Accurate Determination (accurate + determination)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Selected Abstracts

High-Resolution LA-ICP-MS for Accurate Determination of Low Abundances of K, Sc and Other Trace Elements in Geological Samples

Julia Regnery
LA-ICP-MS; haute résolution de masses; matériaux géologiques de référence; verres MPI-DING Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn in geological samples. Because the isotopes of these elements and the internal standard element (Ca) often have interferences from molecular ions when determined using quadrupole or sector-field ICP-MS in low mass resolution mode, ion intensities were measured at a high mass resolution of 4000. We investigated dynamic element fractionation, type and abundance of molecular ions using different geological reference materials. Highly resolved mass spectra were especially important for accurate low-abundance measurements. As a result, maximum "critical" concentration limits for each isotope were obtained, where a mass resolution of 4000 was necessary for reliable LA-ICP-MS analysis. To test the LA-ICP-MS technique, different international reference material glasses and powdered rock reference materials were analysed. Rock powders were fused to glass beads using an Ir-strip heater. Nearly all concentration values for the reference materials agreed with the reference values at the 95% confidence level. To demonstrate routine LA-ICP-MS analysis at a mass resolution of 4000, trace element data for Hawaiian basalts are also presented. La technique de spectrométrie de masse couplée à un plasma inductif et associée à un système d'ablation laser (LA-ICP-MS) a été utilisée pour la détermination des concentrations en K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn dans des échantillons géologiques. Parce que les isotopes de ces éléments et l'élément utilisé comme standard interne (Ca) ont souvent des interférences liées à la formation d'ions moléculaires lorsqu'ils sont analysés par les techniques d'ICP-MS quadripolaire ou à secteur magnétique en mode basse résolution de masses, les intensités des ions ont été mesurées en mode haute résolution de masses de 4000. Nous avons étudié le fractionnement dynamique des éléments, le type et l'abondance des ions moléculaires en utilisant différents matériaux géologiques de référence. Les spectres de masse de haute résolution ont été particulièrement importants pour les mesures précises des faibles abondances. En conséquence, les limites maximales de concentration critique pour chaque isotope ont été obtenues, dans les cas où une résolution de masse de 4000 était nécessaire pour obtenir des analyses LA-ICP-MS fiables. Pour tester la technique LA-ICP-MS proposée, différents verres et poudres de matériaux de référence internationaux ont été analysés. Les poudres de roche ont été transformées en billes de verre par fusion dans un four automatique à chauffage par filament d'iridium. Presque toutes les concentrations obtenues pour les matériaux de référence sont en accord avec les valeurs de référence de la littérature à un niveau de confiance de 95%. Pour démontrer que la méthode présentée de LA-ICP-MS à résolution de masses de 4000 peut s'utiliser en routine, nous présentons également des données d'éléments traces de basaltes Hawaïens. [source]

Hydration of exercised Standardbred racehorses assessed noninvasively using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis

Summary Reasons for performing study: In human and animal clinical practice, multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) is increasingly used as a diagnostic tool to assess hydration of intra-and extracellular fluid compartments. Accurate determination of changes in hydration status within individuals over time has remained problematic due to the requirement for complete impedance-frequency relationships at the time points of interest. Objectives: To use MF-BIA in 13 Standardbred racehorses and 7 ,endurance' research horses to determine if MF-BIA could be used to track changes in total body water (TBW), intracellular fluid volume (ICFV) and extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) resulting from exercise. Methods: Jugular venous blood was sampled at rest and for 2,13 h following exercise. TBW, ECFV and plasma volume (PV) were measured at rest using indicator dilution techniques (D2O, thiocyanate and Evans Blue, respectively). TBW, ECFV, ICFV and PV were correlated to impedance measures and predictive equations used to determine hydration status from MF-BIA measures. Results: TBW loss continued throughout the recovery period, and was primarily borne by the ECF compartment at 90 min of recovery. Conclusions: MF-BIA predictions of compartmental hydration status were significantly correlated to measured/calculated decreases in these compartments. Potential relevance: Practical applications for MF-BIA in horses include monitoring of hydration status during transport and competition, assessment of body compostion, clinical health assessment and critical care management. [source]

Phosphorus and nitrogen in a monomictic freshwater lake: employing cyanobacterial bioreporters to gain new insights into nutrient bioavailability

Summary 1. It is an uncontested paradigm that an adequate supply of the macronutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) is critical for maintaining phytoplankton primary production in aquatic ecosystems; it has also been suggested that there is an optimal total N : total P ratio for this globally significant process. 2. This ratio, normally assessed by chemical determination of the major dissolved N and P species, poses a dilemma: do chemical measurements actually reflect the bioavailable fraction of these nutrient pools? Accurate determination of the various N and P species and their fluxes into phytoplankton cells is notoriously difficult. 3. To provide a possible solution to this difficulty, we engineered strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 that ,report' on N and P bioavailability via a bioluminescent signal. These strains were used to quantify, for the first time, bioavailable concentrations of these essential macronutrients in a freshwater lake. 4. Only a small fraction (0.01,1%) of the chemically determined P may actually be bioavailable to this unicellular cyanobacterium and, by inference, to the phytoplankton community in general. In contrast, bioavailable N comprises most of the dissolved N pool. Consequently, bioavailable N : P ratios based on these assays are higher then those based on chemical determinations, indicating that P limitation in Lake Kinneret is more extensive then previously thought. [source]

