Acute Care (acute + care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Acute Care

  • acute care hospital
  • acute care services
  • acute care setting
  • acute care unit
  • acute care ward

  • Selected Abstracts


    Renzo Rozzini MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Vitamin D Insufficiency and Acute Care in Geriatric Inpatients

    Aurélien Sutra del Galy MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Long-Term Acute Care: A Review of the Literature

    Manuel A. Eskildsen MD
    Long-term acute care (LTAC) represents a rapidly growing category of Medicare providers, but little is known about its quality, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. Its defining characteristic, as set by Medicare, is an average length of stay of greater than 25 days. Modern LTAC emerged in the early 1980s as a setting for the weaning of ventilator-dependent patients. The industry has developed greatly in the last few years, with for-profit corporations dominating the field, and as Medicare expenditures have grown, new payment systems have emerged to limit spiraling costs. Although LTAC is mainly known for providing chronic ventilator weaning, the case mix is varied. The majority of outcome studies in this setting have been done on pulmonary patients, with fewer data available on nonventilator patients. This article analyzes studies of LTAC that are currently available, discusses some of the public policy issues surrounding this level of care, and suggests a research agenda, including a role for the field of geriatrics. [source]

    Prevalence of vision, hearing, and combined vision and hearing impairments in patients with hip fractures

    Else Vengnes Grue
    Aims and objectives., To examine the prevalence of hearing and vision impairments in 65+ year-old patients with hip fractures. Background., Many older people believe sensory problems are inevitable and thus avoid medical assessment and assistance. Furthermore, health professionals often overlook sensory problems, though it is known that sensory impairments can increase the risk of falling and sustaining hip fractures. Design., A prospective, observational study. Methods., We admitted 544 consecutive patients to an orthogeriatric ward from October 2004,July 2006; 332 were screened for study inclusion with the Resident Assessment Instrument for Acute Care (InterRAI-AC) and a questionnaire (KAS-Screen). We conducted patient interviews, objective assessments, explored hospital records and interviewed the family and staff. Impairments were defined as problems with seeing, reading regular print or hearing normal speech. Results., Sixteen per cent of the patients had no sensory impairments, 15·4% had vision impairments, 38·6% had hearing impairments and 30·1% had combined sensory impairments. Among the impaired, 80·6% were female, the mean age was 84·3 years (SD 6·8), 79·9% were living alone, 48·0% had cognitive impairments, 89·6% had impaired activities of daily living, 70·6% had impaired instrument activities in daily living, 51·0% had bladder incontinence and 26·.8% were underweight. Comorbidity and polypharmacy were common. Delirium was detected in 17·9% on day three after surgery. Results showed the prevalence of combined sensory impairments was: 32·8% none; 52·2% moderate/severe; and 15·1% severe. Conclusion., Patients with hip fractures frequently have hearing, vision and combined impairments. Relevance to clinical practice., We recommend routine screening for sensory impairments in patients with hip fractures. Most sensory problems can be treated or relieved with environmental adjustments. Patients should be encouraged to seek treatment and training for adapting to sensory deficiencies. This approach may reduce the number of falls and improve the ability to sustain independent living. [source]

    Essential Guide to Acute Care

    Andrew Wolf
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Acute Care and Rehabilitation

    Report on the first twelve months of a hospital based geriatric rehabilitation unit
    First page of article [source]

    Improving transfer of mental health care for rural and remote consumers in South Australia

    Judy Taylor BA Dip Soc Wk MSW PhD
    Abstract In Australia, it is commonplace for tertiary mental health care to be provided in large regional centres or metropolitan cities. Rural and remote consumers must be transferred long distances, and this inevitably results in difficulties with the integration of their care between primary and tertiary settings. Because of the need to address these issues, and improve the transfer process, a research project was commissioned by a national government department to be conducted in South Australia. The aim of the project was to document the experiences of mental health consumers travelling from the country to the city for acute care and to make policy recommendations to improve transitions of care. Six purposively sampled case studies were conducted collecting data through semistructured interviews with consumers, country professional and occupational groups and tertiary providers. Data were analysed to produce themes for consumers, and country and tertiary mental healthcare providers. The study found that consumers saw transfer to the city for mental health care as beneficial in spite of the challenges of being transferred over long distances, while being very unwell, and of being separated from family and friends. Country care providers noted that the disjointed nature of the mental health system caused problems with key aspects of transfer of care including transport and information flow, and achieving integration between the primary and tertiary settings. Improving transfer of care involves overcoming the systemic barriers to integration and moving to a primary care-led model of care. The distance consultation and liaison model provided by the Rural and Remote Mental Health Services, the major tertiary provider of services for country consumers, uses a primary care-led approach and was highly regarded by research participants. Extending the use of this model to other primary mental healthcare providers and tertiary facilities will improve transfer of care. [source]

    How Much Is Postacute Care Use Affected by Its Availability?

