Champion

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting


Selected Abstracts


Efficacy and safety results from the randomized controlled comparative study of adalimumab vs. methotrexate vs. placebo in patients with psoriasis (CHAMPION)

BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
J.-H. Saurat
Summary Background, Biologic therapies such as adalimumab, a tumour necrosis factor antagonist, are safe and effective in the treatment of moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis. Objectives, To compare a biologic agent with methotrexate, a traditional systemic agent, to define clearly the role of biologics in psoriasis. Methods, Patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis were randomized to adalimumab (80 mg subcutaneously at week 0, then 40 mg every other week, n = 108), methotrexate (7·5 mg orally, increased as needed and as tolerated to 25 mg weekly; n = 110) or placebo (n = 53) for 16 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving at least a 75% improvement in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI 75) after 16 weeks. Safety was assessed at all visits through week 16. Results, After 16 weeks, 79·6% of adalimumab-treated patients achieved PASI 75, compared with 35·5% for methotrexate (P < 0·001 vs. adalimumab) and 18·9% for placebo (P < 0·001 vs. adalimumab). Statistically significantly more adalimumab-treated patients (16·7%) than methotrexate-treated patients (7·3%) or placebo-treated patients (1·9%) achieved complete clearance of disease. The response to adalimumab was rapid, with a 57% improvement in mean PASI observed at week 4. Adverse events were similar across treatment groups. Adverse events leading to study discontinuation were greatest in the methotrexate group, primarily because of hepatic-related adverse events. Conclusions, After 16 weeks, adalimumab demonstrated significantly superior efficacy and more rapid improvements in psoriasis compared with either methotrexate or placebo. [source]


BETWEEN WARRIORS AND CHAMPIONS: WARFARE AND SOCIAL CHANGE IN THE LATER PREHISTORY OF THE NORTH-WESTERN IBERIAN PENINSULA1

OXFORD JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
FRANCISCO JAVIER GONZÁLEZ GARCÍA
Summary This article explores changes in the ,art of warfare' among societies in the north-western Iberian Peninsula in the Late Bronze and Iron Ages. These changes are interpreted as a manifestation of the transformation experienced by societies living in the region first from ,warrior societies' to ,societies with warriors' at the end of the Bronze Age and then back to ,warrior societies' in the Late Iron Age. Evidence of individual combat as a manifestation of ,societies with warriors' is analysed in the broader context of Indo-European and ethnographical examples. It reflects societies in which there were groups specialized in warfare and represents the establishment, in the region, of an Indo-European warrior ideology. [source]


Turkey Supplants Egypt as Palestinian Champion

NEW PERSPECTIVES QUARTERLY, Issue 3 2010
ALASTAIR CROOKE
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Edna Dell Weinel, Champion of Public Health Nursing, Excerpts from an Oral History

PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING, Issue 2 2008
Irene Kalnins
ABSTRACT Edna Dell Weinel is a former executive director (1980,1991) of the Family Care Center, a federally funded neighborhood health center in St. Louis, Missouri; this position capped her career as a county public health nurse, state maternal-child nursing consultant, and educator. In all her positions, Weinel lived her values: working at one's highest level of skill, social justice, and teamwork, and used political skills to build alliances for the improvement of community health. Her many contributions to public health and public health nursing were recognized by the Public Health Nursing Section of the American Public Health Association in 1993 with the Ruth B. Freeman Distinguished Career award. In interviews conducted early in 2007, Weinel spoke of her pride in being a public health nurse, her unchanging belief that health care can best be delivered by teams, and that public health nurses are an essential part of any effective team. [source]


Champions, adapters, consultants and synergists: the new change agents in HRM

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT JOURNAL, Issue 3 2001
Raymond Caldwell
At the centre of many HRM approaches to organisational transformation and culture change is the concept of the personnel or HR professional as change agent. Storey highlighted the emerging significance of the 'changemaker' role in the UK almost a decade ago, and Ulrich has offered a powerful reinterpretation of the personnel function that affirms the significance of the HR change agent in championing competitiveness in many large US corporations. However, while the scope and influence of this role has often been questioned, the variety of forms it takes has not been satisfactorily addressed. The new survey findings and interview evidence from major UK companies presented here indicates that the change agent role has grown in significance and complexity. To partly capture these changes, a new four-fold typology of HR change agent roles is proposed: champions, adapters, consultants and synergists. [source]