Validating the use of temperature data loggers to measure survival of songbird nests

Karel Weidinger
ABSTRACT Accurate determination of nest fates and nest predators is possible through continuous video monitoring, but such monitoring is relatively expensive and labor intensive. If documenting of the timing of nest termination events is sufficient, then data loggers (DL) may allow more extensive sampling and may represent a viable alternative. I validated temperature DL records of nest survival time by simultaneous videotaping and compared results derived from DL records with those obtained by regular nest visits by an observer. I estimated the fate of 937 nests of nine species of open cup-nesting songbirds, including 673 nests monitored using DL, 165 monitored using video cameras, 33 validation nests monitored simultaneously using both DL and video cameras, and 132 control nests monitored only by observer visits. Deployment of DL did not negatively influence nest survival rate. DL reliably recorded survival time and allowed classification of nest fates based on the potential fledging age, regardless of the frequency of nest visits by an observer. The true fate of nests that survived beyond the potential fledging age can not be safely determined from time of failure, except for nocturnal events that suggest partial predation. Video revealed frequent partial or complete predation on nests with old nestlings that would have been categorized as successful by other methods. I conclude that temperature DL are efficient, reliable, and relatively inexpensive tools for recording exact nest survival times and classification of nest fates, with implications for nest survival modeling and discriminating between diurnal and nocturnal predation. SINOPSIS Es posible determinar con precisión la sobrevicencia en nidos y la depredación en estos mediante el uso de videos contínuos. Pero dicho monitoreo es relativamente costoso y requiere mucho trabajo. Si el documentar el momento en que se termina el anidamiento es suficiente para obtener la información, previamente mencionada, el uso de bitácoras electrónicas de temperatura (loggers) pudieran permitir el tomar muestras más amplias y por ende, representar una alternativa viable. Validé la toma de temperaturas con bitácoras electrónicas para determinar la sobrevivencia en nidos con la toma simultánea de videos y comparé los resultados obtenidos (con la bitácora) con los datos tomados por un observador que visitó regularmente los nidos. El estudio se hizo con 937 nidos de nueve especies de aves canoras cuyo nido es en forma de copa. De estos 673 se monitorearon utilizando bitácoras electrónicas de temperatura, 165 con cámaras de video, 33 con monitoreo simultáneo de bitacora y video y 132, como control, monitoreados mediante observación directa. El uso de las bitácoras no influyó negativamente en la tasa de sobrevivencia. La bitácora grabó el tiempo de sobrervivencia y permitió la clasificación de los nidos (exitoso o no exitoso) basado en el tiempo potencial de la edad de dejar el nido, sin importar la frecuencia de visita a los nidos por parte de observadores. La verdadera finalidad de los nidos que sobreviven, más alla de la edad potencial de dejar el nido los pichones, no puede ser determinado con exactitud, excepto en eventos nocturnos que surgieren depredación. El uso de videos permitió determinar la depredación parcial o completa en nidos, particularmente de pichones que se tardaron más que el tiempo promedio en dejar el nido y que en estudios se asume que sobrevivieron. Puedo concluir que las bitácoras electrónicas de temperatura son eficientes, confiables, de bajo costo y permiten determinar con precisión la sobrevivencia en nidos y la clasificación de estos entre exitosos y no exitosos, con implicaciones para construir modelos de sobrevivencia y discriminar entre depredores diurnos y nocturnos. [source]

Systematic review: non-invasive methods of fibrosis analysis in chronic hepatitis C

Summary Background, Accurate determination of the presence and degree of liver fibrosis is essential for prognosis and for planning treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Non-invasive methods of assessing fibrosis have been developed to reduce the need for biopsy. Aim, To perform a review of these non-invasive measures and their ability to replace biopsy for assessing hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV. Methods, A systematic review of PUBMED and EMBASE was performed through 2008 using the following search terms: HCV, liver, elastography, hepatitis, Fibroscan, SPECT, noninvasive liver fibrosis, ultrasonography, Doppler, MRI, Fibrotest, Fibrosure, Actitest, APRI, Forns and breath tests, alone or in combination. Results, We identified 151 studies: 87 using biochemical, 57 imaging and seven breath tests either alone or in combination. Conclusions, Great strides are being made in the development of accurate non-invasive methods for determination of fibrosis. Although no single non-invasive test or model developed to date can match that information obtained from actual histology (i.e. inflammation, fibrosis, steatosis), combinations of two modalities of non-invasive methods can reliably differentiate between minimal and significant fibrosis, and thereby avoid liver biopsy in a significant percentage of patients. [source]

