Accuracy Level (accuracy + level)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Parsimonious finite-volume frequency-domain method for 2-D P,SV -wave modelling

R. Brossier
SUMMARY A new numerical technique for solving 2-D elastodynamic equations based on a finite-volume frequency-domain approach is proposed. This method has been developed as a tool to perform 2-D elastic frequency-domain full-waveform inversion. In this context, the system of linear equations that results from the discretization of the elastodynamic equations is solved with a direct solver, allowing efficient multiple-source simulations at the partial expense of the memory requirement. The discretization of the finite-volume approach is through triangles. Only fluxes with the required quantities are shared between the cells, relaxing the meshing conditions, as compared to finite-element methods. The free surface is described along the edges of the triangles, which can have different slopes. By applying a parsimonious strategy, the stress components are eliminated from the discrete equations and only the velocities are left as unknowns in the triangles. Together with the local support of the P0 finite-volume stencil, the parsimonious approach allows the minimizing of core memory requirements for the simulation. Efficient perfectly matched layer absorbing conditions have been designed for damping the waves around the grid. The numerical dispersion of this FV formulation is similar to that of O(,x2) staggered-grid finite-difference (FD) formulations when considering structured triangular meshes. The validation has been performed with analytical solutions of several canonical problems and with numerical solutions computed with a well-established FD time-domain method in heterogeneous media. In the presence of a free surface, the finite-volume method requires 10 triangles per wavelength for a flat topography, and fifteen triangles per wavelength for more complex shapes, well below the criteria required by the staircase approximation of O(,x2) FD methods. Comparisons between the frequency-domain finite-volume and the O(,x2) rotated FD methods also show that the former is faster and less memory demanding for a given accuracy level, an attractive feature for frequency-domain seismic inversion. We have thus developed an efficient method for 2-D P,SV -wave modelling on structured triangular meshes as a tool for frequency-domain full-waveform inversion. Further work is required to improve the accuracy of the method on unstructured meshes. [source]

Forced vibrations in the medium frequency range solved by a partition of unity method with local information

E. De Bel
Abstract A new approach for the computation of the forced vibrations up to the medium frequency range is formulated for thin plates. It is based on the partition of unity method (PUM), first proposed by Babu,ka, and used here to solve the elastodynamic problem. The paper focuses on the introduction of local information in the basis of the PUM coming from previous approximations, in order to enhance the accuracy of the solution. The method may be iterative and generates a PUM approximation leading to smaller models compared with the finite element ones required for a same accuracy level. It shows very promising results, in terms of frequency range, accuracy and computational time. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Neural network-based prediction of transmembrane ,-strand segments in outer membrane proteins

M. Michael Gromiha
Abstract Prediction of transmembrane ,-strands in outer membrane proteins (OMP) is one of the important problems in computational chemistry and biology. In this work, we propose a method based on neural networks for identifying the membrane-spanning ,-strands. We introduce the concept of "residue probability" for assigning residues in transmembrane ,-strand segments. The performance of our method is evaluated with single-residue accuracy, correlation, specificity, and sensitivity. Our predicted segments show a good agreement with experimental observations with an accuracy level of 73% solely from amino acid sequence information. Further, the predictive power of N- and C-terminal residues in each segments, number of segments in each protein, and the influence of cutoff probability for identifying membrane-spanning ,-strands will be discussed. We have developed a Web server for predicting the transmembrane ,-strands from the amino acid sequence, and the prediction results are available at 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 25: 762,767, 2004 [source]

Censusing and monitoring black rhino (Diceros bicornis) using an objective spoor (footprint) identification technique

