Ceramic

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of Ceramic

  • alumina ceramic
  • composite ceramic
  • glass ceramic
  • porous ceramic
  • zirconia ceramic

  • Terms modified by Ceramic

  • ceramic Composite
  • ceramic abutment
  • ceramic body
  • ceramic coating
  • ceramic component
  • ceramic composite
  • ceramic compound
  • ceramic core
  • ceramic crown
  • ceramic fiber
  • ceramic filler
  • ceramic film
  • ceramic foam
  • ceramic fragment
  • ceramic interface
  • ceramic laser
  • ceramic layer
  • ceramic material
  • ceramic matrix
  • ceramic matrix composite
  • ceramic membrane
  • ceramic method
  • ceramic nanoparticle
  • ceramic part
  • ceramic particle
  • ceramic powder
  • ceramic production
  • ceramic restoration
  • ceramic route
  • ceramic sample
  • ceramic scaffold
  • ceramic structure
  • ceramic substrate
  • ceramic support
  • ceramic surface
  • ceramic suspension
  • ceramic vessel
  • ceramic yield

  • Selected Abstracts


    RESIN BONDING TO CERAMIC

    JOURNAL OF ESTHETIC AND RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY, Issue 2 2008
    PhD Guest Expert, Raymond L. Bertolotti DDS
    [source]


    THE TECHNOLOGY OF ,GLAZED' RESERVED SLIP WARE,A FINE CERAMIC OF THE HARAPPAN PERIOD*

    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 4 2005
    K. KRISHNAN
    ,Glazed' Reserved Slip Ware (RSW) is a high-quality glossy bichrome pottery of the Indus Valley civilization, and dates to the mature Harappan period (c. 2600,1900 bc). Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis indicates that the surface coat on RSW is composed of a pale grey vitrified clay slip, which overlies a black slip with significantly higher iron oxide. Hence the term ,sintered' Reserved Slip Ware is to be preferred. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that both the pale and black slips contain hercynite, mullite and quartz, but observation by scanning electron microscopy shows that the black slips contain higher amounts of coarser-grained hercynite. The elemental data suggest that different clays were used to make the bodies and the slips. However, key element ratios are very close in associated black and pale slips. The grey slip may have been produced by elutriation of the fine, iron oxide-rich clay that was used to prepare the black slip. The pale grey slip was laid over the black and removed by combing to produce a bichrome effect, which evoked semi-precious materials such as agate. RSW was a specialist product that required significantly higher input skill and resources than the majority of Harappan clay-based ceramics. It is a further example of the range of sophisticated Harappan ceramic wares, which included faience, fired steatite and stoneware. [source]


    Renewable Ceramic (TiN) Ring Electrode in Stripping Voltammetry.

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 16 2009
    Determination of Pb(II) Without Removal of Oxygen
    Abstract Characteristic features of the process of Pb(II) reduction and oxidation at a renewable ceramic ring electrode (RCRE) were studied by stripping voltammetry. The main constituents of the RCRE are: a specially constructed TiN ring electrode, a silver sheet used as silver counter/quasi-reference electrode and a silicon O-ring are fastened together in a polypropylene body. The renovation of this electrode is carried out through mechanical removal of solid contaminants and electrochemical activation in the electrolyte which fills the RCRE body. The optimal measurement conditions, composition of supporting electrolyte and procedures of the electrode activation were selected. The measurements were carried out from nondeaerated solutions. As shown on selected examples, RCRE exhibits good performance in underpotential deposition stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) applied for the determination of lead(II) in synthetic solutions with and without surfactants and in certified reference materials. The peak current is proportional to the concentration of lead(II) over the range 210,9,110,7,mol L,1, with a 3, detection limit of 110,9,mol L,1 with an accumulation time of 30,s. The obtained results showed good reproducibility, (RSD=2,5%; n=5) and reliability. [source]


    Surface Activation of a Ferrimagnetic Glass,Ceramic for Antineoplastic Drugs Grafting

    ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Issue 7 2010
    Enrica Vern
    A ferrimagnetic glass,ceramic, belonging to the system SiO2,Na2O,CaO,P2O5,FeO,Fe2O3, has been studied as potential carrier for antineoplastic agents, in order to exploit the combination of hyperthermia and chemotherapy. Different material pre-treatments, such as ultrasonic washing, water, or simulated body fluid dipping, were evaluated to promote the surface activation of the glass,ceramic, i.e., the hydroxyl groups formation on it. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectrometry, and wettability measurements were performed to observe the samples surface modification. The best results in terms of free hydroxyl groups exposition were obtained by dipping the samples in distilled water for 7 days at 37,C. Two different anticancer drugs were selected in order to test the reactivity of the activated surface: cisplatinum and doxorubicin. The uptake and release of doxorubicin and cisplatinum were evaluated on glass,ceramic powders, by using UV,Visible spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. After 1 day of uptake at 37,C, the quantity of doxorubicin incorporated into the glass,ceramic is 77,,7 wt%, while only 42,,9.6 wt% of cisplatinum is grafted onto the material surface. For both antitumoral agents, the maximum drug release after soaking in aqueous solutions at 37,C was obtained in few hours, with a randomly distributed kinetics trend. [source]


    Screening of the Interactions Between Mg-PSZ and TRIP-Steel and Its Alloys During Sintering,

    ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Issue 6 2010
    Christian Weigelt
    Ceramic,steel compound materials are used in a wide range of applications up to date. Major advantages are the mechanical properties due to the combination of brittle ceramic with tough steel. This study deals with effects of the sintering process on austenitic TRIP-steel/Mg-PSZ composite materials for mechanical load applications. Both, the FeCrNisteel and partially stabilized zirconia offer their special mechanical behavior only in a metastable state. The ability of phase transformation depends mainly on the chemical composition. Mutual interactions of the alloying metals (Cr, Ni, Mn, and Fe) and the ceramic stabilizer (MgO) during sintering may prevent the martensitic phase transformation. This may cause disadvantageous mechanical behavior on mechanical load in use. [source]


    Biphasic Resorbable Calcium Phosphate Ceramic for Bone Implants and Local Alendronate Delivery,

    ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Issue 5 2010
    Shashwat S. Banerjee
    A novel biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic composed of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and calcium pyrophosphate (CP) is synthesized in order to tailor the biodegradation behavior of the ceramic. The results show that biphasic TCP/CP ceramic has a strength of 62.2,,2.1 MPa, which is superior to single-phase TCP and CP ceramics, which show strengths of 44.3,,3.0 and 53.0,,4.8 MPa, respectively. In addition, biphasic TCP/CP ceramic displays a controlled strength degradation from 62.2,,2.1 to 40.5,,1.0 MPa in stimulated body fluid over a period of 28 d. An in vitro cell materials interaction study using human fetal osteoblast cells indicates that TCP/CP ceramic is cytocompatible. TCP/CP ceramic also show a good loading capacity for alendronate. Adsorption of alendronate (AD) on the TCP/CP surface is found to proceed via ligand exchange mechanism and the in vitro release profile of AD from TCP/CP surface is characterized by an initial fast release followed by a slow and sustained release. Strong electrostatic interactions between AD groups and surface Ca2+ ions enable the slow and sustained release of AD. These results demonstrate that the newly developed biphasic ceramic, with its controlled strength degradation and drug release, shows promise for use in orthopedic and tissue engineering applications. [source]


    Ceramic,Polymer Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3/Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Composites with Different Type Composite Structures for Electronic Technology

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED CERAMIC TECHNOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Hong Wang
    Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composites with 0,3, 1,3, and 2,2 type structures were prepared and studied. The effect of composite type on the dielectric properties of BST/PMMA composites was comprehensively investigated by both theoretical and experimental methods. The 1,3 type composite shows the highest permittivity and dielectric tunability, while the 2,2 and 0,3 type composites show lower permittivity as well as lower dielectric tunabilities. The experimentally measured dielectric properties are in agreement with the theoretically calculated values. The results help in understanding and tailoring the dielectric properties of ceramic,polymer composites by choosing a suitable composite structure. [source]


    Flexural Strength Evaluation of Nonconstant Thickness Ceramic Floorings by Means of the Finite-Element Method

