Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Accrual

  • accounting accrual
  • bone mineral accrual
  • discretionary accrual
  • mineral accrual

  • Terms modified by Accrual

  • accrual accounting
  • accrual budgeting
  • accrual information
  • accrual management
  • accrual quality
  • accrual rate

  • Selected Abstracts


    Ralph Kober
    This study examines the usefulness of three accounting systems (cash, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) accrual, and Government Finance Statistics (GFS) accrual) for public sector decision-making. From a survey of internal users, external users, and preparers in Australia, we find that GAAP accrual information is perceived to be relatively more useful and understandable than the other two systems for most decisions examined. The relatively higher ratings for GAAP accrual information differ from earlier studies and may reflect an experience or familiarity effect whereby perceptions of usefulness are enhanced because respondents have become more used to the system. This effect might also explain the lower ratings for GFS accrual. [source]

    A Synoptic Outcome Survey of the Quantitative Accrual of Opinion Tokens in Western Democratic Polities

    First page of article [source]

    Discretionary Accounting Accruals, Managers' Incentives, and Audit Fees,

    Ferdinand A. Gul
    Abstract This paper examines the linkages between discretionary accruals (DAs), managerial share ownership, management compensation, and audit fees. It draws on the theory that managers of firms with high management ownership are likely to use DAs to communicate value-relevant information, while managers of firms with high accounting-based compensation are likely to use DAs opportunistically to manage earnings to improve their compensation. OLS regression results of 648 Australian firms show that (1) there is a positive association between DAs and audit fees; (2) managerial ownership negatively affects the positive relationship between DAs and audit fees; and (3) this negative impact is further found to be weaker for firms with high accounting-based management compensation. [source]

    Predicting Stock Market Returns with Aggregate Discretionary Accruals

    ABSTRACT We find that the positive relation between aggregate accruals and one-year-ahead market returns documented in Hirshleifer, Hou, and Teoh [2009] is driven by discretionary accruals but not normal accruals. The return forecasting power of aggregate discretionary accruals is robust to choices of sample periods, return measurements, estimation methods, business condition and risk premium proxies, and accrual models used to isolate discretionary accruals. Our extensive analysis shows that aggregate discretionary accruals, in sharp contrast to aggregate normal accruals, contain little information about overall business conditions or aggregate cash flows and display little co-movement with ICAPM-motivated risk premium proxies. Our findings imply that aggregate discretionary accruals likely reflect aggregate fluctuations in earnings management, thereby favoring the behavioral explanation that managers time aggregate equity markets to report earnings. [source]

    A Reexamination of the Persistence of Accruals and Cash Flows

    ABSTRACT We reexamine prior studies' conclusion that accruals are less persistent than cash, focusing on two aspects of persistence that are crucial to determining its properties. The first (time specificity) refers to the fact that persistence describes how current-period shocks to income translate into next-period income. Traditional measures of accruals are, however, functions of current- and non-current-period transactions. We show that the inclusion of non-current-period transactions leads to a downward (upward) bias on the persistence of accruals (cash flows). We develop alternative measures of accruals and cash flows that are not misaligned and show that the differential persistence of cash flows over accruals is more than 70% smaller using these measures. The second aspect of persistence is firm-specificity. Specifically, we evaluate persistence using firm-specific estimations and find that more than 85% of firms show no evidence that accruals are less persistent than cash flows. [source]

    Do Analysts and Auditors Use Information in Accruals?

    Mark T. Bradshaw
    Existing research indicates that firms with high accruals are more likely to experience future earnings problems, but that investors' expectations, as reflected in stock prices, do not appear to anticipate these problems. In this paper, we directly examine the published opinions of two types of professional investor intermediaries to see if they provide investors with information concerning the future earnings problems experienced by firms with high accruals. First, we examine the earnings forecasts of sell-side analysts. We show that analysts' earnings forecasts do not incorporate the predictable future earnings declines associated with high accruals. Second, we examine the behavior of independent auditors. We find no evidence that auditors signal the future earnings problems associated with high accruals through either their audit opinions or through auditor changes. Overall, our evidence indicates that analysts and auditors do not alert investors to the future earnings problems associated with high accruals, thus corroborating previous findings that investors do not appear to anticipate these problems. [source]

