Accurate Understanding (accurate + understanding)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

That Which Makes the Sensation of Blue a Mental Fact: Moore on Phenomenal Relationism

Benj Hellie
A gift of a dollar for each article in the philosophy of perception and consciousness published since 1990 making reference, explicitly or implicitly, to Moore's discussion in the second half of Moore 19031 of an alleged ,transparency' and ,diaphanousness' pertaining to some aspect of perceptual experience would very likely cover the tab of a mid-priced dinner for two.2 Moore's poetically expressed observations have captured the imagination of contemporary philosophers of perception and consciousness, and have served as the basis of much fruitful discussion in those areas. Still, despite all the attention these observations have received, the contemporary literature lacks a close reading of the second half of Moore's paper, without which it is impossible to understand Moore's observations in the context in which they were originally expressed. It is understandable that such a close reading is lacking: the second half of Moore's paper has been rightly described by one of his most sympathetic and dedicated interpreters as ,extremely dense and opaque' (Klemke 2000: 55).3 But despite the evident difficulties of the task, I aim here, with some trepidation, to provide the missing close reading. The main points of my interpretation will be these. The centerpiece of the anti-idealist manoeuvrings of the second half of the paper is a phenomenological argument for what I will call a relational view of perceptual phenomenal character, on which, roughly, ,that which makes the sensation of blue a mental fact' is a relation of conscious awareness, a view close to the opposite of the most characteristic contemporary view going under the transparency rubric.4 The discussion of transparency and diaphanousness is a sidelight, its principal purpose to shore up the main line of argumentation against criticism; in those passages all Moore argues is that the relation of conscious awareness is not transparent, while acknowledging that it can seem to be. My discussion will proceed as follows. In section 1, I will discuss some theses and elucidate some notions from the philosophy of perception and consciousness which will be central to my interpretation; having done so, I will be in a position to explain how an accurate understanding of Moore may contribute to theoretical advances in the philosophy of perception and consciousness. The next two sections contain the exegetical heart of the paper: section 2 provides an analysis of Moore's case for the relational view; section 3 attempts to explain the place of the relational view in the overall refutation of idealism. Section 4 critically discusses a pair of competing interpretations. Section 5 wraps things up, drawing concluding morals as to the campaigns on behalf of which Moore should and should not be enlisted. [source]

Numerical stability of unsteady stream-function vorticity calculations

E. Sousa
Abstract The stability of a numerical solution of the Navier,Stokes equations is usually approached by con- sidering the numerical stability of a discretized advection,diffusion equation for either a velocity component, or in the case of two-dimensional flow, the vorticity. Stability restrictions for discretized advection,diffusion equations are a very serious constraint, particularly when a mesh is refined in an explicit scheme, so an accurate understanding of the numerical stability of a discretization procedure is often of equal or greater practical importance than concerns with accuracy. The stream-function vorticity formulation provides two equations, one an advection,diffusion equation for vorticity and the other a Poisson equation between the vorticity and the stream-function. These two equations are usually not coupled when considering numerical stability. The relation between the stream-function and the vorticity is linear and so has, in principle, an exact inverse. This allows an algebraic method to link the interior and the boundary vorticity into a single iteration scheme. In this work, we derive a global time-iteration matrix for the combined system. When applied to a model problem, this matrix formulation shows differences between the numerical stability of the full system equations and that of the discretized advection,diffusion equation alone. It also gives an indication of how the wall vorticity discretization affects stability. Despite the added algebraic complexity, it is straightforward to use MATLAB to carry out all the matrix operations. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Beyond taxonomy: a review of macroinvertebrate trait-based community descriptors as tools for freshwater biomonitoring

Salomé Menezes
Summary 1.,Species traits have been frequently used in ecological studies in an attempt to develop a general ecological framework linking biological communities to habitat pressures. The trait approach offers a mechanistic alternative to traditional taxonomy-based descriptors. This review focuses on research employing traits as biomonitoring tools for freshwater ecosystems, although the lessons learned have wider application in the assessment of other ecosystem types. 2.,We review the support from ecological theory to employ species traits for biomonitoring purposes (e.g. the habitat templet concept, landscape filtering hypothesis), and the subsequent studies that test the hypotheses arising from these theories, and apply this knowledge under real freshwater biomonitoring scenarios. We also include studies that deal with more specific issues such as trait trade-offs and trait syndromes. 3.,We highlight the functional trait approach as one of the most promising tools emerging for biomonitoring freshwater ecosystems. Several technical issues are addressed and solutions are proposed. We discuss the need for: a broader unified trait biomonitoring tool; a more accurate understanding of the natural variation of community patterns of trait expression; approaches to diminish the effects of trait trade-offs and trait syndromes; additional life history and ecological requirement studies; and the detection of specific impacts under multiple stressor scenarios. 4.,Synthesis and applications. This review provides biologists with the conceptual underpinning for the use of species traits as community descriptors and for freshwater biomonitoring and management. We expect that the functional trait approach will ultimately improve communication to managers and legislators of the importance of protecting freshwater ecosystem functions. [source]