DNA-based identification of preys from non-destructive, total DNA extractions of predators using arthropod universal primers

Abstract Here, I show that prey sequences can be detected from DNA of tiger beetles of the genus Rivacindela using whole specimens, nondestructive methods, and universal cytochrome b primers for arthropods. BLAST searches of the obtained sequences against public databases revealed that the diet of Rivacindela is mostly composed of flies but also termites and other beetles. Accurate determination of order, family and even genus was achieved in most cases but rarely to species level. Results suggest that stored DNA samples extracted from whole predatory specimens could be an alternative to dissected gut contents as starting source for DNA-based dietary studies. [source]

Sex determination of adolescent skeletons using the distal humerus

Tracy L. Rogers
Abstract Accurate determination of the sex of immature skeletal remains is difficult in the absence of DNA, due to the fact that most sexually dimorphic features of the human skeleton develop as secondary sex characteristics during adolescence. Methods of assessment of adult skeletons cannot reliably be applied to adolescent skeletons because of the transitional nature of the skeleton at puberty and the variability of the adolescent growth spurt. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of Rogers's method of morphological sex determination using the distal humerus (Rogers: J Forensic Sci 44 (1999) 55,59) to assess the sex of adolescent skeletons. The sample consists of 7 documented adolescent skeletons from the Christ Church Spitalfields collection at the British Museum of Natural History and 35 from the Luis Lopes skeletal collection housed in the National History Museum (Museu Bocage) of the University of Lisbon, Portugal. Ages range from 11 to 20 years. The technique achieved an accuracy of 81% on the combined sample of 42. This method can be applied to adolescent skeletons once the trochlea begins fusing to the humeral diaphysis, which occurred by age 11 years in the test samples. Am J Phys Anthropol 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

MIR phasing using merohedrally twinned crystals

Anke C. Terwisscha van Scheltinga
Merohedral twinning is a crystal-growth disorder that seriously hinders the determination of macromolecular crystal structures by isomorphous replacement. The strategies used in the structures solved so far are discussed. Several methods can be used to determine the extent of twinning, the twin fraction and to detwin the data. Accurate determination of the twin fraction by analysing heavy-atom refinement statistics is possible, but only influences the resulting phases slightly. It seems more crucial to restrict the variation in twin fractions between data sets, either by making the twin fractions of some data sets artificially higher or by screening crystals to obtain data with a low twin fraction. [source]

Nicotine, acetanilide and urea multi-level 2H-, 13C- and 15N-abundance reference materials for continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry,

Arndt Schimmelmann
Accurate determinations of stable isotope ratios require a calibration using at least two reference materials with different isotopic compositions to anchor the isotopic scale and compensate for differences in machine slope. Ideally, the , values of these reference materials should bracket the isotopic range of samples with unknown , values. While the practice of analyzing two isotopically distinct reference materials is common for water (VSMOW-SLAP) and carbonates (NBS 19 and L-SVEC), the lack of widely available organic reference materials with distinct isotopic composition has hindered the practice when analyzing organic materials by elemental analysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). At present only L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 satisfy these requirements for ,13C and ,15N, with the limitation that L-glutamic acid is not suitable for analysis by gas chromatography (GC). We describe the development and quality testing of (i) four nicotine laboratory reference materials for on-line (i.e. continuous flow) hydrogen reductive gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-IRMS), (ii) five nicotines for oxidative C, N gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS, or GC-IRMS), and (iii) also three acetanilide and three urea reference materials for on-line oxidative EA-IRMS for C and N. Isotopic off-line calibration against international stable isotope measurement standards at Indiana University adhered to the ,principle of identical treatment'. The new reference materials cover the following isotopic ranges: ,2Hnicotine ,162 to ,45,, ,13Cnicotine ,30.05 to +7.72,, ,15Nnicotine ,6.03 to +33.62,; ,15Nacetanilide +1.18 to +40.57,; ,13Curea ,34.13 to +11.71,, ,15Nurea +0.26 to +40.61, (recommended , values refer to calibration with NBS 19, L-SVEC, IAEA-N-1, and IAEA-N-2). Nicotines fill a gap as the first organic nitrogen stable isotope reference materials for GC-IRMS that are available with different ,15N values. Comparative ,13C and ,15N on-line EA-IRMS data from 14 volunteering laboratories document the usefulness and reliability of acetanilides and ureas as EA-IRMS reference materials. Published in 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Development of ionic currents of zebrafish slow and fast skeletal muscle fibers