    Melinda Beeuwkes Buntin
    Objective. To assess the relative impact of clinical factors versus nonclinical factors,such as postacute care (PAC) supply,in determining whether patients receive care from skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) or inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs) after discharge from acute care. Data Sources and Study Setting. Medicare acute hospital, IRF, and SNF claims provided data on PAC choices; predictors of site of PAC chosen were generated from Medicare claims, provider of services, enrollment file, and Area Resource File data. Study Design. We used multinomial logit models to predict PAC use by elderly patients after hospitalizations for stroke, hip fractures, or lower extremity joint replacements. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. A file was constructed linking acute and postacute utilization data for all medicare patients hospitalized in 1999. Principal Findings. PAC availability is a more powerful predictor of PAC use than the clinical characteristics in many of our models. The effects of distance to providers and supply of providers are particularly clear in the choice between IRF and SNF care. The farther away the nearest IRF is, and the closer the nearest SNF is, the less likely a patient is to go to an IRF. Similarly, the fewer IRFs, and the more SNFs, there are in the patient's area the less likely the patient is to go to an IRF. In addition, if the hospital from which the patient is discharged has a related IRF or a related SNF the patient is more likely to go there. Conclusions. We find that the availability of PAC is a major determinant of whether patients use such care and which type of PAC facility they use. Further research is needed in order to evaluate whether these findings indicate that a greater supply of PAC leads to both higher use of institutional care and better outcomes,or whether it leads to unwarranted expenditures of resources and delays in returning patients to their homes. [source]

    The Effects of Geography and Spatial Behavior on Health Care Utilization among the Residents of a Rural Region

    Thomas A. Arcury
    Objective. This analysis determines the importance of geography and spatial behavior as predisposing and enabling factors in rural health care utilization, controlling for demographic, social, cultural, and health status factors. Data Sources. A survey of 1,059 adults in 12 rural Appalachian North Carolina counties. Study Design. This cross-sectional study used a three-stage sampling design stratified by county and ethnicity. Preliminary analysis of health services utilization compared weighted proportions of number of health care visits in the previous 12 months for regular check-up care, chronic care, and acute care across geographic, sociodemographic, cultural, and health variables. Multivariable logistic models identified independent correlates of health services utilization. Data Collection Methods. Respondents answered standard survey questions. They located places in which they engaged health related and normal day-to-day activities; these data were entered into a geographic information system for analysis. Principal Findings. Several geographic and spatial behavior factors, including having a driver's license, use of provided rides, and distance for regular care, were significantly related to health care utilization for regular check-up and chronic care in the bivariate analysis. In the multivariate model, having a driver's license and distance for regular care remained significant, as did several predisposing (age, gender, ethnicity), enabling (household income), and need (physical and mental health measures, number of conditions). Geographic measures, as predisposing and enabling factors, were related to regular check-up and chronic care, but not to acute care visits. Conclusions. These results show the importance of geographic and spatial behavior factors in rural health care utilization. They also indicate continuing inequity in rural health care utilization that must be addressed in public policy. [source]

    Un-promoted issues in inflammatory bowel disease: opportunities to optimize care

    J. M. Andrews
    Abstract Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gut, which lead to significant morbidity and impaired quality of life (QoL) in sufferers, without generally affecting mortality. Despite CD and UC being chronic, life-long illnesses, most medical management is directed at acute flares of disease. Moreover, with more intensive medical therapy and the development of biological therapy, there is a risk that management will become even more narrowly focused on acute care, and be directed only at those with more severe disease, rather than encompassing all sufferers and addressing important non-acute issues. This imbalance of concentration of medical attention on ,high-end' care is in part driven by the need to perform and publish randomized clinical trials of newer therapies to obtain registration and licensing for these agents, which thus occupy a large proportion of the recent IBD treatment literature. This leads to less attention on relatively ,low-technology' issues including: (i) the psychosocial burden of chronic disease, QoL and specific psychological comorbidities; (ii) comorbidity with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs); (iii) maintenance therapy, monitoring and compliance; (iv) smoking (with regard to CD); (v) sexuality, fertility, family planning and pregnancy; and (vi) iron deficiency and anaemia. We propose these to be the ,Un-promoted Issues' in IBD and review the importance and treatment of each of these in the current management of IBD. [source]