    Highly Valued Equity and Discretionary Accruals

    Robert E. Houmes
    Abstract:, Overvalued equity provides a strong incentive for managers to report earnings that do not disappoint the market ( Jensen, 2005). We find that this can be extended to highly valued equity more generally. In the year following the classification as highly valued and compared to firms with less extreme valuations, highly valued firms have significantly higher discretionary accruals and exhibit a more pronounced positive association between discretionary accruals and proxies for the likelihood of failing to meet earnings targets. These findings are consistent with the use of discretionary accruals to manage earnings in support of extreme valuation. Because highly valued equity will likely result in CEOs with valuable stock and stock option portfolios, we test whether and show that the overvalued equity incentive is incremental to a CEO's equity portfolio incentive. One implication is that directors and audit committees should be especially on guard for possible earnings management when a firm has extremely high valuation multiples and when the CEO has a lot of equity at risk. [source]

    The Usefulness of Measures of Consistency of Discretionary Components of Accruals in the Detection of Earnings Management

    Salma S. IbrahimArticle first published online: 26 OCT 200
    Abstract:, Prior research has shown the prevalence of measurement error in models used to estimate aggregate discretionary accruals. In these models, the incremental information content of the various components of accruals is ignored. Limited prior research and data gathered from firms under Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) litigation indicate that managers use either one or more than one component of accruals simultaneously, in a consistent way to manipulate bottom-line earnings in a given direction. I propose two measures that capture the consistency between the discretionary components of accruals and test their significance in earnings management (EM) detection in firms that have artificially added accrual manipulation and firms that were targeted by the SEC for accrual manipulation. There is evidence that this information is incrementally useful in detecting EM. This finding paves the way for improvements in the discretionary accruals measure by including consistency information from the components of aggregate accruals. [source]

    Net Present Value-Consistent Investment Criteria Based on Accruals: A Generalisation of the Residual Income-Identity

    Thomas Pfeiffer
    Abstract: In recent years, many firms have favoured residual income for value based management. One main argument for this measure is its identity with the net present value rule and that this compatibility with the net present value rule holds true for all possible depreciation schedules selected. In this article, we analyse whether there are other, undiscussed, accrual accounting numbers that enable net present value-consistent investment decisions for all possible depreciation schedules. Our analysis provides an if-and-only-if characterisation of the entire class of net present value-consistent investment criteria, based on accounting information. This provides new insights into the residual income concept, hurdle rates, opening and closing error conditions achieved by applying more common performance measure structures, and allocation rules. Moreover, our analysis shows the limits of constructing such investment criteria. [source]

    Managerial Ownership, Information Content of Earnings, and Discretionary Accruals in a Non,US Setting

    Gorm Gabrielsen
    This study employs Danish data to examine the empirical relationship between the proportion of managerial ownership and two characteristics of accounting earnings: the information content of earnings and the magnitude of discretionary accruals. In previous research concerning American firms, Warfield et al. (1995) document a positive relationship between managerial ownership and the information content of earnings, and a negative relationship between managerial ownership and discretionary accruals. We question the generality of the Warfield et al. result, as the ownership structure found in most other countries, including Denmark, deviates from the US ownership configuration. In fact, Danish data indicate that the information content of earnings is inversely related to managerial ownership. [source]


    We develop a simulation model explaining the accrual of retirement wealth gained from working one year beyond retirement and from this calculate an implicit tax rate on the additional year's work. We find that the pre-July 2007 Australian tax on retirement benefits was biased in favour of ages 59 and less, while the implicit rate was positive on retirement past 59. We also use the results of a national survey of 2,500 households (ASRAM SURVEY) to determine the likely response to the tax changes implemented in July 2007 and find that half those sampled are either very likely or likely to change their expected retirement dates in response to the tax changes. [source]