Little Women and Vital Champions: Gendered Language Shift in a Northern Italian Town

JOURNAL OF LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
Jillian R. Cavanaugh
The connection of language to class is clearly implicated in the language shift in progress in the northern Italian town of Bergamo. Gender also plays an active part in this shift in terms of linguistic practice and language ideology, as a gendering of languages is occurring such that the local vernacular, Bergamasco, is linked to men, and the national standard, Italian, to women. This article demonstrates that this gendering is one mechanism of language shift, as it impacts the linguistic division of labor across genders in Bergamo. With men in charge of revitalization and women responsible for language socialization, fewer children are growing up speaking Bergamasco. [source]


League Champions in Mid Table: On the Major Changes in Dutch Prison Policy

THE HOWARD JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Issue 1 2000
Francis J. Pakes
The Netherlands has traditionally been known for having perhaps the mildest prison policy of the Western world in terms of prisoner numbers and prisoner treatment. However, over the last 15 to 20 years a dramatic change has taken place. The number of detention years has steadily increased since 1985; subsequently an extensive prison building scheme was launched, which resulted in more than double the number of prison cells. The landmark change in prison policy is probably completed by the coming into force of the Penitentiary Principles Act 1999 [ Penitentiare Benginselenwet] (Ministry of Justice 1997b), that became law on 1 January 1999. The new legislation re-prioritises Dutch prison policy, by emphasising security and sobriety. This article examines causes and effects of these developments. [source]


Champions of Mexico in Ante-Bellum America

THE JOURNAL OF POPULAR CULTURE, Issue 2 2001
Lyon Rathbun
First page of article [source]


Financial Champions and Masters of Innovation: Analyzing the Effects of Balancing Strategic Orientations,

THE JOURNAL OF PRODUCT INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 6 2009
Angela Paladino
Theory predicts that market and resource orientations can each lead to innovation and financial success. Despite this, no research has examined whether the pursuit of both resource and market orientations is feasible and, if so, the impact of this combined effect on innovative and financial outcomes. This paper aims to address these gaps. Thus, it is the first to examine the interdependent relationship between market orientation (MO) and resource orientation (RO). Additionally, this study responds to calls for (1) cross-disciplinary research, particularly in the areas of marketing and strategic management, and (2) comparative studies of diverse strategic orientations on performance. In doing so, this paper investigates the difference in innovation performance and financial performance between firms adopting a high or low degree of market orientation or a high or low degree of resource orientation. This allows us to observe independent and interdependent effects of these orientations on the firm's performance. Data were collected from 250 senior executives in Australia. Confirmatory factor analysis and related techniques were applied to assess the robustness of the measures used. A two-way between-groups analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the relationships. Results show the emergence of four organizational types: unfocused imitators or followers; market-driven innovators; masters of innovation; and financial champions. From these, financial champions emerge as having the greatest impact on the financial performance of the firm, while masters of innovation are best for maximizing innovation outcomes. In fact, organizations with a high RO in the matrix (masters of innovation and financial champions) achieved a higher impact on innovation relative to the quadrants reflecting a lower MO. Results also demonstrate that pursuing a low degree of resource and market orientations leads to inferior financial performance. Therefore, a balance of resource and market orientations is important. A potential extension of this research is to assess these relationships on an industry-by-industry basis. This would contribute to our knowledge by allowing us to determine if and how these results differ between industries. Managerial and theoretical implications are also discussed. [source]


The Role of Champions in the External Commercialization of Knowledge,

THE JOURNAL OF PRODUCT INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2009
Ulrich Lichtenthaler
Besides applying knowledge in their own products or services, firms may externally commercialize their knowledge assets (e.g., by means of outlicensing). The literature on champions, however, has focused on internal innovation. This gap in prior research is particularly remarkable as the potential for promoting external knowledge exploitation is high. Some pioneering firms realize great benefits, whereas most others experience major managerial difficulties. This paper tests five hypotheses regarding the emergence and impact of champions of external knowledge exploitation with data from 152 firms across industries. The results of the questionnaire-based study demonstrate the relevance of champions of external knowledge exploitation. Championing constitutes an essential success factor and has strongly contributed to the recent increase in external knowledge commercialization. These findings help to explain the discrepancies between the few successful and the majority of unsuccessful firms. Beyond existing insights, the emergence of champions is affected by external determinants in addition to internal determinants. There is an inverted U-shaped relationship between championing and the internal determinants, that is, organizational climate and active strategy. Moreover, there is a negative relationship between championing and market imperfection and an inverted U-shaped relationship between championing and competitive intensity, which both constitute external determinants of championing. In contrast to the traditional understanding, champions tend to emerge in supportive environments, in which internal and external barriers are relatively low. This surprising finding calls for rethinking the role and motivation of champions. [source]