    Migraine: diagnosis and management

    P. J. Goadsby
    Abstract Migraine is the most common form of disabling primary headache and affects approximately 12% of studied Caucasian populations. Non-pharmacological management of migraine largely consists of lifestyle advice to help sufferers avoid situations in which attacks will be triggered. Preventive treatments for migraine should usually be considered on the basis of attack frequency, particularly its trend to change with time, and tract­ability to acute care. Acute care treatments for migraine can be divided into non-specific treatments (general anal­gesics, such as aspirin or non-steroidal anti-­inflammatory drugs) and treatments relatively specific to migraine (ergotamine and the triptans). The triptans , sumatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, almotriptan, eletriptan and frovatriptan , are potent serotonin, 5-HT1B/1D, receptor agonists which represent a major advance in the treatment of acute migraine. Chronic daily headache in association with analgesic overuse is probably the major avoidable cause of headache disability in the developed world. (Intern Med J 2003; 33: 436,442) [source]

    Near misses: Paradoxical realities in everyday clinical practice

    Lianne Jeffs RN PhD (c)
    This qualitative study was conducted to define and describe what constitutes and contributes to near miss occurrences in the health-care system and what is needed to ensure safer processes of care. Nine health-care organizations (13 sites total) including six academic health sciences centres (acute care, mental health and geriatric) and three community hospitals participated in this study. The final sample consisted of 37 focus groups (86 in the nursing staff only; 62 in the pharmacy staff only; and 99 in the mixed nursing and pharmacy focus groups respectively) and 120 interviews involving 144 health-care consumers. Data were collected using focus groups (health-care professionals) and key informant interviews (health-care consumers). A multi-level content analyses schema (transcription, coding, categorizing, internal consistency, thematic analysis and community validation) was used. Six themes emerged from the multi-level content analyses that combined focus group (health-care professionals) and key informant interview (health-care consumers) data. These themes are discussed under the three original research questions with supporting data derived from codes and categories. Study findings implicate changes for the health-care landscape relative to system, health policy, professional development and quality improvement. [source]

    Physical and chemical restraints in acute care: Their potential impact on the rehabilitation of older people

    Sarah Mott RN PhD FRCNA
    Agitation is a major problem for older people and is present in over half of the hospitalizations for people > 65 years of age. In a previous study by the authors, results indicated that nursing actions often did not meet best-practice standards in the care of older, agitated patients. This paper builds on these results by reviewing the literature pertaining to the use of restraints and contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding the impact of the acute-care experience on rehabilitation outcomes. Successful rehabilitation relies on the improvement of functional health outcomes and, for this to happen, physical and emotional well-being are important. The sequelae of restraint use in acute care have the potential to alter peoples' ability to participate fully in a rehabilitation programme, thereby placing their future placement at risk. This paper explores the outcomes of restraint use in the acute-care setting and presents the argument that their effects are likely to be detrimental to rehabilitation outcomes. [source]

    Delirium and older people: what are the constraints to best practice in acute care?

    BHSc (Nursing), Jenny Day ADCHN, MEd (Adult Education)
    An Australian research team conducted a six-month acute care pilot study in a medical ward of a large hospital in New South Wales. Aim., To explore ways health practitioners might redesign their practice to include prevention, early detection and management of delirium in older people based on the best current practice. Method and design., Participatory action research (PAR) was selected as the best approach for involving ward staff to make sustainable clinical practice decisions. The PAR group comprised research academics and eight clinicians from the ward. Thirteen PAR sessions were held over 5 months. Clinicians described care of patients with delirium. Stories were analysed to identify constraints to best practice. Following PAR group debate about concerns and issues, there were actions toward improved practice taken by clinicians. Relevance to clinical practice., The following constraints to best practice were identified: delayed transfer of patients from the Emergency Department; routine ward activities were not conducive to provision of rest and sleep; assisting with the patient's orientation was not possible as relatives were not able to accompany and/or stay with the older patient. Underreporting of delirium and attributing confusion to dementia was viewed as an education deficit across disciplines. A wide range of assessment skills was identified as prerequisites for working in this acute care ward, with older people and delirium. Clinicians perceived that management driven by length of a patient's stay was incongruent with best practice delirium care which required more time for older patients to recover from delirium. Two significant actions towards practice improvement were undertaken by this PAR group: (i) development of a draft delirium alert prevention protocol and (ii) a separate section of the ward became a dedicated space for the care of patients with delirium. A larger study is being planned across a variety of settings. [source]