    Vigabatrin and Epilepsy: Lessons Learned

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2007
    John M. Wild
    Summary:,Purpose: The risk factors for visual field loss attributable to vigabatrin (VAVFL) are equivocal. This multinational, prospective, observational study aimed to clarify the principal/major factors for VAVFL. Methods: Interim analysis of three groups with refractory partial epilepsy, stratified by age (8,12 years; >12 years) and exposure to vigabatrin (VGB). Group I comprised participants treated with VGB for ,6 months, Group II participants previously treated with VGB for ,6 months who had discontinued the drug for ,6 months and Group III those never treated with VGB. Perimetry was undertaken at least every six months, for up to 36 months; results were evaluated masked to drug exposure. Results: Based upon 563 participants in the locked data set, 432 yielded one or more Conclusive visual field examinations. For Group I, the frequency of VAVFL at the last Conclusive examination was 10/32 (31.2%) for those aged 8,12 years and 52/125 (41.6%) for those aged >12 years. For Group II, the proportions were 4/39 (10.3%) and 31/129 (24.0%). No cases resembling VAVFL manifested in Group III. VAVFL was associated with duration of VGB therapy (Odds ratio [OR] 14.2; 95% CI 5.0 to 40.5); mean dose of VGB (OR 8.5; 95% CI 2.2 to 33.2); and male gender (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.7). VAVFL was more common with static than kinetic perimetry (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 4.2). Conclusions: The therapeutic benefit of VGB is counteracted by the progressive accrual of the risk of VAVFL with continued exposure and with increase in mean dose. [source]

    Age-related changes in dopamine transporters and accumulation of 3-nitrotyrosine in rhesus monkey midbrain dopamine neurons: Relevance in selective neuronal vulnerability to degeneration

    N. M. Kanaan
    Abstract Aging is the strongest risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). There is a preferential loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tier of the substantia nigra (vtSN) compared to the dorsal tier and ventral tegmental area (VTA) in PD. Examining age-related and region-specific differences in DA neurons represents a means of identifying factors potentially involved in vulnerability or resistance to degeneration. Nitrative stress is among the factors potentially underlying DA neuron degeneration. We studied the relationship between 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT; a marker of nitrative damage) and DA transporters [DA transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT)] during aging in DA subregions of rhesus monkeys. The percentage of DA neurons containing 3NT increased significantly only in the vtSN with advancing age, and the vtSN had a greater percentage of 3NT-positive neurons when compared to the VTA. The relationship between 3NT and DA transporters was determined by measuring fluorescence intensity of 3NT, DAT and VMAT staining. 3NT intensity increased with advancing age in the vtSN. Increased DAT, VMAT and DAT/VMAT ratios were associated with increased 3NT in individual DA neurons. These results suggest nitrative damage accumulates in midbrain DA neurons with advancing age, an effect exacerbated in the vulnerable vtSN. The capacity of a DA neuron to accumulate more cytosolic DA, as inferred from DA transporter expression, is related to accumulation of nitrative damage. These findings are consistent with a role for aging-related accrual of nitrative damage in the selective vulnerability of vtSN neurons to degeneration in PD. [source]


    Ralph Kober
    This study examines the usefulness of three accounting systems (cash, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) accrual, and Government Finance Statistics (GFS) accrual) for public sector decision-making. From a survey of internal users, external users, and preparers in Australia, we find that GAAP accrual information is perceived to be relatively more useful and understandable than the other two systems for most decisions examined. The relatively higher ratings for GAAP accrual information differ from earlier studies and may reflect an experience or familiarity effect whereby perceptions of usefulness are enhanced because respondents have become more used to the system. This effect might also explain the lower ratings for GFS accrual. [source]


    Robyn Pilcher
    Prior management and manipulation of financial accounting information research has overwhelmingly been focused within a private sector setting. This study adopts a public sector focus in empirically examining the use of a specific discretionary accrual (i.e., depreciation) to adjust the financial performance of New South Wales (Australia) local governments. Findings indicate a significant positive association between absolute unexpected depreciation and absolute local government income before capital contributions, and a significant positive association between absolute unexpected depreciation and capital contributions. Overall, the results make significant contributions to various literature streams with implications for various stakeholders interested in local governmental financial performance. [source]

    The Case for Cameral Accounting

    Norvald Monsen
    Cameral accounting was developed as early as the 16th century onwards in order to contribute to increased control of public money. Such a control demand does not seem to be of minor importance at the threshold of a new millennium as it was several centuries ago, and therefore Ludwig Mülhaupt in the excerpt above states that ,Unfortunately there are very few researchers and practitioners who are interested in developing the cameral bookkeeping method, which is strongly to be regretted with a view to the importance of these questions.' Most of the literature dealing with cameral accounting is published in German, and it seems to be known only to a small extent beyond the German speaking countries. The purpose of this article is therefore to present this historically important accounting model to a larger audience, allowing us to draw upon the experiences of cameral accounting in our continuous attempts to control public money, including the current international debate about the introduction of commercial (accrual) accounting in the public sector. [source]