Zo C. Jewell
Abstract An objective, non-invasive technique was developed for identifying individual black rhino from their footprints (spoor). Digital images were taken of left hind spoor from tracks (spoor pathways) of 15 known black rhino in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Thirteen landmark points were manually placed on the spoor image and from them, using customized software, a total of 77 measurements (lengths and angles) were generated. These were subjected to discriminant and canonical analyses. Discriminant analysis of spoor measurements from all 15 known animals, employing the 30 measurements with the highest F -ratio values, gave very close agreement between assigned and predicted classification of spoor. For individual spoor, the accuracy of being assigned to the correct group varied from 87% to 95%. For individual tracks, the accuracy level was 88%. Canonical analyses were based on the centroid plot method, which does not require pre-assigned grouping of spoor or tracks. The first two canonical variables were used to generate a centroid plot with 95% confidence ellipses in the test space. The presence or absence of overlap between the ellipses of track pairs allowed the classification of the tracks. Using a new ,reference centroid value' technique, the level of accuracy was high (94%) when individual tracks were compared against whole sets (total number of spoor for each rhino) but low (35%) when tracks were compared against each other. Since tracks with fewer spoor were more likely to be misclassified, track sizes were then artificially increased by summing smaller tracks for the same rhino. The modified tracks in a pairwise comparison gave an accuracy of 93%. The advantages, limitations and practical applications of the spoor identification technique are discussed in relation to censusing and monitoring black rhino populations. [source]

Tracking control of a piezo-actuated stage based on a frictional model,

Yi-Cheng Huang
Abstract The tracking control accuracy of a piezoelectric actuator (PEA) is limited due to the actuator's inherent hysteretic nonlinearity. Direct drive of PEA on a positioning stage with friction force will cause control problems. An approximated dynamic model of PEA with consideration of friction force is novel synthesized for control. This model is based on a second-order transfer function with two parameterization terms. The first time delay term consists of the hysteresis of piezo effect combined with frictional force lag with varying velocity. The second term is comprised of both presliding and sliding regimes. The H-infinite tracking controller is designed to compensate for the structural uncertainty associated with time delay and the unstructured frictional force in the PEA stage. Iterative Learning Control is implemented to reduce the unmodeled repetitive error by a factor of 20. Numerical simulations and experimental tests consolidate the root mean square (RMS), positioning error close to the hardware reproducibility and accuracy level. Experimental results show the controlled stage can be potentially used for precise positioning. Copyright 2009 John Wiley and Sons Asia Pte Ltd and Chinese Automatic Control Society [source]

Accuracy of a newly developed integrated system for dental implant planning

Timo Dreiseidler
Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy of the first integrated system for cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging, dental implant planning and surgical template-aided implant placement. Materials and methods: On the basis of CBCT scans, a total of 54 implant positions were planned for 10 partially edentulous anatomical patient-equivalent models. Surgical guides were ordered from the manufacturer (SICAT). Two different types of guidance were assessed: for assessment of the SICAT system inherent accuracy vendor's titanium sleeves of 2 mm internal diameter and 5 mm length were utilized for pilot drills. The guide sleeves of the NobelGuide system were implemented for fully guided surgery and implant insertion. Deviations perpendicular to the implant axes at the crestal and apical end, as well as the angle deviations between the virtual planning data and the surgical results, were measured utilizing a follow-up CBCT investigation and referential marker-based registration. Results: The SICAT system inherent mean deviation rates for the drilled pilot osteotomies were determined to be smaller than 500 ,m even at the apical end. Mean angle deviations of 1.18 were determined. Utilizing the NobelGuide sleeve-in-sleeve system for fully guided implant insertion in combination with the investigated template technology enabled to insert dental implants with the same accuracy. Crestal deviations, in general, were significantly lower than the apical deviations. Conclusion: Although hardly comparable due to different study designs and measurement strategies, the investigated SICAT system's inherent accuracy corresponds to the most favourable results for computer-aided surgery systems published so far. In combination with the NobelGuide surgical set for fully guided insertion, the same accuracy level could be maintained for implant positioning. [source]

