Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (chronic + posttraumatic_stress_disorder)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A controlled trial of paroxetine for chronic PTSD, dissociation, and interpersonal problems in mostly minority adults,

Randall D. Marshall M.D.
Abstract This study evaluated the efficacy of paroxetine for symptoms and associated features of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), interpersonal problems, and dissociative symptoms in an urban population of mostly minority adults. Adult outpatients with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of chronic PTSD received 1 week of single-blind placebo (N = 70). Those not rated as significantly improved were then randomly assigned to placebo (N = 27) or paroxetine (N = 25) for 10 weeks, with a flexible dosage design (maximum 60,mg by week 7). Significantly more patients treated with paroxetine were rated as responders (14/21, 66.7%) on the Clinical Global Impression,Improvement Scale (CGI-I) compared to patients treated with placebo (6/22, 27.3%). Mixed effects models showed greater reductions on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) total score (primary plus associated features of PTSD) in the paroxetine versus placebo groups. Paroxetine was also superior to placebo on reduction of dissociative symptoms [Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) score] and reduction in self-reported interpersonal problems [Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) score]. In a 12-week maintenance phase, paroxetine response continued to improve, but placebo response did not. Paroxetine was well tolerated and superior to placebo in ameliorating the symptoms of chronic PTSD, associated features of PTSD, dissociative symptoms, and interpersonal problems in the first trial conducted primarily in minority adults. Depression and Anxiety 24:77,84, 2007. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

MMPI-2 profiles of Gulf and Vietnam combat veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder

D. Michael Glenn
The current study examined service era differences in a sample of 172 Gulf and Vietnam outpatient veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants completed the MMPI-2 and several additional self-report measures of symptom severity (PTSD, depression, anxiety, hostility, and health complaints). Results indicated that MMPI-2 profiles differed significantly according to service era with Vietnam veterans scoring higher on scales 2, 8, and 0 and lower on scale 9 than did Gulf veterans. Examination of group means derived from parametric analysis of MMPI-2 data suggested a mean two-point code type of 2,8/8,2 for Vietnam veterans and 1,8/8,1 for Gulf veterans. In contrast, when the data were examined using descriptive techniques based on frequency counts of individual MMPI-2 profiles, the most frequently occurring two-point codetype was 7,8/8,7 for Vietnam veterans, and 6,8/8,6 for Gulf veterans. In addition, Gulf veterans reported a greater number of total health complaints than Vietnam veterans, whereas Vietnam veterans reported a greater number of physician-diagnosed physical conditions. Potential advantages of incorporating descriptive approaches versus parametric methods when examining profile data are also presented. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 58: 371,381, 2002. [source]

War-related posttraumatic stress disorder in Black, Hispanic, and majority White Vietnam veterans: The roles of exposure and vulnerability

Bruce P. Dohrenwend
Elevated prevalence rates of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been reported for Black and Hispanic Vietnam veterans. There has been no comprehensive explanation of these group differences. Moreover, previous research has relied on retrospective reports of war-zone stress and on PTSD assessments that fail to distinguish between prevalence and incidence. These limitations are addressed by use of record-based exposure measures and clinical diagnoses of a subsample of veterans from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS). Compared with Majority White, the Black elevation is explained by Blacks' greater exposure; the Hispanic elevation, by Hispanics' greater exposure, younger age, lesser education, and lower Armed Forces Qualification Test scores. The PTSD elevation in Hispanics versus Blacks is accounted for mainly by Hispanics' younger age. [source]

Patterns of treatment response in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: An application of latent growth mixture modeling

Peter Elliott
This study attempts to differentiate groups of individuals who exhibit different patterns of recovery following treatment for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and describes these groups in terms of relevant characteristics at program intake. A sample of 2,219 Vietnam veterans who had completed a 12-week treatment program was followed up at 6, 12, and 24 months post admission using self-report measures. With change in PTSD symptoms over time as the focus, latent growth mixture modeling was used to assign individual veterans to subgroups. A three-group solution provided the best account of the data. Two groups showed moderate and consistent improvement over time although the larger group (n = 1,380) began treatment with more PTSD symptoms and improved more quickly over time. The smallest group (n = 87) showed a substantially different trajectory, with almost no net change in symptom levels over the 24-month period. The groups also varied significantly in terms of their characteristics, with symptom severity and improvements over time reflecting greater comorbidity and younger age. The results have both research and clinical implications. [source]

Do patients drop out prematurely from exposure therapy for PTSD?

Elizabeth A. Hembree
Abstract Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of exposure therapy in the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite the convincing outcome literature, a concern that this treatment may exacerbate symptoms and lead to premature dropout has been voiced on the basis of a few reports. In this paper, we examined the hypothesis that treatments that include exposure will be associated with a higher dropout rate than treatments that do not include exposure. A literature search identified 25 controlled studies of cognitive,behavioral treatment for PTSD that included data on dropout. The results indicated no difference in dropout rates among exposure therapy, cognitive therapy, stress inoculation training, and EMDR. These findings are consistent with previous research about the tolerability of exposure therapy. [source]

Ambulatory monitoring and physical health report in Vietnam veterans with and without chronic posttraumatic stress disorder

Jean C. Beckham
Abstract This study investigated the associations among PTSD, ambulatory cardiovascular monitoring, and physical health self-reports in 117 male Vietnam combat veterans (61 with PTSD and 56 without PTSD). PTSD was associated with health symptoms and number of current health conditions beyond the influence of several covariates. PTSD was associated with greater systolic blood pressure variability, and an elevated percentage of heart rate and systolic blood pressure readings above baseline. Higher mean heart rate and an elevated percentage of heart rate above baseline were associated with physical health symptoms. None of the ambulatory monitoring variables mediated the association between PTSD and physical health outcomes. Findings suggest that the interrelationships among ambulatory autonomic responses, PTSD, and physical health deserve more research attention. [source]

Fluvoxamine and sleep disturbances in posttraumatic stress disorder

Thomas C. Neylan
Abstract This study assesses the efficacy of fluvoxamine treatment on different domains of subjective sleep quality in Vietnam combat veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Medically healthy male Vietnam theater combat veterans (N = 21) completed a 10-week open label trial. Fluvoxamine treatment led to improvements in PTSD symptoms and all domains of subjective sleep quality. The largest effect was for dreams linked to the traumatic experience in combat. In contrast, generic unpleasant dreams showed only a modest response to treatment. Sleep maintenance insomnia and the item "troubled sleep" showed a large treatment response, whereas sleep onset insomnia improved less substantially. These therapeutic benefits contrast with published reports that have found activating effects of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors on the sleep electroencephalogram. [source]