    The Financial Accountability of Australia's Medicare System: A Generational Accounting Analysis

    Paul J. M. Klumpes
    The financial sustainability of publicly funded health care systems is sensitive to the demographics of ageing populations, which have a significant bearing on their financial management, accountability and reporting of their financial performance. This paper examines historical and current trends in demographic structure of Australia's population that are likely to impact on the financial management and accountability practices affecting Australia'suniversal public health care system (,Medicare'). The pay-as-you-go financed funding status of Medicare as represented under both currently required, cash-based accounting principles and proposed accrual-based accounting principles are criticised for not recognising the obligations of the Australian government under Medicare. An alternative system of generational accounting is proposed that projects the financial management costs of Medicare. Data are taken from both historical trends in expenditure and ageing as well as projected demographics. The analysis implies that there is significant intergenerational-inequity in the funding of Medicare, which is not recognised under accrual-based accounting principles that are now being used to evaluate the financial accountability and performance of government entities. [source]

    Does accounting conservatism pay?

    ACCOUNTING & FINANCE, Issue 1 2010
    Raghavan J. Iyengar
    C21; J33; M41 Abstract We investigate whether or not there is a link between conservative accounting practices and the sensitivity of executive pay to accounting performance. Using several accrual-based measures of accounting conservatism as well as alternative measures of accounting performance, we estimate an econometric model of CEO compensation that incorporates the interaction of accounting conservatism and accounting performance. Consistent with optimal contracting theory, we find that the sensitivity of executive pay to accounting performance is higher for firms that report conservative accounting earnings. These results support the hypothesis that accounting conservatism, by limiting earnings management opportunities and improving the reliability of accounting performance measures, allows firms to formulate contracts that tie executive compensation more closely to accounting performance. [source]

    Patient and clinician collaboration in the design of a national randomized breast cancer trial

    Jo Marsden MD FRCS (Gen Surgery)
    Abstract Objective, To show breast cancer patient involvement in the design of a national randomized trial of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in symptomatic patients will increase accrual. Setting and participants, Three stakeholder groups [(1) researchers from the Lynda Jackson Macmillan Centre, (2) the Consumers' Advisory Group for Clinical Trials (CAG-CT), (3) clinicians responsible for a pilot randomized HRT study in breast cancer patients] developed this collaborative study. Methods, (1) Nine focus group discussions were conducted to identify issues relevant to breast cancer patients about HRT and a national trial: six involved women from breast cancer support groups nationwide and three patients who had previously participated in the pilot randomized HRT study. (2) Recommendations from the focus groups (analysed by Grounded Theory) were debated by the research stakeholders and focus group representatives at a 1-day meeting and consensus reached (using a voting system) on mutual priorities for incorporation into the design of a national HRT trial. (3) Representatives from the CAG-CT and focus groups participated in subsequent national HRT steering committee meetings to ensure that these priorities were accounted for and the resulting trial design summary was circulated to the CAG-CT and all focus group representatives for comment. Results, Focus groups demonstrated that the complexity of factors relating to trial participation was not just restricted to the research topic in question. Patient,clinician interaction provided a platform for negotiating potential conflicts over trial design and outcomes. Patient feedback suggested that mutually agreed priorities were accounted for in the trial design. Interpretation, Clinical research planning should involve all research stakeholders at the outset. Quantifying the impact of patient involvement in terms of trial accrual may be too simple given the complexity of their motivations for participating in trials. [source]

    Genetic and phenotypic analysis of B-cell post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders provides insights into disease biology