Benchmarking Innovation: A Short Report

CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2000
Zoe Radnor
A project is reported that benchmarked ,best practice' mature organisations, with a base in the United Kingdom, on the processes and practices that they perceive underpinned successful innovation projects. The majority of organisations had director level personnel involved in the innovation process but only three had active involvement of the top management. However, the majority saw the greatest level of innovation being obtained through the use of cross-functional teams. Five key innovation supports were identified during the benchmarking exercise. These were top management support for, and involvement in the process; the appointment of an innovation champion or sponsor; rewards for innovative behaviours and ideas; and finally a positive attitude to building on creative ideas, irrespective of their source. It is suggested that benchmarking can play a role in identifying best-practice innovation structures and procedures. [source]


Decentralization and Democracy in Indonesia: A Critique of Neo-Institutionalist Perspectives

DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE, Issue 4 2004
Vedi R. Hadiz
This article assesses some of the major premises of neo-institutionalist explanations of decentralization policy and practices, but focuses especially on the relationship between decentralization and democracy, in the context of the recent and ongoing Indonesian experience with decentralization. In the last two decades ,decentralization' has become, along with ,civil society', ,social capital' and ,good governance', an integral part of the contemporary neo-institutionalist lexicon, especially that part which is intended to draw greater attention to ,social' development. The concern of this article is to demystify how, as a policy objective, decentralization has come to embody a barely acknowledged political, not just theoretical, agenda. It also suggests alternative ways of understanding why decentralization has often failed to achieve its stated aims in terms of promoting democracy, ,good governance', and the like. What is offered is an understanding of decentralization processes that more fully incorporates the factors of power, struggle and interests, which tend to be overlooked by neo-institutionalist perspectives. The current Indonesian experience clearly illustrates the way in which institutions can be hijacked by a wide range of interests that may sideline those that champion the worldview of ,technocratic rationality'. [source]


Six Ways of Salvation: How Does Jesus Save?

DIALOG, Issue 3 2006
Ted Peters
Abstract:, Using the model method for comparative analysis of theological theories, this article compares and contrasts six models of atonement: (1) Jesus as teacher of true knowledge; (2) Jesus as moral example and influence; (3) Jesus as the victorious champion and liberator; (4) Jesus as our satisfaction; (5) Jesus as the happy exchange; and (6) Jesus as the final scapegoat. [source]


TEACHER AS PROPHETIC TRICKSTER

EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 1 2009
Jim Garrison
These include nurturing caregiver, guardian of morality, champion of the global economy, self-sacrificing do-gooder, cultural worker, intellectual, tyrant, and many more metaphors. Jim Garrison's essay introduces another figure, a mythological persona, to the pantheon of images depicting the school teacher , the Trickster. Tricksters are masters of multiple interpretation that cross, bend, break, and redefine borders. Garrison concentrates on prophetic tricksters that create openings in closed structures to reveal hidden possibilities. In practice, many teachers are tricksters. They know how to maneuver in, around, and through rigid bureaucratic structures and standards to connect with their students and make a difference while exercising creative autonomy in the classroom. Garrison's essay provides examples of trickster teachers drawn from literature depicting classroom practice. [source]


The utility of behavioral models and modules in molecular analyses of social behavior