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED CERAMIC TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Beatriz Defez
    The ceramic tile industry has become an extremely competitive sector. The entry of new Asian and South American manufacturers into the market is shifting the leadership in production and exports from the traditional clusters of Europe to China, Turkey, and Brazil. In this uncertain environment, enterprises should raise the quality and cut costs by means of new products and processes. Ceramic tiles lightened by carving of a deep back relief could give rise to a generation of new, efficient products. These tiles could be manufactured with fewer raw materials than the traditional ones, which may lead to saving of weight and energy. Additionally, a lighter final product improves working conditions on the shopfloor and at the building site. Nevertheless, lightened tiles are structurally different from traditional ones, and so is their mechanical behavior. Because tiles are constructive elements, it is necessary to know their response under typical loads and assure fulfillment of the valid standards. This paper aims at evaluating the flexural strength (R) of lightened ceramic floorings using solid three-dimensional modelling and the finite-element method, establishing a new formula for the application of the international standard ISO 10545 "Ceramic Tiles." In order to achieve this objective, one reference model and 48 different relief versions were designed, which underwent a simplified computational simulation of the bending test. In accordance with the Rankine criterion, the maximal stresses of each version were calculated, as much as their distribution. Next, we correlated the results defining a new parameter called "normalized thickness," defined as the thickness that a carved tile should have to behave as a traditional flooring under flexion. This parameter allowed the adjustment of the international standard ISO 10545 to this kind of a product, facilitating their certification and therefore their real introduction in the market. Finally, thanks to the collaboration of the company Keros Cermica S. A., it was verified that the methodology used was appropriate. [source]


    Influence of Wet Mechanical Mixing on Microstructure and Vickers Hardness of Nanocrystalline Ceramic,Metal Composites

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED CERAMIC TECHNOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
    Tatsuo Kumagai
    Nanocrystalline (nc) ceramic,metal composite bulk samples have been fabricated by consolidation of mixture of attrition-milled (AM) amorphous base ceramic ((ZrO2,3 mol% Y2O3),20 mol% Al2O3) and AM amorphous base metallic (Ti,48 mol% Al) powders using a pulse-current pressure sintering system. Microstructural observations revealed that the ceramic and metallic colonies appear blocky in morphology in the composite bulk samples, and both the ceramic and the metallic colonies consist of a large number of equiaxed fine grains with the sizes of 78,82 and 81,86 nm, respectively. Mechanical mixing treatments by wet ball milling in ethanol before consolidation process are effective for refinement of the ceramic and metallic colonies. In all the obtained composite bulk samples, the ceramic colonies consist of the dominant phase of tetragonal (t) ZrO2 solid solution (ss) together with the minor phases of monoclinic (m) ZrO2ss and ,-Al2O3. On the other hand, the dominant phase in the metallic colonies changes from Ti3Al (,2) to Tiss (,) with an increase in the t -ZrO2ss volume fraction by abrasion of 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal polycrystalline zirconia balls during wet mechanical mixing treatments. Such a phase transformation from ,2 to , is considered to be due to the decrease in the aluminum content in the metallic colonies by combination of aluminum with oxygen (i.e., the formation of ,-Al2O3), which is probably taken from ethanol (C2H5OH) into the powders during wet mechanical mixing treatments. The obtained nc composite bulk samples show good Vickers hardness values, which are considerably higher than those estimated from the rule of mixture. [source]


    Development, Analysis, and Application of a Glass,Alumina-Based Self-Constrained Sintering Low-Temperature Cofired Ceramic

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED CERAMIC TECHNOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    Takahiro Takada
    The effects of an inner constraint layer and alumina particles on the microstructure, strength, and shrinkage of the laminated low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) green sheet were investigated. Alumina particles of several sizes were used in the inner-constraint layer in order to strengthen the LTCC substrate. Smaller alumina particles in the inner-constraint layer produced a substrate with a high bending strength. Sintering shrinkage in the x,y direction of the LTCC is related to the bending strength of the debinded alumina particle layer used for an inner-constraint layer. A larger pore size in the inner-constraint layer was found to increase the distance of the glass penetration from the glass,alumina layer into the inner-constraint layer. The total thickness of the constraint layer changes the shrinkage in the x,y direction and the bending strength. [source]