Christopher A. Coutts
Abstract Voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels play key roles in the excitability of skeletal muscle fibers. In this study we investigated the steady-state and kinetic properties of voltage-gated Na+ and K+ currents of slow and fast skeletal muscle fibers in zebrafish ranging in age from 1 day postfertilization (dpf) to 4,6 dpf. The inner white (fast) fibers possess an A-type inactivating K+ current that increases in peak current density and accelerates its rise and decay times during development. As the muscle matured, the V50s of activation and inactivation of the A-type current became more depolarized, and then hyperpolarized again in older animals. The activation kinetics of the delayed outward K+ current in red (slow) fibers accelerated within the first week of development. The tail currents of the outward K+ currents were too small to allow an accurate determination of the V50s of activation. Red fibers did not show any evidence of inward Na+ currents; however, white fibers expressed Na+ currents that increased their peak current density, accelerated their inactivation kinetics, and hyperpolarized their V50 of inactivation during development. The action potentials of white fibers exhibited significant changes in the threshold voltage and the half width. These findings indicate that there are significant differences in the ionic current profiles between the red and white fibers and that a number of changes occur in the steady-state and kinetic properties of Na+ and K+ currents of developing zebrafish skeletal muscle fibers, with the most dramatic changes occurring around the end of the first day following egg fertilization. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol, 2006 [source]

The eyes have it: visual pop-out in infants and adults

Scott A. Adler
Visual search studies with adults have shown that stimuli that contain a unique perceptual feature pop out from dissimilar distractors and are unaffected by the number of distractors. Studies with very young infants have suggested that they too might exhibit pop-out. However, infant studies have used paradigms in which pop-out is measured in seconds or minutes, whereas in adults pop-out occurs in milliseconds. In addition, with the previous infant paradigms the effects from higher cognitive processes such as memory cannot be separated from pop-out and selective attention. Consequently, whether infants exhibit the phenomenon of pop-out and have selective attention mechanisms as found in adults is not clear. This study was an initial attempt to design a paradigm that would provide a comparable measure between infants and adults, thereby allowing a more accurate determination of the developmental course of pop-out and selective attention mechanisms. To this end, we measured 3-month-olds' and adults' saccade latencies to visual arrays that contained either a + among Ls (target-present) or all Ls (target-absent) with set sizes of 1, 3, 5 or 8 items. In Experiment 1, infants' saccade latencies remained unchanged in the target-present conditions as set size increased, whereas their saccade latencies increased linearly in the target-absent conditions as set size increased. In Experiment 2, adults' saccade latencies in the target-present and target-absent conditions showed the same pattern as the infants. The only difference between the infants and adults was that the infants' saccade latencies were slower in every condition. These results indicate that infants do exhibit pop-out on a millisecond scale, that it is unaffected by the number of distractors, and likely have similar functioning selective attention mechanisms. Moreover, the results indicate that eye movement latencies are a more comparable and accurate measure for assessing the phenomenon of pop-out and underlying attentional mechanisms in infants. [source]

The role of moisture cycling in the weathering of a quartz chlorite schist in a tropical environment: findings of a laboratory simulation

Tony Wells
Abstract Long-term weathering of a quartz chlorite schist via wetting and drying was studied under a simulated tropical climate. Cubic rock samples (15 mm × 15 mm × 15 mm) were cut from larger rocks and subjected to time-compressed climatic conditions simulating the tropical wet season climate at the Ranger Uranium Mine in the Northern Territory, Australia. Fragmentation, moisture content and moisture uptake rate were monitored over 5000 cycles of wetting and drying. To determine the impact of climatic variables, five climatic regimes were simulated, varying water application, temperature and drying. One of the climatic regimes reproduced observed temperature and moisture variability at the Ranger Uranium Mine, but over a compressed time scale. It is shown that wetting and drying is capable of weathering quartz chlorite schist with changes expected over a real time period of decades. While wetting and drying alone does produce changes to rock morphology, the incorporation of temperature variation further enhances weathering rates. Although little fragmentation occurred in experiments, significant changes to internal pore structure were observed, which could potentially enhance other weathering mechanisms. Moisture variability is shown to lead to higher weathering rates than are observed when samples are subjected only to leaching. Finally, experiments were conducted on two rock samples from the same source having only subtle differences in mineralogy. The samples exhibited quite different weathering rates leading to the conclusion that our knowledge of the role of rock type and composition in weathering is insufficient for the accurate determination of weathering rates. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A Novel Approach to Assess Aortic Stiffness Related to Changes in Aging Using a Two-Dimensional Strain Imaging

Yoshifumi Oishi M.D.
Background: Recently, it has been demonstrated that aortic stiffness is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The objective of the present study was to accurately evaluate the aortic stiffness relative to the changes in aging using two-dimensional (2D) strain imaging in 39 comparatively normal patients (15,85 years). Methods: We obtained short-axis images of the abdominal aorta (Ao) and determined the peak circumferential strain (Ao-S) and strain rate (Ao-SR) and the time from Q-wave of electrocardiogram to peak Ao-S using the 2D strain imaging. The stiffness parameters ,1 and ,2 of the abdominal aorta were measured using M-mode ultrasonography and 2D strain imaging, respectively. Results: The stiffness parameters ,1 and ,2 correlated significantly with age (r=0.51, P < 0.001 and r=0.69, P < 0.0001, respectively), particularly the latter parameter ,2. The peak circumferential Ao-S and Ao-SR correlated strongly with age (r=,0.79, P < 0.0001 and r=,0.87, P < 0.0001, respectively). The stiffness parameter ,1 was significantly greater in the old-aged group (>60 years) than in the young-aged group (<30 years). The peak circumferential Ao-S and Ao-SR were significantly lower in the middle-aged (30,60 years) and old-aged groups than in the young-aged group. Conclusion: The aortic circumferential strain and strain rate measured by 2D strain imaging allow simple and accurate determination of the aortic stiffness. [source]