GENES, BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR, Issue 3 2008
Andrew B. Barron
It is extremely difficult to trace the causal pathway relating gene products or molecular pathways to the expression of behavior. This is especially true for social behavior, which being dependent on interactions and communication between individuals is even further removed from molecular-level events. In this review, we discuss how behavioral models can aid molecular analyses of social behavior. Various models of behavior exist, each of which suggest strategies to dissect complex behavior into simpler behavioral ,modules.' The resulting modules are easier to relate to neural processes and thus suggest hypotheses for neural and molecular function. Here we discuss how three different models of behavior have facilitated understanding the molecular bases of aspects of social behavior. We discuss the response threshold model and two different approaches to modeling motivation, the state space model and models of reinforcement and reward processing. The examples we have chosen illustrate how models can generate testable hypotheses for neural and molecular function and also how molecular analyses probe the validity of a model of behavior. We do not champion one model over another; rather, our examples illustrate how modeling and molecular analyses can be synergistic in exploring the molecular bases of social behavior. [source]


Technological and organizational influences on the adoption of activity-based costing in Australia

ACCOUNTING & FINANCE, Issue 3 2004
David A. Brown
The present paper examines one set of potential reasons for the paradox as to why so few firms have adopted activity-based costing (ABC) despite the demonstrated benefits of this costing system. A cross-sectional survey of Australian firms is used to examine the influence of seven technological and organizational factors on firms' initial interest in ABC and their decision to adopt it or not. The organizational factors of top management support, the support of an internal champion, and organizational size were shown to be associated with initial interest in ABC. The decision to adopt or reject ABC had one organizational factor associated with it, the support of an internal champion. [source]


More than a great poster: Lord Kitchener and the image of the military hero

HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Issue 185 2001
Keith Surridge
Lord Kitchener was once a great legendary figure but the imagery and iconography used to create the legend is less well known. By using his papers and contemporary literature this article attempts to shed light on how Kitchener was regarded by his peers and the public. Instead of the wholesome English traits attributed to his predecessors, Kitchener's admirers and enemies described him as ,oriental', ,teutonic', devious, cruel, machine-like and efficient, which made him the ideal champion for a country undergoing a collective crisis of confidence before 1914. Thus Kitchener was, in many ways, a new kind of hero. [source]


The Secret of Leopold Amery

HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Issue 181 2000
William D. Rubinstein
Leopold Amery (1873-1955) is best-known as a lifelong champion of imperial preference and empire unity, and was an important figure in the Conservative party during the first half of the twentieth century. Yet Amery was also a man with an extraordinary secret, which this article explores. Amery's mother Elisabeth Leitner (née Saphir) was Jewish. Amery went to extraordinary lengths to conceal his Jewish background, which was unknown until recently. Yet Amery might also be described as a ,secret Jew', who frequently used his influence on behalf of Jewish causes. He was the real author of the Balfour Declaration of 1917. Most remarkably and tragically, his eldest son John Amery (1912-1945) was a wartime Nazi who was hanged for treason. [source]


The Measurement of Success of Activity-Based Costing and Its Determinants: A Study within Canadian Federal Government Organizations,/L'évaluation Du Succès De La Comptabilité Par Activités Et Ses Déterminants: Étude D'Organismes Du Gouvernement Fédéral Du Canada

