Achievement Levels (achievement + level)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Standard-Setting Methods as Measurement Processes

Paul Nichols
Some writers in the measurement literature have been skeptical of the meaningfulness of achievement standards and described the standard-setting process as blatantly arbitrary. We argue that standard setting is more appropriately conceived of as a measurement process similar to student assessment. The construct being measured is the panelists' representation of student performance at the threshold of an achievement level. In the first section of this paper, we argue that standard setting is an example of stimulus-centered measurement. In the second section, we elaborate on this idea by comparing some popular standard-setting methods to the stimulus-centered scaling methods known as psychophysical scaling. In the third section, we use the lens of standard setting as a measurement process to take a fresh look at the two criticisms of standard setting: the role of judgment and the variability of results. In the fourth section, we offer a vision of standard-setting research and practice as grounded in the theory and practice of educational measurement. [source]

What the eyes already ,know': using eye movement measurement to tap into children's implicit numerical magnitude representations

Angela Heine
Abstract To date, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of mismatches between children's implicit and explicit knowledge at certain points in development that become manifest by their gestures and gaze orientation in different problem solving contexts. Stimulated by this research, we used eye movement measurement to investigate the development of basic knowledge about numerical magnitude in primary school children. Sixty-six children from grades one to three (i.e. 6,9 years) were presented with two parallel versions of a number line estimation task of which one was restricted to behavioural measures, whereas the other included the recording of eye movement data. The results of the eye movement experiment indicate a quantitative increase as well as a qualitative change in children's implicit knowledge about numerical magnitudes in this age group that precedes the overt, that is, behavioural, demonstration of explicit numerical knowledge. The finding that children's eye movements reveal substantially more about the presence of implicit precursors of later explicit knowledge in the numerical domain than classical approaches suggests further exploration of eye movement measurement as a potential early assessment tool of individual achievement levels in numerical processing. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Promoting creative thinking through the use of ICT

S. Wheeler
Abstract A great deal has been written about the use of web-based technologies such as the Internet in promoting learning in education. In schools, research has focused primarily on social interaction and group work, student achievement levels and curriculum development. Very little study seems to have been brought to bear upon the promotion of creative thinking by the use of online technologies, and this paper attempts to contribute to this field of study. This paper reports on a pilot study which has investigated the creative impact of information and communication technology (ICT) in a rural primary school in South-west England. The school is unique because it provides a personal networked computer for each of its 41 Year 6 students (aged 10,11 years). A small group of students were interviewed about the learning activities they engaged in over the year, and this paper reports on initial findings with a special emphasis on creative working and thinking (n = 6). A model of creativity is presented with three discrete but related modes of activity , problem solving, creative cognition, and social interaction. The paper provides new findings about the nature of creativity in the context of computer based learning environments. [source]

A Domain-level Approach to Describing Growth in Achievement

E. Matthew Schulz
Descriptions of growth in educational achievement often rely on the notion that higher-level students can do whatever lower-level students can do, plus at least one more thing. This article presents a method of supporting such descriptions using the data of a subject-area achievement test. Multiple content domains with an expected order of difficulty were defined within the Grade 8 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in mathematics. Teachers were able to reliably classify items into the domains by content. Using expected percentage correct scores on the domains, it was possible to describe each achievement level boundary (Basic, Proficient, and Advanced) on the NAEP scale by patterns of skill that include both mastery and non-mastery, and to show that higher achievement levels are associated with mastery of more skills. We conclude that general achievement tests like NAEP can be used to provide criterion-referenced descriptions of growth in achievement as a sequential mastery of skills. [source]

Working memory functioning in children with learning disabilities: does intelligence make a difference?

C. Maehler
Abstract Background Children with learning disabilities are identified by their severe learning problems and their deficient school achievement. On the other hand, children with sub-average school achievement and sub-average intellectual development are thought to suffer from a general intellectual delay rather than from specific learning disabilities. The open question is whether these two groups are characterised by differences in their cognitive functioning. The present study explored several functions of working memory. Method A working memory battery with tasks for the phonological loop, the visual,spatial sketchpad and central executive skills was presented in individual sessions to 27 children with learning disabilities and normal IQ (ICD-10: mixed disorders of scholastic skills), 27 children with learning disabilities and low IQ (intellectual disabilities), and a control group of 27 typically developing children with regular school achievement levels and normal IQ. Results The results reveal an overall deficit in working memory of the two groups with learning disabilities compared with the control group. However, unexpectedly, there were no differences between the two groups of children with disabilities (normal vs. low IQ). Conclusions These findings do not support the notion of different cognitive functioning because of differences in intelligence of these two groups. In the ongoing discussion about the role of intelligence (especially as to the postulated discrepancy between intelligence and school achievement in diagnosis and special education), our findings might lead to rethinking the current practice of treating these two groups as fundamentally different. [source]