Using motion-sensitive radio tags to record the activity and behavioural patterns of spawning Atlantic salmon

P. Karppinen
Abstract,,, In this paper, we describe a method employing motion-sensing radio transmitters for recording and identifying behavioural patterns and activity of Atlantic salmon spawning under natural conditions. Simultaneous video monitoring verified recorded activity patterns originating from behaviours such as fighting, nest digging and quivering. The method described here enables more accurate determination of the timing and location of spawning compared to conventional location tracking. Motion-sensing transmitters can also be applied to monitor other species and types of behaviour, and therefore the use and development of such methods deserves further attention in behavioural studies. [source]

Novel Thorium Membrane Sensors with Anionic Response Based on Trioctylphosphine Oxide and Toluate Ionophores


Abstract Two novel potentiometric polymeric membrane sensors for rapid and accurate determination of thorium are described. These are based on the use of trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and thorium toluate (Th-TA) as ionophores dispersed in poly(vinyl chloride) matrix membranes plasticized with nitrophenyloctyl ether. In strong nitric acid medium, Th(IV) nitrate is converted into [Th(NO3)6]2, complex and sensed as anionic divalent ion which exclude most cationic effect. Validation of the assay methods using the quality assurance standards (linearity range, accuracy, precision, within-day variability, between-day-repeatability, lower detection limit and sensitivity) reveals excellent performance characteristics of both sensors. The sensors exhibit near-Nernstian response for 1.0×10,6,1.0×10,1 M Th over the pH range 2.5,4.5. Calibration slopes of ,32.3±0.3 and ,27.2±0.2,mV/decade, precision of ±0.5 and ±0.8% and accuracy of 98.8±0.9 and 97.9±0.7% are obtained with TOPO and Th-TA based sensors, respectively. Negligible interferences are caused by most interfering mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexa-valent elements commonly associated with thorium in naturally occurring minerals and ores. High concentrations of Cl,, F,, SO42,, and NO3, ions have no diverse effect. Complete removal of the effect of the interferents in complex matrices is achieved by retention of [Th(NO3)6]2, complex from 5,M nitric acid/methanol mixture (1,:,9,v/v) on a strong anion exchanger, washing out the cationic interferents followed by stripping off thorium anion complex and measurements. Both sensors are used for determining thorium in certified thorium ore samples (20,120,mg Th/kg) and some naturally occurring ores (200,600,mg Th/kg). The results obtained agree fairly well with the certified labeled values or the data obtained using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry [source]

Electromigration diffusivity spectrometry: A way for simultaneous determination of diffusion coefficients from mixed samples

Suhua Yang
Abstract A novel method was proposed for simultaneous measurement of diffusion coefficients, (D), from mixed samples by electrophoresis and termed electromigration-based diffusivity spectrometry. After theoretical treatment, D- equation for practical use has been deduced. With a modified CE system built in laboratory, electromigration-based diffusivity spectrometry has been realized and validated to suit for fast and accurate determination of diffusivities of mixed aromatic amino acids, phenols and aromatic organic acid, giving diffusivity spectra by peak area versus D, much similar to mass spectra. The precision of the measurement was found to critically depend on pH value of running buffer, which should be so selected that the analytes and internal standards could be charged at above 0.5e. The standards have to be selected at an electric flux far from each other and from analytes. In these cases, sample and running buffer concentrations, voltage and system temperature were found to have only negligible impact on the determination. In our test, the obtained measuring precision was generally kept within 1% for five runs, and the measured values of D agreed well with those from literature, with a deviation of less than 2.2% after the right use of calibration standards. [source]

Precautions to improve the accuracy of quantitative determinations of biomarkers in clinical diagnostics

Nasim Ghasemzadeh
Abstract Although protein biomarkers have a great potential as biomarkers for diagnosis of diseases, they are seldom used in hospitals. There are many reasons for this, for instance, the difficulties to (i) find a biomarker for which the concentration in body fluids clearly differs between patients and healthy subjects, (ii) attain purification of the biomarker close to 100%, which is required for production of conventional protein antibodies as well as artificial gel antibodies for selective capture of a biomarker, (iii) design a standard curve for rapid and accurate determination of the concentration of the biomarker in the body fluid because of adsorption of the biomarker onto vials, pipettes, etc., (iv) determine accurately the sample volume delivered by a pipette, (v) avoid polymerization of the biomarker upon storage and to decide whether it is in the form not only of monomers, but also of dimers, trimers, etc., in the native state, (vi) determine the degree of possible glycosylation and amidation of the biomarker and (vii) decide whether glycosylation and amidation positively or negatively affects the possibilit to use the protein as a biomarker. In this article, we discuss in quantitative terms the difficulties (iii,vii) and how to overcome them, which also may help to overcome the difficulty (ii), which in turn minimizes difficulty (i). [source]