A Bayesian Approach to Age Estimation in Modern Americans from the Clavicle,

Natalie Langley-Shirley Ph.D.
Abstract:, Clavicles from 1289 individuals from cohorts spanning the 20th century were scored with two scoring systems. Transition analysis and Bayesian statistics were used to obtain robust age ranges that are less sensitive to the effects of age mimicry and developmental outliers than age ranges obtained using a percentile approach. Observer error tests showed that a simple three-phase scoring system proved the least subjective, while retaining accuracy levels. Additionally, significant sexual dimorphism was detected in the onset of fusion, with women commencing fusion at least a year earlier than men (women transition to fusion at approximately 15 years of age and men at 16 years). Significant secular trends were apparent in the onset of skeletal maturation, with modern Americans transitioning to fusion approximately 4 years earlier than early 20th century Americans and 3.5 years earlier than Korean War era Americans. These results underscore the importance of using modern standards to estimate age in modern individuals. [source]

Temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of high grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus

T. Joshua Pfefer PhD
Abstract Background and Objectives Temporal and spectral fluorescence spectroscopy can identify adenomatous colonic polyps accurately. In this study, these techniques were examined as a potential means of improving the surveillance of high grade dysplasia (HGD) in Barrett's esophagus (BE). Study Design/Materials and Methods Using excitation wavelengths of 337 and 400 nm, 148 fluorescence spectra, and 108 transient decay profiles (at 550,,20 nm) were obtained endoscopically in 37 patients. Corresponding biopsies were collected and classified as carcinoma, HGD, or low risk tissue (LRT) [non-dysplastic BE, indefinite for dysplasia (IFD), and low grade dysplasia (LGD)]. Diagnostic algorithms were developed retrospectively using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to separate LRT from HGD. Results LDA produced diagnostic algorithms based solely on spectral data. Moderate levels of sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) were obtained for both 337 nm (Se,=,74%, Sp,=,67%) and 400 nm (Se,=,74%, Sp,=,85%) excitation. Conclusions In the diagnosis of HGD in BE, steady-state fluorescence was more effective than time-resolved data, and excitation at 400 nm excitation was more effective than 337 nm. While fluorescence-targeted biopsy is approaching clinical usefulness, increased sensitivity to dysplastic changes,possibly through modification of system parameters,is needed to improve accuracy levels. Lasers Surg. Med. 32:10,16,2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The negative effect of cross-examination style questioning on children's accuracy: older children are not immune

Rachel Zajac
We present data suggesting that the negative effect of cross-examination style questioning on children's accuracy is not limited to young children. Using an identical paradigm to that used with 5- and 6-year-olds by Zajac and Hayne in 2003, we examined the effect of cross-examination style questioning on 9- and 10-year-olds' accounts of a prior staged event. Like younger children, 9- and 10-year-old children made frequent changes to their original responses during cross-examination style questioning. Although 9- and 10-year-old children were more likely to change incorrect responses than correct ones, they nonetheless changed over 40% of their correct responses, and cross-examination still exerted a significant negative effect on their overall accuracy levels. The present findings suggest that although older children appear to be somewhat less vulnerable to cross-examination style questioning, they are still not immune to the negative effects of this process on the accuracy of their reports. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Anosognosia for memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease

Georgina Stewart
Stewart G, McGeown WJ, Shanks MF, Venneri A. Anosognosia for memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Objective: To investigate whether patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were able to alter their awareness of memory deficits after exposure to a memory task. Methods: Thirty normal older adults and 23 mild AD patients participated in the study. Anosognosia was assessed using discrepancies between self- and informant-evaluations of cognitive and functional performance. Participants estimated their performance on the Verbal Paired Associates task at different points in time (before, immediately after the task and after a 1-h delay). Results: AD patients were generally less able to judge their memory abilities than healthy older adults, and tended to overestimate their task performance beforehand. Their prediction accuracy increased immediately after the task, but after a 1-h delay, they again misjudged their abilities at pretesting accuracy levels. Self-carer discrepancy scores of awareness of deficits in memory and other areas correlated significantly with memory tests but not with other neuropsychological tasks in the assessment, and larger discrepancy scores were associated with poorer performance. Conclusion: AD patients can monitor their task performance online, but are unable to maintain awareness of their deficits over time. Loss of awareness of memory deficits (or of any other deficits) in early stage AD may indicate damage to a system which updates a personal knowledge base with recent information. Failure to retain this information impedes abstraction from episodic to semantic memory. [source]