acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (acyl-coa + dehydrogenase_deficiency)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Mutation analysis in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation defects: Exemplified by acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies, with special focus on genotype,phenotype relationship

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 3 2001
Niels Gregersen
Abstract Mutation analysis of metabolic disorders, such as the fatty acid oxidation defects, offers an additional, and often superior, tool for specific diagnosis compared to traditional enzymatic assays. With the advancement of the structural part of the Human Genome Project and the creation of mutation databases, procedures for convenient and reliable genetic analyses are being developed. The most straightforward application of mutation analysis is to specific diagnoses in suspected patients, particularly in the context of family studies and for prenatal/preimplantation analysis. In addition, from these practical uses emerges the possibility to study genotype,phenotype relationships and investigate the molecular pathogenesis resulting from specific mutations or groups of mutations. In the present review we summarize current knowledge regarding genotype,phenotype relationships in three disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation: very-long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD, also ACADVL), medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD, also ACADM), and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD, also ACADS) deficiencies. On the basis of this knowledge we discuss current understanding of the structural implications of mutation type, as well as the modulating effect of the mitochondrial protein quality control systems, composed of molecular chaperones and intracellular proteases. We propose that the unraveling of the genetic and cellular determinants of the modulating effects of protein quality control systems may help to assess the balance between genetic and environmental factors in the clinical expression of a given mutation. The realization that the effect of the monogene, such as disease-causing mutations in the VLCAD, MCAD, and SCAD genes, may be modified by variations in other genes presages the need for profile analyses of additional genetic variations. The rapid development of mutation detection systems, such as the chip technologies, makes such profile analyses feasible. However, it remains to be seen to what extent mutation analysis will be used for diagnosis of fatty acid oxidation defects and other metabolic disorders. Hum Mutat 18:169,189, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Detection of single nucleotide substitution by competitive allele-specific short oligonucleotide hybridization (CASSOH) with immunochromatographic strip,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 2 2003
Yoichi Matsubara
Abstract Recent advances in human genome research have revealed that genetic polymorphisms, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), are closely associated with susceptibility to various common diseases and adverse drug reactions. Also, numerous mutations responsible for a number of genetic diseases have been identified. Clinical application of genetic information to individual health care requires simple and rapid identification of nucleotide changes in clinical settings. We have devised a novel low-tech method for the detection of a single nucleotide substitution using competitive allele-specific short oligonucleotide hybridization with immunochromatographic strip. The gene of interest is PCR-amplified, hybridized to an allele-specific short oligonucleotide probe in the presence of a competitive oligonucleotide, and subjected to chromatography using a DNA test strip at room temperature. The genotype is unambiguously determined by the presence or the absence of visible purple lines on a strip. Feasibility of the method was demonstrated by the detection of a prevalent disease-causing mutations in glycogen storage disease type Ia (G6PC), medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (ACADM), non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (GLDC), and clinically important polymorphisms in the CYP2C19 gene and the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (ALDH2). The procedure does not demand either technical expertise or expensive instruments and is readily performed in local clinical laboratories. The result is obtained within 10 min after PCR. This rapid and simple method of SNP detection may be used for point-of-care genetic diagnosis with potentially diverse clinical applications. Hum Mutat 22:166,172, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Perioperative management of a child with short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

Summary Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of short chain fatty acids (4 to 6 carbons in length) thereby initiating the cycle of , -oxidation. This process generates acetyl-CoA, the key substrate for hepatic ketogenesis or ATP production by the Kreb's cycle. A deficiency of SCAD results in the build-up of potentially cytotoxic metabolites including ethylmalonic acid, methylsuccinyl CoA and butyryl-carnitine. The end-organ involvement is heterogeneous, but most commonly includes hypotonia with possible lipid myopathy and developmental delay. Other reported complications include dysmorphic craniofacial features, hypoglycemia, seizures, scoliosis, hypertonia and hyperreflexia, cyclic vomiting and myocardial dysfunction. We present a 23-month-old girl with SCAD deficiency, who required posterior fossa decompression for type 1 Chiari malformation. The potential perioperative implications of SCAD deficiency are reviewed. [source]

Vacuolation of neutrophils and acanthocytosis in child with medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

Elodie Lainey
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Validation of MCADD newborn screening

EM Maier
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) represents a potentially fatal fatty acid ,-oxidation disorder. Newborn screening (NBS) by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been implemented worldwide, but is associated with unresolved questions regarding population heterogeneity, burden on healthy carriers, cut-off policies, false-positive and negative rates. In a retrospective case-control study, 333 NBS samples showing borderline acylcarnitine patterns but not reaching recall criteria were genotyped for the two most common mutations (c.985A>G/c.199C>T) and compared with genotypes and acylcarnitines of 333 controls, 68 false-positives, and 34 patients. c.985A>G was more frequently identified in the study group and false-positives compared to controls (1:4.3/1:2.3 vs. 1:42), whereas c.199C>T was found more frequently only within the false-positives (1:23). Biochemical criteria were devised to differentiate homozygous (c.985A>G), compound heterozygous (c.985A>G/c.199C>T), and heterozygous individuals. Four false-negatives were identified because our initial algorithm required an elevation of octanoylcarnitine (C8) and three secondary markers in the initial and follow-up sample. The new approach allowed a reduction of false-positives (by defining high cut-offs: 1.4 ,mol/l for C8; 7 for C8/C12) and false-negatives (by sequencing the ACADM gene of few suspicious samples). Our validation strategy is able to differentiate healthy carriers from patients doubling the positive predictive value (42,88%) and to target NBS to MCADD-subsets with potentially higher risk of adverse outcome. It remains controversial, if NBS programs should aim at identifying all subsets of all diseases included. Because the natural course of milder variants cannot be assessed by observational studies, our strategy could serve as a general model for evaluation of MS/MS-based NBS. [source]