Carbon nanotube disposable detectors in microchip capillary electrophoresis for water-soluble vitamin determination: Analytical possibilities in pharmaceutical quality control

Agustín G. Crevillén
Abstract In this work, the synergy of one mature example from "lab-on-chip" domain, such as CE microchips with emerging miniaturized carbon nanotube detectors in analytical science, is presented. Two different carbon electrodes (glassy carbon electrode (GCE) 3,mm diameter, and screen-printed electrode (SPE) 0.3,mm×2.5,mm) were modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and their electrochemical behavior was evaluated as detectors in CE microchip using water-soluble vitamins (pyridoxine, ascorbic acid, and folic acid) in pharmaceutical preparations as representative examples. The SPE modified with MWCNT was the best electrode for the vitamin analysis in terms of analytical performance. In addition, accurate determination of the three vitamins in four different pharmaceuticals was obtained (systematic error less than 9%) in only 400,s using a protocol that combined the sample analysis and the methodological calibration. [source]

On-line identification of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in tablets using a combination of a sweeping technique and micellar electrokinetic chromatography/77 K fluorescence spectroscopy

Ching Fang
Abstract This work describes a novel method for the accurate determination of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in tablets. A technique involving sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) was used for the initial on-line concentration and separation, after which a cryogenic molecular fluorescence experiment was performed at 77 K. Using this approach, not only the separation of LSD from the tablet extract was achieved, but on-line spectra were readily distinguishable and could be unambiguously assigned. The results are in agreement with analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thus, this method, which was found to be accurate, sensitive and rapid, has the potential for use as a reliable complementary method to GC-MS in such analyses. [source]

Clinical impact of FDG-PET/CT in the planning of radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

Martin Hutchings
Abstract Background:,Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has excellent survival rates but carries a high risk of late treatment-related adverse effects. Modern, individualised therapeutic strategies require an accurate determination of the extent of the disease. This study investigated the potential impact of 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy- d -glucose positron emission tomography/computerised tomogrpahy (FDG-PET/CT) in the planning of involved field radiotherapy (IFRT). Patients and methods:,Thirty patients received staging FDG-PET/CT before therapy, and IFRT after a short course of ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) chemotherapy. IFRT planning was performed using only the CT data from the FDG-PET/CT scan. Later, the IFRT planning was performed anew using the FDG-PET/CT data as basis for contouring. Results:,In 20 out of 30 patients, the radiotherapy (RT) course was unaffected by the addition of FDG-PET/CT. FDG-PET/CT would have increased the irradiated volume in seven patients where the volume receiving a minimum of 90% of the target dose was increased by 8,87%. FDG-PET/CT decreased the volume in two patients where the volume was reduced by 18% and 30%. Conclusions:,When used for RT planning, FDG-PET/CT results in larger IFRT treatment volumes. If FDG-PET/CT is introduced to RT planning, the method should be accompanied by a change in RT treatment strategy, aiming at more targeted therapy in order to best avoid radiation to normal tissues. [source]

Estimating the minimum distance of large-block turbo codes using iterative multiple-impulse methods

Stewart Crozier
A difficult problem for turbo codes is the efficient and accurate determination of the distance spectrum, or even just the minimum distance, for specific interleavers. This is especially true for large blocks, with many thousands of data bits, if the distance is high. This paper compares a number of recent distance estimation techniques and introduces a new approach, based on using specific event impulse patterns and iterative processing, that is specifically tailored to handle long interleavers with high spread. The new method is as reliable as two previous iterative multiple-impulse methods, but with much lower complexity. A minimum distance of 60 has been estimated for a rate 1/3, 8-state, turbo code with a dithered relative prime (DRP) interleaver of length K,=,65,536. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Early findings in comparison of AMSR-E/Aqua L3 global snow water equivalent EASE-grids data with in situ observations for Eastern Turkey

A. Emre Tekeli
Abstract Microwave remote sensing (RS) enables the direct determination of snow water equivalent (SWE), which is an important snow parameter for water resources management. The accuracy of remotely sensed SWE values has always been a concern. Previous studies evaluated global SWE monitoring. However, regional effects such as vegetation, snow grain size, snow density and local meteorological conditions may lead to uncertainties. Thus, regional validation studies that quantify and help to understand these uncertainties and possible error sources are important both for algorithm development and accurate SWE computation. In this study, data of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E)/Aqua level 3 global SWE Equal Area Scalable Earth (EASE) Grids are compared with ground measurements for 2002,2003 winter period for Eastern Turkey, which includes the headwaters of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and is fed largely from snowmelt. Thus, accurate determination of SWE is important in optimum resource management for both Turkey and downstream nations. Analyses indicated that AMSR-E generally overestimated SWE in early season. As winter progressed, higher in situ SWE values with respect to AMSR-E were observed which led to underestimation by AMSR-E. The differences between AMSR-E and in situ SWE varied between , 218 and 93 mm. Use of in situ snow densities lead the correlation coefficient between AMSR-E and in situ SWE to increase from 0·10 to 0·32. Underestimation of SWE by AMSR-E occurs after some warm periods, while overestimations occur following refreezing. On rainy days or some days after precipitation within the warm periods, zero AMSR-E SWE values are observed. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Relationship between canopy height and the reference value of surface conductance for closed coniferous stands