    The Debrecen Stroke Database: demographic characteristics, risk factors, stroke severity and outcome in 8088 consecutive hospitalised patients with acute cerebrovascular disease

    D. Bereczki
    Background High stroke mortality in central,eastern European countries might be due to higher stroke incidence, more severe strokes or less effective acute care than in countries with lower mortality rate. Hospital databases usually yield more detailed information on risk factors, stroke severity and short-term outcome than population-based registries. Patients and methods The Debrecen Stroke Database, data of 8088 consecutively hospitalised patients with acute cerebrovascular disease in a single stroke centre in East Hungary between October 1994 and December 2006, is analysed. Risk factors were recorded and stroke severity on admission was scored by the Mathew stroke scale. The modified Glasgow outcome scale was used to describe patient condition at discharge. Results Mean age was 68±13 years, 11·4% had haemorrhagic stroke. The rate of hypertension on admission was 79% in men, and 84% in women, 40·3% of men and 19·8% of women were smokers, and 34% of all patients had a previous cerebrovascular disease in their history. Case fatality was 14·9%, and 43% had some disability at discharge. Outcome at discharge was worse with higher age, higher glucose, higher blood pressure, higher white cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and more severe clinical signs on admission. In multivariate analysis admission blood pressure lost its significance in predicting outcome. Conclusions In this large Hungarian stroke unit database hypertension on admission, smoking and previous cerebrovascular disease were more frequent than in most western databases. These findings indicate major opportunities for more efficient stroke prevention in this and probably other eastern European countries. [source]

    Clinical outcome of diabetic foot ulcers treated with negative pressure wound therapy and the transition from acute care to home care

    Stephanie C Wu
    Abstract Diabetic foot ulcers affect millions of people in the United States of America and impose tremendous medical, psychosocial and financial loss or burden. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is generally well tolerated and appears to stimulate a robust granulation tissue response compared with other wound healing modalities. This device may be a cost-effective adjunctive wound healing therapy. This literature review will focus on the clinical outcome of diabetic foot ulcers treated with NPWT, its implication in the transition from acute care to home care, factors that might influence clinical outcomes in home care as well as quality-of-life aspects in these patients. Patient care for diabetic foot ulceration is complex and necessitates multiprofessional collaboration to provide comprehensive wound care. It is clear that when we strive for limb preservation in this most high-risk population, it is important to have an available versatile, efficacious wound healing modality. There is a need for an easy transition from acute care to home care. Resources need to be combined in a collaborative and synergistic fashion to allow patient to perform many daily living activities while receiving the potential benefits of an advanced wound healing modality. [source]

    Models of mental health nurse,general practitioner liaison: promoting continuity of care

    Terence V. McCann BA MA PhD RMN RGN RNT
    mccann t.v. & baker h. (2003)Journal of Advanced Nursing 41(5), 471,479 Models of mental health nurse,general practitioner liaison: promoting continuity of care Aim and rationale.,Community mental health nurses and general practitioners share a pivotal role in the provision of mental health care in the community. The focus of this study was to identify models of general practitioner collaboration used by these nurses, and analyse the implications of these models for promoting continuity of care. The study was derived from a larger study of how community mental health nurses promote wellness with clients who are experiencing an early episode of psychotic illness. Methods.,This qualitative study used interviews and observation to collect data. The study took place in 1999 in regional and rural New South Wales, Australia and involved community mental health nurses. Findings.,The findings show that two models of nurse and general practitioner (GP) collaboration emerged from the data: Shared Care and Specialist Liaison. In the Shared Care model, nurses maintain close contact with GPs throughout the episode of acute care. In the Specialist Liaison model, the community mental health team assumes overall responsibility for care and treatment throughout the acute episode of illness. Contact with GPs throughout the episode of care by the community mental health team is, at best, intermittent. Conclusion.,The findings suggest that the Shared Care model is more consistent with supporting personal and organizational continuity of care, whereas the Specialist Liaison model is limited to encouraging personal continuity of care but further study is needed. [source]