ACCOUNTING PERSPECTIVES, Issue 3 2007
Anne Fortin
ABSTRACT This research first measures the success of activity-based costing (ABC) implementation within Canadian federal government organizations along five constructs, which are the use and frequency of use of the ABC information, decision actions taken, financial improvements, evaluation by management as to overall success, and a composite measure of the four constructs. Second, it identifies the determinants of ABC success. The success determinants used in this study are organizational culture, involvement of a champion, change process, commitment, controls, and continuous education. Measures of ABC success and determinants were obtained using a survey of managers who have participated in ABC implementation in Canadian federal government organizations. The study found that the benefits derived from ABC implementation within Canadian public sector organizations do not measure up to the efforts invested, although respondents consider that some financial improvements have resulted from the implementations. Controls and culture proved to be the two variables that significantly relate to ABC success. The results could have implications for policymaking organizations such as the Treasury Board Secretariat of Canada and the Office of the Comptroller General (OCG). The latter should question the benefits of investments made in management accounting best practices in the federal government. The OCG could also direct departments and agencies to the right environment (success determinants) to be put in place in order to ensure the success of ABC initiatives. RÉSUMÉ Les auteurs évaluent le succès de la mise en ,uvre de la comptabilité par activités (CPA) au sein d'organismes du gouvernement fédéral du Canada selon cinq paramètres, soit l'utilisation et la fréquence d'utilisation de l'information produite par la CPA, les mesures décisionnelles prises, les améliorations financières, l'évaluation du succès global par la direction et une mesure composite regroupant ces quatre paramètres. Ils définissent ensuite les déterminants du succès de la CPA. Les déterminants utilisés dans la présente étude sont la culture organisationnelle, l'intervention d'un défenseur, le processus de changement, l'engagement, les contrôles et la formation continue. Les auteurs obtiennent les critères d'évaluation et les déterminants du succès de la CPA en procédant à un sondage auprès de cadres ayant participé à la mise en ,uvre de la CPA dans des organismes du gouvernement fédéral du Canada. Ils constatent que les avantages découlant de cet exercice au sein des organismes du secteur public canadien ne sont pas à la hauteur des efforts investis, même si les répondants estiment en avoir tiré certaines améliorations financières. Il semble que les variables des contrôles et de la culture soient celles qui se rattachent de façon significative au succès de la CPA. Les résultats de l'étude pourraient avoir des conséquences pour les organismes responsables de l'élaboration des politiques comme le Secrétariat du Conseil du Trésor du Canada et le Bureau du contrôleur général (BCG). Ce dernier devrait s'interroger sur ce que rapportent les sommes investies par le gouvernement fédéral dans les pratiques de comptabilité de management les meilleures. Le BCG pourrait également orienter les ministères et les organismes gouvernementaux vers l'environnement (ou les déterminants du succès) qu'il convient de mettre en place pour assurer la réussite des projets de CPA. [source]


Winning a new priority for disabled children: the Every Disabled Child Matters campaign

JOURNAL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS, Issue 3 2009
Steve Broach
Over the past 4 years, the Every Disabled Child Matters campaign has secured almost £780 million in new funding for disabled children's services and has laid the foundation for addressing structural disadvantages for disabled children. Critical success factors for the campaign have included clear aims, a tight core strategy group, a leading political champion, widespread parliamentary support and effective mobilisation of disabled children and their families as campaigners. The campaign caught policymakers' attention at the right point to leverage significant support for a previously marginalised social group. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Architectural support in industry: a reflection using C-POSH

JOURNAL OF SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE AND EVOLUTION: RESEARCH AND PRACTICE, Issue 1 2005
R. J. Bril
Abstract Software architecture plays a vital role in the development (and hence maintenance) of large complex systems (containing millions of lines of code) with a long lifetime. It is therefore required that the software architecture is also maintained, i.e., sufficiently documented, clearly communicated, and explicitly controlled during its life-cycle. In our experience, these requirements cannot be met without appropriate support. Commercial-off-the-shelf support for architectural maintenance is still scarcely available, if at all, implying the need to develop appropriate proprietary means. In this paper, we reflect upon software architecture maintenance taken within three organizations within Philips that develop professional systems. We extensively describe the experience gained with introducing and embedding of architectural support in these three organizations. We focus on architectural support in the area of software architecture recovery, visualization, analysis, and verification. In our experience, the support must be carried by a number of pillars of software development, and all of these pillars have to go through a change process to ensure sustainable embedding. Managing these changes requires several key roles to be fulfilled in the organization: a champion, a company angel, a change agent, and a target. We call our reflection model C-POSH, which is an acronym for Change management of the four identified pillars of software development: Process, Organization, Software development environment, and Humans. Our experiences will be presented in terms of the C-POSH model. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs): the emergence of a new champion in stem cell technology-driven biomedical applications

JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, Issue 6 2010
Anjan Kumar Das
Abstract Pluripotent stem cells possess the unique property of differentiating into all other cell types of the human body. Further, the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in 2006 has opened up new avenues in clinical medicine. In simple language, iPSCs are nothing but somatic cells reprogrammed genetically to exhibit pluripotent characteristics. This process utilizes retroviruses/lentiviruses/adenovirus/plasmids to incorporate candidate genes into somatic cells isolated from any part of the human body. It is also possible to develop disease-specific iPSCs which are most likely to revolutionize research in respect to the pathophysiology of most debilitating diseases, as these can be mimicked ex vivo in the laboratory. These models can also be used to study the safety and efficacy of known drugs or potential drug candidates for a particular diseased condition, limiting the need for animal studies and considerably reducing the time and money required to develop new drugs. Recently, functional neurons, cardiomyocytes, pancreatic islet cells, hepatocytes and retinal cells have been derived from human iPSCs, thus re-confirming the pluripotency and differentiation capacity of these cells. These findings further open up the possibility of using iPSCs in cell replacement therapy for various degenerative disorders. In this review we highlight the development of iPSCs by different methods, their biological characteristics and their prospective applications in regenerative medicine and drug screening. We further discuss some practical limitations pertaining to this technology and how they can be averted for the betterment of human life. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


