Achievement Orientation (achievement + orientation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Achievement orientations from subjective histories of success: Promotion pride versus prevention pride

E. Tory Higgins
A new task goal elicits a feeling of pride in individuals with a subjective history of success, and this achievment pride produces anticipatory goal reactions that energize and direct behavior to approach the task goal. By distinguishing between promotion pride and prevention pride, the present paper extends this classic model of achievement motivation. Regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) distinguishes between a promotion focus on hopes and accomplishments (gains) and a prevention focus on safety and responsibilities (non-losses). We propose that a subjective history of success with promotion-related eagerness (promotion pride) orients individuals toward using eagerness means to approach a new task goal, whereas a subjective history of success with prevention-related vigilance (prevention pride) orients individuals toward using vigilance means to approach a new task goal. Studies 1,3 tested this proposal by examining the relations between a new measure of participants' subjective histories of promotion success and prevention success (the Regulatory Focus Questionnaire (RFQ)) and their achievement strategies in different tasks. Study 4 examined the relation between participants' RFQ responses and their reported frequency of feeling eager or vigilant in past task engagements. Study 5 used an experimental priming technique to make participants temporarily experience either a subjective history of promotion success or a subjective history of prevention success. For both chronic and situationally induced achievement pride, these studies found that when approaching task goals individuals with promotion pride use eagerness means whereas individuals with prevention pride use vigilance means. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Families, Urban Neighborhood Youth Centers, and Peers as Contexts for Development

Stephen A. Anderson
Abstract: Three social contexts,family, neighborhood youth centers, and peer relationships,were examined in relation to several measures of adjustment among 1,406 mostly minority, inner-city adolescents. Family and center involvement were directly related to 3 of the 4 adjustment measures (i.e., achievement orientation, emotion regulation, attitudes toward school). Peer connections interacted with family and center involvement to also predict these variables. Substance use, the fourth adjustment measure, was related only to family involvement. Significant 3-way interactions suggested that within urban settings, favorable attitudes toward school may best be achieved when family, neighborhood youth center, and peer involvement are all strong. The combined effects of these 3 contexts appear to be greater among younger adolescents. Implications for promoting urban youth development programs are discussed. [source]

Can the Discretionary Nature of Certain Criteria Lead to Differential Prediction Across Cultural Groups?

Oleksandr S. Chernyshenko
We examined the conjecture that relations between constructs across cultures may be susceptible to cultural moderation where the performance of the criterion construct is discretionary. This hypothesis was investigated using the relationship between personality and three performance constructs, with samples from the United States and New Zealand, two ideologically distinct cultures with respect to achievement orientation. All hypotheses were supported by results of hierarchical moderated regression analyses using bias free measures, suggesting that considering whether construct behaviors are discretionary is important when considering the merit of generalizing research findings across cultures. [source]

Relationship Between Personality Traits, Job Satisfaction, and Job Involvement Among Taiwanese Community Health Volunteers

I-chuan Li
ABSTRACT Objective: To understand the relationship between job involvement, job satisfaction, and personality traits among health volunteers in one Taiwan community. It is not easy to retain voluntary workers as part of health programs even though they have been trained. Previous research has shown that in order to increase job involvement, volunteers must effectively fulfill their needs to achieve and obtain job satisfaction. Design and sample: Cross-sectional design. Surveys were mailed to 317 health volunteers at community health centers in I-lan County, northern Taiwan; 213 complete responses (67%) were received. Methods: The survey instrument included sociodemographic items and scales measuring locus of control, achievement orientation, job involvement, and job satisfaction. Results: Most respondents (94.8%) were female and their average age was 49.6 years. In terms of personality traits, most volunteers showed internal control orientation. Explainable variance for the prediction of job involvement from a combination of participation frequency, on-job training, achievement orientation, and job satisfaction was 33.6%. Conclusions: The results suggest that there is a need to strengthen cooperative relationships among volunteers by initiating well-planned volunteer training programs and growth groups. These should involve the empowerment concept with the aim of enhancing the volunteers' interpersonal relationships and job satisfaction. [source]

Psychometric testing of the Leadership and Management Inventory: a tool to measure the skills and abilities of first-line nurse managers

Aim, To estimate the validity and reliability of the Leadership and Management Inventory, a tool to measure the skills and abilities of first-line nurse managers. Background, The decision to develop an inventory reflects the need for an instrument that can measure the various skills and abilities first-line nurse managers should possess. Method, Factor analysis was conducted and internal consistency initially estimated on data from 149 registered nurses; a second sample of 197 health care personnel was used to test these results. Results, Principal component analysis of the first sample resulted in a preferred three-factor solution that explained 65.8% of the variance; Cronbach's alpha coefficient varied between 0.90 and 0.95. Analysis of the second sample also resulted in a three-factor solution that explained 64.2% of the variance; Cronbach's alpha coefficient varied from 0.88 to 0.96. For both samples, the factors were labelled ,interpersonal skills and group management', ,achievement orientation' and ,overall organizational view and political savvy'. Conclusion, Results indicate that estimates of validity and reliability for the Leadership and Management Inventory can be considered acceptable. Implications for nursing management, The Leadership and Management Inventory can be used when first-line nurse managers' leadership and management skills and abilities are to be measured. [source]

Exploring the Career/Achievement and Personal Life Orientation Differences between Entrepreneurs and Nonentrepreneurs: The Impact of Sex and Dependents

Richard DeMartino
This study explores the career/achievement and personal life orientations of entrepreneurs, specifically the impact of sex and dependent-child status. Although a growing body of research has explored the similarities and uniqueness of women, none have explicitly analyzed entrepreneurs employing a career/achievement and personal life framework. In addition, no studies have sought to explore the career/achievement and personal life orientations of female entrepreneurs with female nonentrepreneurs of similar backgrounds. Consequently, this research explores and compares the career/achievement and personal life orientations of female entrepreneurs with a group of female nonentrepreneurs with similar educational levels, ages, and work experience. It also compares the orientations of male entrepreneurs with a group of male nonentrepreneurs in order to both confirm existing literature and create a means to compare intra-female with intra-male career and personal life orientations. The analysis shows no statistically significant differences in the career/achievement and personal life orientations of women entrepreneurs and similar female nonentrepreneurs. It also finds, confirming existing literature, that male entrepreneurs possess a greater career/achievement orientation as compared with male nonentrepreneurs. [source]