Hikaru Komatsu
Abstract When estimating the dry-canopy evaporation rate of coniferous stands using the Penman,Monteith equation, it is crucial to determine the reference value of surface conductance Gs. This paper examines the relationship between canopy height and the reference value of Gs based on the maximum value of Gs with a vapour pressure deficit , 1·0 kPa, ,s max. There is a clear correlation between canopy height and ,s max when the projected leaf area index ,3·0. This suggests that using this relationship will enable more accurate determination of the reference value of Gs for closed stands. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A method of accurate determination of azimuthal distribution of received RF power

A. A. Alexandridis
Abstract In this paper, we introduce a method for the determination of directional distribution of received RF power, with angular resolution independent of receiving antenna radiation pattern. The proposed method is based on a series of measurements taken while rotating, at fixed predefined steps, a usual directional antenna of known radiation pattern on the azimuthal plain. It is proved that the resolution accuracy of the measurement method depends only on the angular step of the antenna rotation and it is independent of the antenna beamwidth. As a result of this feature, the proposed method allows the determination of the RF power angular distribution with fine resolution using a directional antenna of much wider beamwidth for the measurements. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Morphological description, biometry and phylogenetic position of the skull of Ngawi 1 (east Java, Indonesia)

H. Widianto
Abstract The skull of Ngawi 1 was discovered fortuitously in August 1987 on the left bank of the river Solo near the village of Selopuro (east Java, Indonesia). It is a complete, well preserved and strongly mineralized calvaria. The present article provides a complete description of this specimen. Its general morphological pattern is first considered; then, each anatomical complex is considered individually, allowing us a comparison with other Asian Pleistocene fossils. A broad biometric framework and a morphological database are both used to perform a cladistic analysis aiming at a more accurate determination of the phylogenetic position of this skull among ,Homo erectus'. This work confirms that Ngawi 1 is closer to the Ngandong-Sambungmachan series than to the Trinil-Sangiran series. Following the hypothesis of a young age (40,000 years) for the former series, the question is whether this skull belongs to a subspecies of Homo sapiens, as suggested by early authors, or to a separate species, Homo soloensis. An evolutionary process is suggested here, where Ngawi 1 belongs to a particular human group that is geographically and chronologically restricted. This Indonesian human group may have evolved at the same time as the Neandertals in Europe, an area which represented the westernmost end of Eurasia when Indonesia was its easternmost end. The question is raised as to whether insularity, that isolated this taxon, is comparable to the cool climate which isolated the Neandertals for thousands of years. If so, the Ngawi-Ngandong-Sambungmachan series might have evolved from an older, local Homo erectus population. On the other hand, due to local, drastic volcano-tectonic events that occurred 71,000 years ago, and catastrophic events 780,000 years ago, the first inhabitants of Java may have disappeared. According to this alternative hypothesis, Ngawi 1 could be one of the new invaders from continental Asia. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Molecular markers and determinants of prostate cancer metastasis

Rahul V. Gopalkrishnan
Although intensely studied, the molecular and biochemical determinants of prostate cancer development and progression remain ill-defined. Moreover, current markers and methodologies cannot distinguish between a tumor that will remain indolent and not impinge on patient survival, versus a tumor with aggressive traits culminating in metastatic spread and death. Once prostate cancer is confirmed the most significant threat to a patient's survival and quality of life involves tumor metastasis. Radical surgery notwithstanding, prostate cancer accounts for 10% of all cancer-related deaths primarily arising through development of metastasis. Metastasis markers demonstrating an acceptable level of reliability are an obvious necessity if disproportionate and costly treatment is to be avoided and a reasonably accurate determination of clinical prognosis and measure of successful response to treatment is to be made. Therapeutic strategies that specifically inhibit metastatic spread are not presently possible and may not become available in the immediate future. This is because, while localized tumorigenesis has been relatively amenable to detection, analysis and treatment, metastasis remains a relatively undefined, complex and underexplored area of prostate cancer research. New findings in the field such subclasses of genes called metastasis suppressors and cancer progression suppressors, have opened up exciting avenues of investigation. We review current methodological approaches, model experimental systems and genes presently known or having potential involvement in human prostate cancer metastasis. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Using the composite variables of reproductive morphology, histology and steroid hormones to determine age and size at sexual maturity for the thorny skate Amblyraja radiata in the western Gulf of Maine