    South Asian patients' lived experience of acute care in an English hospital: a phenomenological study

    Vasso Vydelingum PhD BSc(Hons) PG DipEd RN RHV DN
    South Asian patients' lived experience of acute care in an English hospital: a phenomenological study Studies on utilization of hospital services by South Asian patients in the United Kingdom have consistently demonstrated levels of dissatisfaction with care in relation to meeting religious and cultural needs, although there are few studies on minority ethnic patients' utilization of acute hospital services. This study aimed to describe and interpret from the consumer's view the ,lived experience' of acute hospital care from the perspectives of South Asian patients and their family carers. The purposive sample of 10 patients and six carers consisted of 13 females and three males (five Hindus, six Muslims and five Sikhs) who were interviewed at home 2 to 3 weeks after discharge from hospital. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews that were tape recorded and transcribed. A phenomenological approach was used, and data were analysed using the principles of Heideggerian hermeneutics. Five themes were identified, ranging from feelings of satisfaction with care, unhappy about the service, fitting-in strategies and post-discharge coping mechanisms. Patients seemed to want to cause as little disruption as possible to the ward environment and tried to fit in to what they refer to as an ,English place'. The findings, although not generalizable, offer important insights into how South Asian patients survive their journey through their hospital stay and have implications for the provision of nursing care for minority ethnic patients. [source]

    Long-Term Acute Care: A Review of the Literature

    Manuel A. Eskildsen MD
    Long-term acute care (LTAC) represents a rapidly growing category of Medicare providers, but little is known about its quality, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. Its defining characteristic, as set by Medicare, is an average length of stay of greater than 25 days. Modern LTAC emerged in the early 1980s as a setting for the weaning of ventilator-dependent patients. The industry has developed greatly in the last few years, with for-profit corporations dominating the field, and as Medicare expenditures have grown, new payment systems have emerged to limit spiraling costs. Although LTAC is mainly known for providing chronic ventilator weaning, the case mix is varied. The majority of outcome studies in this setting have been done on pulmonary patients, with fewer data available on nonventilator patients. This article analyzes studies of LTAC that are currently available, discusses some of the public policy issues surrounding this level of care, and suggests a research agenda, including a role for the field of geriatrics. [source]

    Incongruence between nurses' and patients' understandings and expectations of rehabilitation

    Julie Pryor
    Aims and objectives., To explore nurses' understandings and expectations of rehabilitation and nurses' perceptions of patients' understandings and expectations of rehabilitation. Background., Within the context of a broadening appreciation of the benefits of rehabilitation, interest in the nature of rehabilitation is growing. Some believe that rehabilitation services do not adequately meet the needs of patients. Others are interested in the readiness of patients to participate in rehabilitation. Design., Qualitative. Method., Grounded theory using data collected during interviews with nurses in five inpatient rehabilitation units and during observation of the nurses' everyday practice. Findings., According to nurses working in inpatient rehabilitation units, there is a marked incongruence between nurses' understandings and expectations of rehabilitation and what they perceive patients to understand and expect. Conclusion., Given these different understandings, an important nursing role is the education of patients about the nature of rehabilitation and how to optimise their rehabilitation. Relevance to clinical practice., Before patients are transferred to rehabilitation, the purpose and nature of rehabilitation, in particular the roles of patients and nurses, needs to be explained to them. The understandings of rehabilitation that nurses in this study possessed provide a framework for the design of education materials and orientation programmes that inform patients (and their families) about rehabilitation. In addition, reinforcement of the differences between acute care and rehabilitation will assist patients new to rehabilitation to understand the central role that they themselves can play in their recovery. [source]

    A nurse-led cardiac rehabilitation programme improves health behaviours and cardiac physiological risk parameters: evidence from Chengdu, China