    Efsevia Vakiani
    Abstract B-cell post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are classified as early lesions, polymorphic lymphomas (P-PTLD) and monomorphic lymphomas (M-PTLD). These morphologic categories are thought to reflect a biologic continuum, although supporting genetic data are lacking. To gain better insights into PTLD pathogenesis, we characterized the phenotypes, immunoglobulin (Ig) gene alterations and non-Ig gene (BCL6, RhoH/TTF, c-MYC, PAX5, CIITA, BCL7A, PIM1) mutations of 21 PTLD, including an IM-like lesion, 8 P-PTLD and 12 M-PTLD. Gene expression profile analysis was also performed in 12 cases. All PTLD with clonal Ig rearrangements showed evidence of germinal centre (GC) transit based on the analysis of Ig and BCL6 gene mutations, and 74% had a non-GC phenotype (BCL6,±,MUM1+). Although surface Ig abnormalities were seen in 6/19 (32%) PTLD, only three showed ,crippling' Ig mutations indicating other etiologies for loss of the B-cell receptor. Aberrant somatic hypermutation (ASHM) was almost exclusively observed in M-PTLD (8/12 vs. 1/8 P-PTLD) and all three recurrent cases analysed showed additional mutations in genes targeted by ASHM. Gene expression analysis showed distinct clustering of PTLD compared to B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL) without segregation of P-PTLD from non-GC M-PTLD or EBV+ from EBV, PTLD. The gene expression pattern of PTLD appeared more related to that of memory and activated B-cells. Together, our results suggest that PTLD represent a distinct type of B-NHL deriving from an antigen experienced B-cell, whose evolution is associated with accrual of genetic lesions. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Life and Death of the Canadian Contingent Gains and Losses Accounting Standards Project,

    ABSTRACT In April 1994, the Canadian Accounting Standards Board formally approved a new accounting standard for contingent gains and losses. The new standard would have increased the frequency of recording contingent losses, enabled the accrual of some contingent gains, and enhanced disclosures for all contingencies. The changes would primarily have been achieved by requiring management, and their legal advisers, to make predictions, estimates, and disclosures that the existing accounting standard enabled them to avoid. Over two years later, and following numerous changes to the implementation date, the board ultimately decided not to release the new standard, and in July 1999, formally abandoned the contingencies project. This study provides a telling of the standard's genesis, development, and ultimate demise, which should prove instructive to those parties with an interest and a stake in accounting standard setting. [source]

    Immunization with a P53 synthetic long peptide vaccine induces P53-specific immune responses in ovarian cancer patients, a phase II trial,

    Ninke Leffers
    Abstract The prognosis of ovarian cancer, the primary cause of death from gynecological malignancies, has only modestly improved over the last decades. Immunotherapy is one of the new treatment modalities explored for this disease. To investigate safety, tolerability, immunogenicity and obtain an impression of clinical activity of a p53 synthetic long peptide (p53-SLP) vaccine, twenty patients with recurrent elevation of CA-125 were included, eighteen of whom were immunized 4 times with 10 overlapping p53-SLP in Montanide ISA51. The first 5 patients were extensively monitored for toxicity, but showed no , grade 3 toxicity, thus accrual was continued. Overall, toxicity was limited to grade 1 and 2, mostly locoregional, inflammatory reactions. IFN-, producing p53-specific T-cell responses were induced in all patients who received all 4 immunizations as measured by IFN-, ELISPOT. An IFN-, secretion assay showed that vaccine-induced p53-specific T-cells were CD4+, produced both Th1 and Th2 cytokines as analyzed by cytokine bead array. Notably, Th2 cytokines dominated the p53-specific response. P53-specific T-cells were present in a biopsy of the last immunization site of at least 9/17 (53%) patients, reflecting the migratory capacity of p53-specific T-cells. As best clinical response, stable disease evaluated by CA-125 levels and CT-scans, was observed in 2/20 (10%) patients, but no relationship was found with vaccine-induced immunity. This study shows that the p53-SLP vaccine is safe, well tolerated and induces p53-specific T-cell responses in ovarian cancer patients. Upcoming trials will focus on improving T helper-1 polarization and clinical efficacy. © 2009 UICC [source]

    The Persistence and Pricing of the Cash Component of Earnings

    ABSTRACT Prior research shows that the cash component of earnings is more persistent than the accrual component. We decompose the cash component into: (1) the change in the cash balance, (2) issuances/distributions to debt, and (3) issuances/distributions to equity. We find that the higher persistence of the cash component is entirely due to the subcomponent related to equity. The other subcomponents have persistence levels almost identical to accruals. We investigate whether investors understand the implications of the differential persistence of the three subcomponents. Our results suggest that investors correctly price debt and equity issuances/distributions but misprice the change in the cash balance in a similar manner to accruals. Our tests enable us to empirically distinguish the "accrual" and "external financing" anomalies with results implying that the accrual anomaly subsumes the external financing anomaly. Our results also suggest that naive fixation on earnings is unlikely to be a complete explanation for the accrual anomaly. Our findings are more consistent with investors misunderstanding diminishing returns to new investments. [source]