The Placement of the Human Eyeball and Canthi in Craniofacial Identification

Carl N. Stephan Ph.D.
Abstract:, An accurate understanding of the spatial relationships between the deep and superficial structures of the head is essential for anthropological methods concerned with the comparison of faces to skulls (superimposition) or the prediction of faces from them (facial approximation). However, differences of opinion exist concerning: (i) the position of the eyeball in planes other than the anteroposterior plane and (ii) the canthi positions relative to the bony orbital margins. This study attempts to clarify the above relationships by dissection of a small sample of adult human cadavers (N = 4, mean age = 83 years, s = 12 years). The most notable finding was that the eyeballs were not centrally positioned within the orbits as the more recent craniofacial identification literature expounds. Rather, the eyeballs were consistently positioned closer to the orbital roof and lateral orbital wall (by 1,2 mm on average); a finding consistent with the earlier anatomical literature. While these estimation errors are small ipsilaterally, several factors make them meaningful: (i) the orbital region is heavily used for facial recognition; (ii) the width error is doubled because the eyes are bilateral structures; (iii) the eyes are sometimes used to predict/assess other soft tissue facial structures; and (iv) the net error in facial approximation rapidly accumulates with the subsequent prediction of each independent facial feature. While the small sample size of this study limits conclusive generalizations, the new data presented here nonetheless have immediate application to craniofacial identification practice because the results are evidence based. In contrast, metric data have never been published to support the use of the central positioning guideline. Clearly, this study warrants further quantification of the eyeball position in larger samples and preferably of younger individuals. [source]

Empathic accuracy and accommodative behavior among newly married couples

Shelley Dean Kilpatrick
An established method for assessing empathic accuracy was used to examine the consequences of accurate understanding during the early years of marriage. Structural equation modeling analyses simultaneously examined within,individual and across,partner associations among variables (actor effects and partner effects). During the first year of marriage, actor effects and partner effects were observed for two presumed consequences of empathic accuracy,accommodative behavior and couple well,being. Actor effects, partner effects, or both were observed for three possible determinants of empathic accuracy,commitment level, partner perspective,taking, and psychological femininity. Levels of empathic accuracy reliably declined following the first year of marriage, as did the strength of the above,noted associations with empathic accuracy. [source]

Broken ribs: Paleopathological analysis of costal fractures in the human identified skeletal collection from the Museu Bocage, Lisbon, Portugal (late 19th to middle 20th centuries)

Vítor Matos
Abstract Although rarely reported in the anthropological literature, rib fractures are commonly found during the analysis of human skeletal remains of past and modern populations. This lack of published data precludes comparison between studies and restricts an accurate understanding either of the mechanisms involved in thoracic injuries or their impact on past societies. The present study aimed: 1) to report rib fracture prevalence in 197 individuals, 109 males, and 88 females, with ages at death ranging from 13 to 88 years old, from the Human Identified Skeletal Collection, Museu Bocage, Portugal (late 19th-middle 20th centuries); 2) to test the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of rib stress fractures existed in the 133 individuals who died from respiratory diseases, in a period before antibiotics. The macroscopic analysis revealed 23.9% (n = 47) of individuals with broken ribs. 2.6% (n = 124) out of 4,726 ribs observed were affected. Males presented more rib fractures, and a significantly higher prevalence was noted for older individuals. Fractures were more frequently unilateral (n = 34), left sided (n = 19) and mainly located on the shaft of ribs from the middle thoracic wall. Nineteen individuals presented adjacent fractured ribs. Individuals who died from pulmonary diseases were not preferentially affected. However, a higher mean rate of fractures was found in those who died from pneumonia, a scenario still common nowadays. Since rib involvement in chest wall injury and its related outcomes are important issues both for paleopathology and forensic anthropology, further investigations are warranted. Am J Phys Anthropol 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Accessibility of simple gases in disordered carbons: theory and simulation