How to be a Value-Free Advocate of Laissez Faire

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS AND SOCIOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
Ludwig von Mises's Solution
Ludwig von Mises is often regarded as a "champion" of laissez faire. This characterization seems to contradict Mises's clear statement that economics is value free. The aim of this paper is to resolve this apparent contradiction. We accomplish this by distinguishing, as Mises did, between the advocacy of specific laissez-faire policies and the advocacy of a laissez-faire ideology vis-à-vis the alternative ideologies of socialism and interventionism. Mises argued that the logic of a value-free economics could be used to show that socialist and interventionist policies would not achieve a goal that the socialists and interventionists implicitly or explicitly aim to achieve, that of progress in terms of material wealth for the members of society. Thus, Mises resolved the contradiction by shifting the debate from the welfare analysis of particular policies to a logical analysis of the ends of a particular ideology and the means available to achieve those ends. In a seminal paper in neo-Austrian economics, Murray Rothbard criticized Mises. We analyze Rothbard's argument partly as a means of elucidating Mises's views and argue that Rothbard misinterpreted Mises and quoted him out of context. Rothbard failed to adequately support his claim that Mises held the beliefs that Rothbard attributed to him. Moreover, Rothbard's paper undermined the value freedom that Mises regarded as a crucial characteristic of economics. [source]


Unique Outcomes of Women and Men Who Were Abused

PERSPECTIVES IN PSYCHIATRIC CARE, Issue 1 2003
Claire Burke Draucker PhD
PROBLEM. To determine if individuals who have experienced extensive victimization throughout their lives tell stories about "unique outcomes." METHODS. An examination of existing narrative data collected from 27 women and 17 men who had participated in one of several qualitative studies of sexual violence. Unique outcomes stories identified from the interview transcripts were categorized according to the type of experiences described, and the nature of men an women's stores were compared. FINDINGS. Six types of unique outcomes stories were identified in the women's narratives (rebellion, breaking free, resurgence, refuge, determination, confidant) and three types in the men's narratives (reawakening, buddy and normal guy, champion). CONCLUSIONS. Unique outcomes stories are common in narratives otherwise focused on abuse. Common themes are apparent, and the nature of men's and women's stories differ markedly. [source]


Two Concepts of Violence

POLITICAL STUDIES REVIEW, Issue 2 2005
Vittorio Bufacchi
The aim of this review article is to explore some theoretical issues regarding the nature and scope of violence. There are two ways of thinking about violence: in terms of an act of force, or in terms of a violation. Those who define violence as an intentional act of excessive or destructive force endorse a narrow conception of violence (the Minimalist Conception of Violence or MCV), while those who see violence in terms of a violation of rights champion a broader conception of violence (the Comprehensive Conception of Violence or CCV). The strengths and weaknesses of both approaches will be assessed. [source]


Up and Down with the Agrarian Question: Issue Attention and Land Reform in Contemporary Brazil

POLITICS & POLICY, Issue 4 2008
Gabriel Ondetti
The two most recent Brazilian presidents have both surprised observers with their land reform programs but for very different reasons. Despite presiding over a center-right government with strong ties to large landowners and a state-shrinking economic program, Fernando Henrique Cardoso implemented easily the largest rural land redistribution in Brazilian history. As the leader of a leftist party and a historic champion of radical land reform, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva seemed to have sterling pro-land reform credentials. Yet Lula's program has, by some key measures, fallen well short of Cardoso's. This article attempts to explain these two anomalous outcomes. Drawing on Downs' concept of the "issue-attention cycle," it argues that the trajectory of land reform under Cardoso and Lula largely reflects the impact of a variable rarely cited in analyses of Brazilian politics: public issue saliency. This argument holds implications for both the future of land reform in Brazil and our broader understanding of the Brazilian political system. [source]


The process safety guerrilla: Giving your company a future, even if it does not want one,,