    Xiaolian Jiang MSc
    Aim., The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a cardiac rehabilitation programme on health behaviours and physiological risk parameters in patients with coronary heart disease in Chengdu, China. Background., Epidemiological studies indicate a dose-, level- and duration-dependent relationship exists between cardiac behavioural and physiological risks and coronary heart disease incidence as well as subsequent cardiac morbidity and mortality. Cardiac risk factor modification has become the very primary goal of modern cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Design methods., A randomized controlled trial was conducted. Coronary heart disease patients (n = 167) who met the sampling criteria in two tertiary medical centres in Chengdu, south-west China, were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (the cardiac rehabilitation programme) or control group (the routine care). The change of health behaviours (walking performance, step II diet adherence, medication adherence, smoking cessation) and physiological risk parameters (serum lipids, blood pressure, body weight) were assessed to evaluate the programme effect. Results., Patients in the intervention group demonstrated a significantly better performance in walking, step II diet adherence, medication adherence; a significantly greater reduction in serum lipids including triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein; and significantly better control of systolic and diastolic blood pressure at three months. The majority of these positive impacts were maintained at six months. The effect of the programme on smoking cessation, body weight, serum high-density lipoprotein, was not confirmed. Conclusions., A cardiac rehabilitation programme led by a nurse can significantly improve the health behaviours and cardiac physiological risk parameters in coronary heart disease patients. Nurses can fill significant treatment gaps in the risk factor management of patients with coronary heart disease. Relevance to clinical practice., This study raises attention regarding the important roles nurses can play in cardiac rehabilitation and the unique way for nurses to meet the rehabilitative care needs of coronary heart disease patients. Furthermore, the hospital,home bridging nature of the programme also created a model for interfacing the acute care and community rehabilitative care. [source]

    Changes in practice at the nurse,doctor interface.

    Using focus groups to explore the perceptions of first level nurses working in an acute care setting
    Summary ,,A unique combination of factors has recently triggered a rapid change in the clinical practice of nurses in the UK. ,,This study was carried out to explore the consequences of changing practice at the nurse,doctor interface, as perceived by first level nurses working in an acute care setting in the UK. ,,Qualitative data were collected using focus group interviews and analysed thematically. ,,Findings suggest that role change to these nurses is represented by a ,shift' in the practice of technical activities from junior doctors and a corresponding delegation of nursing activity to care assistants. ,,It is suggested that the wholesale incorporation of technical interventions into the role of the nurse without an increase in the number of qualified nurses is turning nursing back to a task system of care delivery. ,,This has the potential to depersonalize patients and reduce work satisfaction for nurses. [source]

    Challenges confronting clinicians in acute care

    Aim, To engage acute care clinicians in prioritizing professional issues of concern and to help them identify and design change projects. Background, In order to meet and respond to challenges and to ensure safety, efficiency and positive patient and staff outcomes, it is imperative to understand the nature of difficulties faced by health professionals and for clinicians to be included in decision making and change. Method, A three-phase mixed-method design utilizing descriptive and interpretive approaches. Data were collected via survey, focus groups and nominal group workshops. Results, Communication, skill mix and work environments were identified as issues of most concern. Participants were able to identify and prioritize a range of projects to help them better understand and alleviate workplace problems. Conclusion, This study highlights key directions for practice change and confirms previous findings identifying urgent need for research that aims to overcome poor communication and skill shortages. It differs from other studies by providing a platform for participants to design projects leading to solutions and participate in change. Implications for nursing management, Support must be provided for managers in rostering, staffing, and resource procurement and allocation. The results of the present study highlights a need to refocus management styles on staff empowerment, participation and team building. [source]

    History and Trends in Clinical Information Systems in the United States

    Nancy Staggers
    Purpose: To provide a synopsis of issues about clinical information systems for nurses not schooled in nursing informatics. Organizing construct: The past, present, and future of clinical computing, including major factors resulting in the early hospital information systems (HIS) and decision support systems (DSS) in the United States, current advances and issues in managing clinical information, and future trends and issues. Methods: Literature review and analysis. Findings and Conclusions: The first HIS and DSS were used in the late 1960s and were focused on applications for acute care. The change from fee-for-service to managed care required a change in the design of clinical information systems toward more patient-centered systems that span the care continuum, such as the computer-based patient record (CPR). Current difficulties with CPR systems include lack of systems integration, data standardization, and implementation. Increased advances in information and technology integration and increased use of the Internet for health information will shape the future of clinical information systems. [source]