T. X. Nguyen
Abstract We present a review of our recent studies on the accessibility of simple gases (Ar, N2, CH4 and CO2) in disordered microporous carbons using transition state theory (TST) and molecular simulation techniques. A realistic carbon model rather than the slit-pore approximation is utilised, providing more accurate understanding of complex adsorption equilibrium and dynamics behaviour at the molecular level in porous carbons, especially kinetic restriction of adsorbate molecules through highly constricted pore mouths of coals and molecular sieve carbons (MSC). This kinetic restriction leads to a molecular sieving effect which plays a vital role in gas separation using the MSCs. In particular, the realistic carbon model of a saccharose char used in a recent study was obtained by hybrid reverse Monte Carlo simulation. The time of adsorption or desorption of the single gas molecule between two neighbouring pores through a highly constricted window of the realistic saccharose char model was determined using TST. Finally, the validation of TST calculated results of adsorption and desorption times against experimental measurements as well as molecular dynamics simulation is also presented in this article. Copyright © 2009 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Spider sex pheromones: emission, reception, structures, and functions

A. C. Gaskett
Abstract Spiders and their mating systems are useful study subjects with which to investigate questions of widespread interest about sexual selection, pre- and post-copulatory mate choice, sperm competition, mating strategies, and sexual conflict. Conclusions drawn from such studies are broadly applicable to a range of taxa, but rely on accurate understanding of spider sexual interactions. Extensive behavioural experimentation demonstrates the presence of sex pheromones in many spider species, and recent major advances in the identification of spider sex pheromones merit review. Synthesised here are the emission, transmission, structures, and functions of spider sex pheromones, with emphasis on the crucial and dynamic role of sex pheromones in female and male mating strategies generally. Techniques for behavioural, chemical and electrophysiological study are summarised, and I aim to provide guidelines for incorporating sex pheromones into future studies of spider mating. In the spiders, pheromones are generally emitted by females and received by males, but this pattern is not universal. Female spiders emit cuticular and/or silk-based sex pheromones, which can be airborne or received via contact with chemoreceptors on male pedipalps. Airborne pheromones primarily attract males or elicit male searching behaviour. Contact pheromones stimulate male courtship behaviour and provide specific information about the emitter's identity. Male spiders are generally choosy and are often most attracted to adult virgin females and juvenile females prior to their final moult. This suggests the first male to mate with a female has significant advantages, perhaps due to sperm priority patterns, or mated female disinterest. Both sexes may attempt to control female pheromone emission, and thus dictate the frequency and timing of female mating, reflecting the potentially different costs of female signalling and/or polyandry to both sexes. Spider sex pheromones are likely to be lipids or lipid soluble, may be closely related to primary metabolites, and are not necessarily species specific, although they can still assist with species recognition. Newer electrophysiological techniques coupled with chemical analyses assist with the identification of sex pheromone compounds. This provides opportunities for more targeted behavioural experimentation, perhaps with synthetic pheromones, and for theorising about the biosynthesis and evolution of chemical signals generally. Given the intriguing biology of spiders, and the critical role of chemical signals for spiders and many other animal taxa, a deeper understanding of spider sex pheromones should prove productive. [source]

Sentinel lymph node as a target of molecular diagnosis of lymphatic micrometastasis and local immunoresponse to malignant cells

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008
Hiroya Takeuchi
The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as the lymph node(s) first receiving lymphatic drainage from the site of the primary tumor. The histopathological status of SLN is one of the most significant predictors of recurrence and overall survival for most clinical stage I/II solid tumors. Recent progress in molecular techniques has demonstrated the presence of micrometastatic tumor cells in SLN. There is now a growing body of data to support the clinical relevance of SLN micrometastasis in a variety of solid tumors. Increasing the sensitivity of occult tumor cell detection in the SLN, using molecular-based analysis, should enable a more accurate understanding of the clinical significance of various patterns of micrometastatic nodal disease. The establishment of metastasis to SLN might not be simply reflected by the flow dynamics of lymphatic fluid that drains from the primary site to the SLN, and the transportation of viable cancer cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that primary tumors can actively induce lymphangiogenesis and promote SLN metastasis. Moreover chemokine receptors in tumor cells may facilitate organ-specific tumor metastasis in many human cancers and some experimental models. In contrast, recent clinical and preclinical studies regard SLN as the first lymphoid organ to respond to tumor antigenic stimulation. SLN dramatically show morphological, phenotypical and functional changes that indicate immune suppression by tumor cells. The immune suppression in SLN results in failure of prevention or eradication of tumor metastasis. The mechanism of immunomodulation remains unclear; however, several regulatory molecules produced by tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages or lymphocytes are likely to be responsible for inducing the immune suppression in SLN. Further studies may develop a novel immunotherapy that overcomes tumor-induced immune suppression and can prevent or eradicate SLN metastasis. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 441,450) [source]