PROCESS SAFETY PROGRESS, Issue 3 2010
Scott Berger
Abstract You understand well that a strong process safety program not only prevents incidents but also improves overall operational discipline, quality, efficiency, and profitability. Unfortunately, your management thinks that process safety is some kind of hippie environmentalist thing that will shave a few dollars off quarter-over-quarter growth. If only you could implement the kind of transformative program demonstrated by the Center for Chemical Process Safety founding companies and other industry leaders, unfortunately, you're not at a sufficient level to champion such a transition, and the people at that level are not even in the ballpark, never mind willing to step up to the plate. Some day, maybe soon, the plant will go up in flames, and along with it will go your 401(k) and the livelihoods of your family, friends, and neighbors. Now is the time for the downtrodden to rise up. How? By implementing the time-honed guerrilla strategies used throughout the generations by those who lack the power of position. These strategies include theft, gangs, subterfuge, sabotage, arson, assassination, official corruption, and others. Well, not really. But these "crimes" do suggest legal and effective ways of building a stronger process safety program from the bottom up. This article will summarize ways that clever and persistent "process safety guerillas" have precipitated positive change at their companies. © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog 2010 [source]


School-based promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption in multiculturally diverse, urban schools

PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 1 2008
Jessica Blom-Hoffman
Rates of childhood overweight, have reached epidemic proportions (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), and schools have been called on to play a role in the prevention of this medical condition. This article describes a multiyear health promotion effort,the Athletes in Service fruit and vegetable (F&V) promotion program,which is based on social learning theory for urban, elementary school children in kindergarten through third grade. Children participate in the program for a period of 3 years. The goals of the program are to increase opportunities for children to be more physically active during the school day and to help students increase their F&V consumption. This article describes the F&V promotion components of the program that were implemented in year 1, including implementation integrity and treatment acceptability data. Year 1 evaluation data demonstrated that the program is acceptable from the perspective of school staff and was implemented by school staff with high levels of integrity. Hallmarks of the program's successful implementation and high acceptability include (a) having a school-based program champion; (b) designing the program to include low-cost, attractive, interactive materials; (c) including many school staff members to facilitate a culture of healthy eating in the school; and (d) spreading out implementation responsibilities among the multiple staff members so that each individual's involvement is time efficient. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Innovation as response to emissions legislation: revisiting the automotive catalytic converter at Johnson Matthey

R & D MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2010
Lan Tao
Can environmental legislation spur innovative response? This case describes the development of the automotive catalytic converter (ACC) at Johnson Matthey (JM), a precious metals company that entered the automotive industry as a component provider. The market was unfamiliar to JM and highly competitive, but in the 1970s the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced standards for emissions control by automotive companies well ahead of current practice. JM responded to the prospect of market demand for a technology that could meet the regulations. The EPA policy of technology ,forcing' stimulated collaboration for innovation among companies from a variety of industries. Our case evidence shows that the key innovator, JM, achieved its breakthrough as a result of proactive R&D management by the product champion together with sustained corporate support at a high level and partnership strategies. [source]


Endurance exercise performance: the physiology of champions

THE JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
Michael J. Joyner
Efforts to understand human physiology through the study of champion athletes and record performances have been ongoing for about a century. For endurance sports three main factors , maximal oxygen consumption , the so-called ,lactate threshold' and efficiency (i.e. the oxygen cost to generate a give running speed or cycling power output) , appear to play key roles in endurance performance. and lactate threshold interact to determine the ,performance , which is the oxygen consumption that can be sustained for a given period of time. Efficiency interacts with the performance to establish the speed or power that can be generated at this oxygen consumption. This review focuses on what is currently known about how these factors interact, their utility as predictors of elite performance, and areas where there is relatively less information to guide current thinking. In this context, definitive ideas about the physiological determinants of running and cycling efficiency is relatively lacking in comparison with and the lactate threshold, and there is surprisingly limited and clear information about the genetic factors that might pre-dispose for elite performance. It should also be cautioned that complex motivational and sociological factors also play important roles in who does or does not become a champion and these factors go far beyond simple physiological explanations. Therefore, the performance of elite athletes is likely to defy the types of easy explanations sought by scientific reductionism and remain an important puzzle for those interested in physiological integration well into the future. [source]