    Exogenous PTH and Endogenous 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Are Complementary in Inducing an Anabolic Effect on Bone,,

    Rana Samadfam
    Abstract PTH and 1,25(OH)2D each exert dual anabolic and catabolic skeletal effects. We assessed the potential interaction of PTH and 1,25(OH)2D in promoting skeletal anabolism by comparing the capacity of exogenous, intermittently injected PTH(1-34) to produce bone accrual in mice homozygous for the 1,(OH)ase-null allele [1,(OH)ase,/, mice] and in wildtype mice. In initial studies, 3-mo-old wildtype mice were either injected once daily (40 ,g/kg) or infused continuously (120 ,g/kg/d) with PTH(1,34) for up to 1 mo. Infused PTH reduced BMD, increased the bone resorption marker TRACP-5b, and raised serum calcium but did not increase serum 1,25(OH)2D. Injected PTH increased serum 1,25(OH)2D and BMD, raised the bone formation marker osteocalcin more than did infused PTH, and did not produce sustained hypercalcemia as did PTH infusion. In subsequent studies, 3-mo-old 1,(OH)ase,/, mice, raised on a rescue diet, and wildtype littermates were injected with PTH(1,34) (40 ,g/kg) either once daily or three times daily for 1 mo. In 1,(OH)ase,/, mice, baseline bone volume (BV/TV) and bone formation (BFR/BS) were lower than in wildtype mice. PTH administered intermittently increased BV/TV and BFR/BS in a dose-dependent manner, but the increases were always less than in wildtype mice. These studies show that exogenous PTH administered continuously resorbs bone without raising endogenous 1,25(OH)2D. Intermittently administered PTH can increase bone accrual in the absence of 1,25(OH)2D, but 1,25(OH)2D complements this PTH action. An increase in endogenous 1,25(OH)2D may therefore facilitate an optimal skeletal anabolic response to PTH and may be relevant to the development of improved therapeutics for enhancing skeletal anabolism. [source]

    Childhood Fractures Are Associated With Decreased Bone Mass Gain During Puberty: An Early Marker of Persistent Bone Fragility?,

    Serge L Ferrari MD
    Abstract Whether peak bone mass is low among children with fractures remains uncertain. In a cohort of 125 girls followed over 8.5 years, 42 subjects reported 58 fractures. Among those, BMC gain at multiple sites and vertebral bone size at pubertal maturity were significantly decreased. Hence, childhood fractures may be markers of low peak bone mass acquisition and persistent skeletal fragility. Introduction: Fractures in childhood may result from a deficit in bone mass accrual during rapid longitudinal growth. Whether low bone mass persists beyond this period however remains unknown. Materials and Methods: BMC at the spine, radius, hip, and femur diaphysis was prospectively measured over 8.5 years in 125 girls using DXA. Differences in bone mass and size between girls with and without fractures were analyzed using nonparametric tests. The contribution of genetic factors was evaluated by mother-daughter correlations and that of calcium intake by Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Fifty-eight fractures occurred in 42 among 125 girls (cumulative incidence, 46.4%), one-half of all fractures affecting the forearm and wrist. Girls with and without fractures had similar age, height, weight. and calcium intake at all time-points. Before and during early puberty, BMC and width of the radius diaphysis was lower in the fracture compared with no-fracture group (p < 0.05), whereas aBMD and BMAD were similar in the two groups. At pubertal maturity (Tanner's stage 5, mean age ± SD, 16.4 ± 0.5 years), BMC at the ultradistal radius (UD Rad.), femur trochanter, and lumbar spine (LS), and LS projected bone area were all significantly lower in girls with fractures. Throughout puberty, BMC gain at these sites was also decreased in the fracture group (LS, ,8.0%, p = 0.015; UD Rad., ,12.0%, p = 0.004; trochanter, ,8.4%, p = 0.05 versus no fractures). BMC was highly correlated between prepuberty and pubertal maturity (R = 0.54,0.81) and between mature daughters and their mothers (R = 0.32,0.46). Calcium intake was not related to fracture risk. Conclusions: Girls with fractures have decreased bone mass gain in the axial and appendicular skeleton and reduced vertebral bone size when reaching pubertal maturity. Taken together with the evidence of tracking and heritability for BMC, these observations indicate that childhood fractures may be markers for low peak bone mass and persistent bone fragility. [source]

