorganisation of the higher education sector under the auspices of a more direct role of the federal government. The article makes two points. First, it argues that the creation of a vocational sector in Swiss higher education combines two contradictory trends. On the one hand, this new sector tends to provide differentiation at the system level, through the creation of a new, more marked-oriented sector of higher education. On the other hand, system differentiation at the system level is threatened by increased demands for greater inter-institutional cooperation and system integration, emanating principally from the federal level. Second, the article also argues that the distinction between ,academic/scientific' vs. ,vocational/professional' education generally referred to when studying the emergence of non-university sectors in higher education, is not pertinent for the analysis of the Swiss case. Two reasons are brought forward to sustain this argument. First, this distinction reinforces an artificial binary divide, no longer relevant to assess the evolution of higher education institutions placed in a context of academic and vocational drifts. Second, the ,academic' vs. ,professional' opposition does not take into consideration the political organisation of the country and how this impacts on policy making in higher education; a crucial element in the Swiss context. [source]


    Microstructure and Texture Formation During Near Conventional Forging of an Intermetallic Ti,45Al,5Nb Alloy,

    ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Issue 12 2009
    Andreas Stark
    Abstract Texture formation was studied in an intermetallic Ti-45at%Al-5at%Nb alloy after uniaxial compression and near conventional forging. Depending on the deformation conditions the texture of the , -TiAl phase is formed by pure deformation components, components related to dynamic recrystallization, or transformation components. This changing corresponds with microstructural observations. The ,2 -Ti3Al and the , -Ti(Al) phase show a similar texture as it is known for Ti and Ti-base alloys after compressive deformation at elevated temperatures. In contrast to the , texture, no significant change of the ,/,2 texture was observed in the temperature range between 800,C and just below the , -transus temperature (T,,=,1295,C). [source]


    The sensitivity of phytoplankton in Loch Leven (U.K.) to changes in nutrient load and water temperature

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    J. ALEX ELLIOTT
    Summary 1. Loch Leven is a shallow, eutrophic lake in Scotland, U.K. It has experienced much change over the 30 years that it has been studied; this has primarily been due to reduced nutrient loads to the lake through active catchment management. Its recovery has been slow and, therefore, we used a phytoplankton community model (PROTECH) to test its sensitivity to changing nutrient loads and water temperature. 2. PROTECH was initialized to simulate the observed phytoplankton community in 1995 and was then repeatedly run through a combination of step-wise changes in water temperature and nutrient load (two treatments were simulated for nutrient load: one changing both nitrate and phosphorus, and one changing just phosphorus). The effect on total chlorophyll- a concentration, cyanobacteria abundance and phytoplankton diversity was examined. 3. Whilst changes in temperature had little effect, variations in the nutrient load produced a range of responses. Increasing only the phosphorus load caused a large increase in Anabaena abundance and total chlorophyll- a concentration. However, the opposite response was recorded when nitrate load was changed as well, with Anabaena increasing its biomass under reduced nutrient load scenarios. 4. The key factor determining the type of response appeared to be nitrogen availability. Anabaena, a nitrogen fixer, could exploit the phosphorus resource of Loch Leven under limiting nitrogen conditions, allowing it to dominate under most of the scenarios tested apart from those supplying extra nitrogen to the lake. The model predictions agree with the observed data, which show that Anabaena continues to dominate the summer phytoplankton bloom in Loch Leven despite the considerable reduction in phosphorus supply from the catchment. This research provides a possible explanation for this. [source]