    Reactive Processing in Ceramic-Based Systems

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED CERAMIC TECHNOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    William G. Fahrenholtz
    Reactive hot pressing is discussed as a processing method to form ceramic-based materials. Fundamental aspects of thermodynamics such as favorable Gibbs'-free energy changes, phase equilibria, and adiabatic temperature are presented as criteria for determining whether the desired reactions can be used to form dense materials. Two case studies are presented as examples to describe control of microstructure and properties. The fabrication of Al2O3,Nb and ZrB2 are discussed with respect to the three thermodynamic criteria as well as the microstructure and properties of the materials that are produced. [source]


    Synthesis of Inorganic,Organic Diblock Copolymers as a Precursor of Ordered Mesoporous SiCN Ceramic,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 17 2007
    D. Nghiem
    A novel poly(vinyl)silazane- block -polystyrene diblock copolymer is successfully synthesized by living free-radical polymerization via a reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) route (see figure). The obtained diblock copolymer, having an inorganic volume fraction of 0.69, leads to phase-separation at the nanoscale to form an ordered nanostructure, which is converted to well-ordered mesoporous SiCN ceramic after heating at 800,C and maintained up to 1400,C. [source]


    Alumina/Silicon Carbide Laminated Composites by Spark Plasma Sintering

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 11 2009
    Vincenzo M. Sglavo
    Ceramic laminates composed of alumina/silicon carbide composite layers were produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Monolithic composite disks containing up to 30 vol% of silicon carbide were fabricated by stacking together and cosintering by SPS green layers prepared by tape casting water-based suspensions. An engineered laminate with a specific layer combination that is able to promote the stable growth of surface defects before final failure was also designed and produced. Fully dense materials with an optimum adhesion between the constituting layers and a homogeneous distribution of the two phases were obtained after SPS. Monolithic composites showed an increasing strength with SiC load, and biaxial strength values as high as 700 MPa were observed for a SiC content of 30 vol%. The engineered laminate showed a peculiar crack propagation that is responsible for the high strength value of about 600 MPa and for the evident insensitivity to surface defects. [source]


    Thermal Shock Resistance of an AlN,BN,SiC Ceramic

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 6 2009
    Andrew A. Buchheit
    Mechanical and thermal properties of AlN,BN,SiC (ABS) ceramics were used to calculate the R, R,, and R,, thermal shock parameters. The R parameter values ranged from ,400 to 450C. Specimens were thermal shocked by water quenching and the critical quench temperatures (,TC) were compared with those of a baseline SiC composition. The behavior of the ABS was predicted by R parameter calculations while the behavior of the baseline material was predicted by the R, calculations due to its higher thermal conductivity (87 W(mK) -1) as compared with the ABS materials (,30 W(mK),1). The highest critical quench temperature for ABS was ,415C with the lowest at 360C, while the critical quench temperature for the baseline material was 450C. Using temperature dependent data over an appropriate temperature range (room temperature to the predicted ,TC), the R parameters of the ABS materials were within 15C of predictions. The baseline material was ,1.7 times higher than predicted and this was attributed to the high-thermal conductivity of the material resulting in soft thermal shock during quench testing. [source]


    Thermophysical Properties of Complex Rare-Earth Zirconate Ceramic for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 7 2008
    Liu Ling
    Two complex rare-earth zirconates (La0.4Sm0.5Yb0.1)2(Zr0.7Ce0.4)2O7.4 and (Sr0.1La0.3Sm0.5Yb0.1)2(Zr0.7Ce0.4)2O7.3 for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were synthesized by the coprecipitation method. Their phase composition, microstructure, and thermophysical properties were investigated. X-ray diffractometry results revealed that single-phase (La0.4Sm0.5Yb0.1)2(Zr0.7Ce0.4)2O7.4 and (Sr0.1La0.3Sm0.5Yb0.1)2(Zr0.7Ce0.4)2O7.3 with pyrochlore structure were prepared, and the scanning electron microscopy results showed that the microstructures of the products were dense and no other phases existed among the grains. With the temperature increasing, the thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of the ceramics increased, while the thermal conductivity decreased. The results indicated that the CTE of (Sr0.1La0.3Sm0.5Yb0.1)2(Zr0.7Ce0.4)2O7.3 was slightly higher than that of (La0.4Sm0.5Yb0.1)2(Zr0.7Ce0.4)2O7.4 and the thermal conductivity of (Sr0.1La0.3Sm0.5Yb0.1)2(Zr0.7Ce0.4)2O7.3 was lower than that of (La0.4Sm0.5Yb0.1)2(Zr0.7Ce0.4)2O7.4. These results imply that the thermophysical properties of (Sr0.1La0.3Sm0.5Yb0.1)2(Zr0.7Ce0.4)2O7.3 are better than that of (La0.4Sm0.5Yb0.1)2(Zr0.7Ce0.4)2O7.4 as the material for the ceramic layer in the TBC system. [source]