    Carbonated Soft Drink Consumption and Bone Mineral Density in Adolescence: The Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project,

    C McGartland
    Abstract In an observational study of 1335 boys and girls aged 12 and 15 years, higher intakes of carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) were significantly associated with lower bone mineral density at the heel, but only in girls. Owing to the upward trend in CSD intake in adolescence, this finding may be of concern. Introduction: High consumption of carbonated soft drinks (CSD) during adolescence may reduce bone mineral accrual and increase fracture risk. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between CSD consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in a representative sample of adolescents. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study in 36 postprimary schools in Northern Ireland. Participants included 591 boys and 744 girls either 12 or 15 years old. BMD was measured by DXA, and usual beverage consumption was assessed by the diet history method. Adjusted regression modeling was used to investigate the influence of CSD on BMD. Results: A significant inverse relationship between total CSD intake and BMD was observed in girls at the dominant heel (,, ,0.099; 95% CI, ,0.173 to ,0.025). Non-cola consumption was inversely associated with dominant heel BMD in girls (,, ,0.121; 95% CI, ,0.194 to ,0.048), and diet drinks were also inversely associated with heel BMD in girls (,, ,0.087; 95% CI, ,0.158 to ,0.016). However, no consistent relationships were observed between CSD intake and BMD in boys. Cola consumption and nondiet drinks were not significantly related to BMD in either sex. Conclusion: CSD consumption seems to be inversely related to BMD at the dominant heel in girls. It is possible that the apparent association results from the displacement of more nutritious beverages from the diet. Although the inverse association observed between CSD consumption and BMD is modest and confined to girls, this finding may have important public health implications given the widespread use and current upward trend in CSD consumption in Western populations. [source]

    Bone Mineral Response to a 7-Month Randomized Controlled, School-Based Jumping Intervention in 121 Prepubertal Boys: Associations With Ethnicity and Body Mass Index,

    K. J. Mackelvie
    Abstract We examined the effects of a 7-month jumping intervention (10 minutes, 3 times per week) on bone mineral gain in prepubertal Asian and white boys (10.3 ± 0.6 years, 36.0 ± 9.2 kg) at 14 schools randomized to control (n = 60) and intervention (n = 61) groups. Intervention and control groups had similar mean baseline and change in height, weight, lean mass and fat mass, baseline areal bone mineral density (aBMD; g/cm2), bone mineral content (BMC; g; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA], QDR 4500W), and similar average physical activity and calcium intakes. Over 7 months, the intervention group gained more total body (TB) BMC (1.6%, p < 0.01) and proximal femur (PF) aBMD (1%, p < 0.05) than the control group after adjusting for age, baseline weight, change in height, and loaded physical activity. We also investigated the 41 Asian and 50 white boys (10.2 ± 0.6 years and 31.9 ± 4.4 kg) who were below the 75th percentile (19.4 kg/m2) of the cohort mean for baseline body mass index (BMI). Boys in the intervention group gained significantly more TB and lumbar spine (LS) BMC, PF aBMD, and trochanteric (TR) aBMD (+ ,2%) than boys in the control group (adjusted for baseline weight, final Tanner stage, change in height, and loaded physical activity). Bone changes were similar between Asians and whites. Finally, we compared the boys in the control group (n = 16) and the boys in the intervention group (n = 14) whose baseline BMI fell in the highest quartile (10.5 ± 0.6 years and 49.1 ± 8.2 kg). Seven-month bone changes (adjusted as aforementioned) were similar in the control and intervention groups. In summary, jumping exercise augmented bone mineral accrual at several regions equally in prepubertal Asian and white boys of average or low BMI, and intervention effects on bone mineral were undetectable in high BMI prepubertal boys. [source]