    Screening, Diagnosis, and Clinical Care for Depression

    ANP-C, Mary Jo Goolsby EdD
    Depression is an extremely common condition, which usually responds well to prescribed treatment. Many patients have undiagnosed depression or related illnesses. There are a variety of screening tools that can be applied in practice settings. It is recommended that adult patients be screened for depression in practice sites able to coordinate the actual diagnosis and treatment of depression. This column reviews two sets of recommendations specific to the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of depression. Readers are invited to submit suggestions for future CPG columns and manuscripts reviewing CPGs. NPs interested in contributing to the column are invited to contact the column editor, Dr. Goolsby, to discuss their ideas. JAANP's readership is broad, covering all NP specialties. CPGs applicable to any areas of care can be submitted (from acute care to long term care, from neonatal care to geriatric care). [source]

    The de Quervain's screening tool: Validity and reliability of a measure to support clinical diagnosis and management

    DipCOT, Rachel Batteson PhD
    Abstract Background:,Studies into the effectiveness of interventions for upper limb soft tissue disorders have been hampered by a lack of consistently used diagnostic criteria, meaning that comparison of research results is a problem. To aid homogeneous recruitment into a study of de Quervain's disease, a de Quervain's screening tool (DQST) was developed. This could also be used to facilitate clinical diagnosis and management in practice. Aims:,To provide evidence for the content and construct validity and test,retest and inter-rater reliability of the DQST. Method:,The study was conducted in an acute care, outpatient hand unit in a district general hospital. Three convenience samples of: 59 people with de Quervain's disease; 18 with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and 16 with osteoarthritis (OA) of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint were recruited. The DQST diagnostic criteria were initially generated from a literature review. Content validity was then established by expert doctors with an interest in upper limb musculoskeletal disorders (n = 7) rating the relevance of the seven items included. The DQST was then tested in people either already diagnosed with, or reported as having some of the symptoms of, de Quervain's disease. Construct validity was tested with people with CTS or OA of the CMC joint. Results:,The median DQST score was 5 (Interquartile range IQR = 4,6) out of a possible seven diagnostic criteria. Inter-rater reliability was excellent (Intra-class coefficient [ICC] = 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75, 0.91). Test retest reliability was good (ICC = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.20, 0.87). Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) testing (Se = 1.00; Sp = 1.00) demonstrated that the DQST discriminated between people with de Quervain's disease, CTS or OA of the CMC joint. Conclusions:,The DQST is a valid, reliable tool which could be of assistance in aiding correct diagnosis for recruitment to clinical trials and in clinical practice. Future research is recommended to further examine retest reliability with a larger sample size and to identify the commonest diagnostic criteria required for inclusion. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Occupational injuries among aides and nurses in acute care,

    R.L. Rodríguez-Acosta PhD
    Abstract Background Occupational injuries are common among nursing personnel. Most epidemiologic research on nursing aides comes from long-term care settings. Reports from acute care settings often combine data on nurses and aides even though their job requirements and personal characteristics are quite different. Our objective was to assess risk of work-related injuries in an acute care setting while contrasting injuries of aides and nurses. Methods A retrospective cohort of aides (n,=,1,689) and nurses (n,=,5,082) working in acute care at a large healthcare system between 1997 and 2004 were identified via personnel records. Workers' compensation filings were used to ascertain occupational injuries. Poisson regression was used to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Aides had higher overall injury rates than nurses for no-lost work time (RR,=,1.2, 95% CI: 1.1,1.3) and lost work time (RR,=,2.8, 95% CI: 2.1,3.8) injuries. The risk of an injury due to lifting was greater among aides compared to nurses for both non-lost work time and lost work time injuries. Injury rates among aides were particularly high in rehabilitation and orthopedics units. Most of the injuries requiring time away from work for both groups were related to the process of delivering direct patient care. Conclusions Our findings illustrate the importance of evaluating work-related injuries separately for aides and nurses, given differences in injury risk profiles and injury outcomes. It is particularly important that occupational safety needs of aides be addressed as this occupation experiences significant job growth. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:953,964, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A detailed evaluation of acute respiratory decline in patients with fibrotic lung disease: Aetiology and outcomes