J. A. Sulikowski
Age at size was linked to sexual maturity in 77 male and 93 female thorny skates Amblyraja radiata from the western Gulf of Maine using three criteria: 1) gross reproductive morphology, 2) histology and 3) steroid hormone concentrations. Age-bias plots and the coefficient of variation from vertebral band counts suggested that the ageing method represented a non-biased and precise approach to the age assessment of A. radiata. Maturity ogives for males, based on data gathered for clasper length, circulating testosterone concentrations and proportion of mature spermatocysts within the testes, predicted that 50% maturity occurred at a total length (LT) of 865 mm and c. 10·90 years of age. For females, maturity ogives, based on data gathered for ovary mass, shell gland mass, follicle size and circulating oestradiol concentrations, predicted that 50% maturity occurred at 875 mm LT and c. 11·00 years of age. Collectively, the results suggest that analysis of several contemporaneous reproductive variables offers an accurate determination of sexual maturity in the thorny skate. [source]

Trace Element Fingerprinting of Australian Ocher Using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for the Provenance Establishment and Authentication of Indigenous Art,

Rachel L. Green B.Sc.
Abstract:, The expansion of indigenous art and the interest it has generated both at a domestic and international level means large monetary transactions are taking place between art galleries or centers and purchasers. As such, an accurate and conclusive method for provenance determination of traditional indigenous artistic materials must be established that can, if necessary, be used to assist in authentication of artworks. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was utilized for elemental differentiation and provenance establishment of ocher samples. This research was used to develop a robust scientific protocol which facilitates definitive and accurate determination of provenance of Australian ochers and the artworks created using them. Analysis of the results obtained through this study show that the trace metal distribution patterns alone appear to be sufficient evidence to establish provenance of specific ochers, although additional differentiation between ocher samples, using major element distribution patterns, was achieved through the utilization of X-ray analytical techniques. [source]

Coprecipitation with calcium hydroxide for determination of iron in fish otoliths by collision cell ICP-MS,

Stephanie L. Daniels
Abstract A method has been described for the determination of iron from fish otoliths containing high levels of calcium by collision cell technology (CCT) ICP-MS. Iron (Fe) in otolith solutions was quantitatively coprecipitated with small amounts of calcium hydroxide by adding 1.0 M sodium hydroxide solution. The performance of CCT-ICP-MS pressurized with He/H2 cell gas was investigated on the elimination of Ca-based spectral interferences at m/z 54, 56 and 57. Molecular ion interferences at m/z 54 and 56 were reduced by 2 orders of magnitude. However, the interferences at m/z 57 increased by the same amount in the presence of Ca in solutions owing to the formation of 40Ca16 OH+ through reactions with H2 in collision cell, indicating that 57Fe was not suitable for the determination of Fe from otoliths. Results for 56Fe suffered significantly from interferences of Ca-based molecular ions when the Ca concentration in solution exceeded 100 µg ml,1, for which matrix-matched calibration was required for accurate determination. CCT with the aid of He/H2 cell gas proved to be very effective in eliminating the interferences (40Ar14N+ and 40Ca14N+) at m/z 54. Presence of Ca up to 300 µg ml,1 had virtually no effect on the ion signals of 54Fe, which with low background signals, afforded accurate determination of Fe from otoliths by using aqueous external standards. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Quantitative peptidomics of mouse pituitary: comparison of different stable isotopic tags

Fa-Yun Che
Abstract Determining the relative levels of neuropeptides in two samples is important for many biological studies. An efficient, sensitive and accurate technique for relative quantitative analysis involves tagging the peptides in the two samples with isotopically distinct labels, pooling the samples and analyzing them using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In this study, we compared two different sets of isotopic tags for analysis of endogenous mouse pituitary peptides: succinic anhydride with either four hydrogens or deuteriums and [3-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yloxycarbonyl)propyl]trimethylammonium chloride with either nine hydrogens or deuteriums. These two labels react with amines and impart either a negative charge (succinyl) or a positive charge (4-trimethylammoniumbutyryl (TMAB)). Every endogenous mouse pituitary peptide labeled with the light TMAB reagent eluted from the C18 reversed-phase column at essentially the same time as the corresponding peptide labeled with the heavy reagent. Most of the peptides labeled with succinyl groups also showed co-elution of the heavy- and light-labeled forms on LC/MS. The mass difference between the heavy and light TMAB reagents (9 Da per label) was larger than that of the heavy and light succinyl labels (4 Da per label), and for some peptides the larger mass difference provided more accurate determination of the relative abundance of each form. Altogether, using both labels, 82 peptides were detected in Cpefat/fat mouse pituitary extracts. Of these, only 16 were detected with both labels, 41 were detected only with the TMAB label and 25 were detected only with the succinyl label. A number of these peptides were de novo sequenced using low-energy collisional tandem mass spectrometry. Whereas the succinyl group was stable to the collision-induced dissociation of the peptide, the TMAB-labeled peptides lost 59 Da per H9 TMAB group. Several peptides identified in this analysis represent previously undescribed post-translational processing products of known pituitary prohormones. In conclusion, both succinyl and TMAB isotopic labels are useful for quantitative peptidomics, and together these two labels provide more complete coverage of the endogenous peptides. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]