    Measurement of Midfemoral Shaft Geometry: Repeatability and Accuracy Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    Helen J. Woodhead
    Abstract Although macroscopic geometric architecture is an important determinant of bone strength, there is limited published information relating to the validation of the techniques used in its measurement. This study describes new techniques for assessing geometry at the midfemur using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and examines both the repeatability and the accuracy of these and previously described DXA methods. Contiguous transverse MRI (Philips 1.5T) scans of the middle one-third femur were made in 13 subjects, 3 subjects with osteoporosis. Midpoint values for total width (TW), cortical width (CW), total cross-sectional area (TCSA), cortical cross-sectional area (CCSA), and volumes from reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) images (total volume [TV] and cortical volume [CVol]) were derived. Midpoint TW and CW also were determined using DXA (Lunar V3.6, lumbar software) by visual and automated edge detection analysis. Repeatability was assessed on scans made on two occasions and then analyzed twice by two independent observers (blinded), with intra- and interobserver repeatability expressed as the CV (CV ± SD). Accuracy was examined by comparing MRI and DXA measurements of venison bone (and Perspex phantom for MRI), against "gold standard" measures made by vernier caliper (width), photographic image digitization (area) and water displacement (volume). Agreement between methods was analyzed using mean differences (MD ± SD%). MRI CVs ranged from 0.5 ± 0.5% (TV) to 3.1 ± 3.1% (CW) for intraobserver and 0.55 ± 0.5% (TV) to 3.6 ± 3.6% (CW) for interobserver repeatability. DXA results ranged from 1.6 ± 1.5% (TW) to 4.4 ± 4.5% (CW) for intraobserver and 3.8 ± 3.8% (TW) to 8.3 ± 8.1% (CW) for interobserver variation. MRI accuracy was excellent for TV (3.3 ± 6.4%), CVol (3.5 ± 4.0%), TCSA (1.8 ± 2.6%), and CCSA (1.6 ± 4.2%) but not TW (4.1 ± 1.4%) or CW (16.4 ± 14.9%). DXA results were TW (6.8 ± 2.7%) and CW (16.4 ± 17.0%). MRI measures of geometric parameters of the midfemur are highly accurate and repeatable, even in osteoporosis. Both MRI and DXA techniques have limited value in determining cortical width. MRI may prove valuable in the assessment of surface-specific bone accrual and resorption responses to disease, therapy, and variations in mechanical loading. [source]

    The Accrual Anomaly Under Different Accounting Standards , Lessons Learned from the German Experiment

    Christoph Kaserer
    Abstract:, Several studies document that investors systematically overreact to accrual-based accounting information. We address the question to what extent this accrual anomaly is related to different accounting standards. We provide empirical evidence that the accrual anomaly is also present in Germany. However, this anomaly seems mainly to be driven by firms presenting their financial statements under IFRS or US-GAAP, while the anomaly is unlikely to exist for those firms complying with German GAAP. It is argued that introducing true and fair view accounting, like IFRS, that relies on difficult-to-verify information, may not be suitable to improve accounting information quality in the context of a weak corporate governance system. [source]

    Modulation of white adipose tissue proteome by aging and calorie restriction

    AGING CELL, Issue 5 2010
    Adamo Valle
    Summary Aging is associated with an accrual of body fat, progressive development of insulin resistance and other obesity comorbidities that contribute to decrease life span. Caloric restriction (CR), which primarily affects energy stores in adipose tissue, is known to extend life span and retard the aging process in animal models. In this study, a proteomic approach combining 2-DE and MS was used to identify proteins modulated by aging and CR in rat white adipose tissue proteome. Proteomic analysis revealed 133 differentially expressed spots, 57 of which were unambiguously identified by MS. Although CR opposed part of the age-associated protein expression patterns, many effects of CR were on proteins unaltered by age, suggesting that the effects of CR on adipose tissue are only weakly related to those of aging. Particularly, CR and aging altered glucose, intermediate and lipid metabolism, with CR enhancing the expression of enzymes involved in oxalacetate and NADPH production, lipid biosynthesis and lipolysis. Consistently, insulin-, and ,3-adrenergic receptors were also increased by CR, which denotes improved sensitivity to lipogenic/lipolytic stimuli. Other beneficial outcomes of CR were an improvement in oxidative stress, preventing the age-associated decrease in several antioxidant enzymes. Proteins involved in cytoskeleton, iron storage, energy metabolism and several proteins with novel or unknown functions in adipose tissue were also modulated by age and/or CR. Such orchestrated changes in expression of multiple proteins provide insights into the mechanism underlying CR effects, ultimately allowing the discovery of new markers of aging and targets for the development of CR-mimetics. [source]