    RESPIROLOGY, Issue 6 2010
    Tristan J. HUIE
    ABSTRACT Background and objective: A comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is recommended for all patients with fibrotic lung disease and acute respiratory decompensation. However, the effect on clinical outcomes of this evaluation remains unknown. Methods: We evaluated 27 consecutive patients with fibrotic lung disease who were hospitalized for an acute respiratory decline between June 2006 and April 2009. An interstitial lung disease expert assisted with the acute care of each patient. A retrospective review of the patient charts was performed to obtain demographic and clinical data, and to assess outcomes. Results: Using a strict definition of acute exacerbation (AE) of fibrotic lung disease derived from the IPF Network Pulmonary Perspective statement, 10 of the 27 patients were classified as definite AE and nine as suspected AE. In eight patients, infectious agents were identified as potential explanations for the respiratory decline. No patients with congestive heart failure or pulmonary embolism were identified. Overall survival to discharge was 37.0%. One-year survival was 14.8%. There were no differences in outcomes for patients with AE compared with those for whom potential infectious aetiologies were identified (log rank, P = 0.932). Patients with IPF showed a decreased rate of survival compared with patients with non-IPF fibrotic disease (1-year survival 0% vs 28.6%, log rank, P = 0.045). Conclusions: In patients with fibrotic lung disease and an acute respiratory decline, a detailed diagnostic evaluation revealed a potential infectious aetiology in up to one-third of cases. However, there was no association between this finding and outcomes in these patients. One-year survival was dismal in patients who suffered an acute respiratory decompensation. [source]

    Practitioner Review: Beyond shaken baby syndrome: what influences the outcomes for infants following traumatic brain injury?

    Rebecca Ashton
    Background:, Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in infancy is relatively common, and is likely to lead to poorer outcomes than injuries sustained later in childhood. While the headlines have been grabbed by infant TBI caused by abuse, often known as shaken baby syndrome, the evidence base for how to support children following TBI in infancy is thin. These children are likely to benefit from ongoing assessment and intervention, because brain injuries sustained in the first year of life can influence development in different ways over many years. Methods:, A literature search was conducted and drawn together into a review aimed at informing practitioners working with children who had a brain injury in infancy. As there are so few evidence-based studies specifically looking at children who have sustained a TBI in infancy, ideas are drawn from a range of studies, including different age ranges and difficulties other than traumatic brain injury. Results:, This paper outlines the issues around measuring outcomes for children following TBI in the first year of life. An explanation of outcomes which are more likely for children following TBI in infancy is provided, in the areas of mortality; convulsions; endocrine problems; sensory and motor skills; cognitive processing; language; academic attainments; executive functions; and psychosocial difficulties. The key factors influencing these outcomes are then set out, including severity of injury; pre-morbid situation; genetics; family factors and interventions. Conclusions:, Practitioners need to take a long-term, developmental view when assessing, understanding and supporting children who have sustained a TBI in their first year of life. The literature suggests some interventions which may be useful in prevention, acute care and longer-term rehabilitation, and further research is needed to assess their effectiveness. [source]

    Integrating education into primary care quality and cost improvement at an academic medical center

    R. Van Harrison PhD
    Abstract Introduction: In 1996 the University of Michigan Health System created the Guidelines Utilization, Implementation, Development, and Evaluation Studies (GUIDES) unit to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of primary care for common medical problems. GUIDES's primary functions are to oversee the development of evidence-based, practical clinical guidelines for common medical conditions; measure and provide feedback on physicians' performance; and facilitate systemic changes to support appropriate care. Various methods are used to improve care, including evidence reviews, formal education, informal clinical "opinion leaders," feedback, reminders, and procedure changes. Twenty-four common medical conditions have been addressed through this process. More than 30 measures of clinical performance have been developed and reported. Methods: This case study describes a systematic, multifaceted program to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of primary care. Results: Illustrative results for clinical performance are presented for 2 measures of chronic care, 2 measures of preventive care, and 2 measures of acute care. All 6 measures show general improvement in performance across years, with performance near or above the National Committee for Quality Assurance's 90th percentile for Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set measures. Discussion: A systematic approach involving all relevant components of a health system integrates the synthesis of information, education about the information and how to implement it, and addressing operational barriers. Benefits include a curriculum that is shared across faculty, residents, and medical students and more uniform quality of care that faculty model for physicians-in-training. [source]