    A Silicon Carbonitride Ceramic with Anomalously High Piezoresistivity

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 4 2008
    Ligong Zhang
    The piezoresistive behavior of a silicon carbonitride ceramic derived from a polymer precursor is investigated under a uniaxial compressive loading condition. The electric conductivity has been measured as a function of the applied stress along both longitudinal and transverse directions. The gauge factor of the materials was then calculated from the data at different stress levels. The results show that the material exhibits an extremely high piezoresistive coefficient along both directions, ranging from 1000 to 4000, which are much higher than any existing ceramic material. The results also reveal that the gauge factor decreases significantly with increasing applied stress. A theoretical model based on the tunneling,percolation mechanism has been developed to explain the stress dependence of the gauge factor. The unique piezoresistive behavior is attributed to the unique self-assembled nanodomain structure of the material. [source]


    Novel Composites Constituted from Hafnia and a Polymer-Derived Ceramic as an Interface: Phase for Severe Ultrahigh Temperature Applications

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 10 2007
    Sudhir Brahmandam
    HfO2,SiCN (polymer-derived silicon carbonitride) composites were prepared by two methods. In one case, equal volume fractions of HfO2 and pyrolyzed powders of SiCN were co-sintered, to create a particulate composite. The second type, called interface composites, were prepared by coating HfO2 particles with a thin film of the polymer precursor, followed by sintering so that densification and pyrolysis of the precursor occurred simultaneously; this process results in a ,5-nm-thick grain boundary film constituted from Hf, O, and Si. The fracture properties and environmental degradation (in a humid environment at a velocity of 17.6,35.0 cm/s at 1300C) of these two composites were measured. They were compared with the properties of a reference material made by sintering HfO2 powders without any additives, under similar conditions (1450C for 2 h in air). The interface composite yielded the highest sintered density (0.90), exhibited negligible grain growth, and possessed the highest fracture strength (110 MPa). The strength remained immune to hydrothermal oxidation for several hundred hours. In contrast, the particulate composite suffered severe degradation in strength after hydrothermal exposure. The interface composites, with their highly refractory grain boundaries, represent a new class of ceramics for structural applications in harsh environments and at ultrahigh temperatures. [source]


    Facile Preparation of Environmental Stable High-Temperature Superconducting Ceramic and Polymer Composites

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 8 2007
    Yulia Galagan
    A novel facile technique to prepare composite materials based on superconducting ceramics (Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox) and an acrylate polymer matrix has been developed. The polymer does not have a negative effect on the superconductivity properties of the ceramics. The interpenetrating three-dimensional polymeric network formed within ceramics improves its environmental stability. [source]


    Synthesis, Physical, and Mechanical Properties of Bulk Zr3Al3C5 Ceramic

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 4 2007
    Lingfeng He
    An in situ reactive hot-pressing process using zirconium (zirconium hydride), aluminum, and graphite as staring materials and Si and Y2O3 as additives was used to synthesize bulk Zr3Al3C5 ceramics. This method demonstrates the advantages of easy synthesis, lower sintering temperature, high purity and density, and improved mechanical properties of synthesized Zr3Al3C5. Its electrical and thermal properties were measured. Compared with ZrC, Zr3Al3C5 has a relatively low hardness (Vickers hardness of 12.5 GPa), comparable stiffness (Young's modulus of 374 GPa), but superior strength (flexural strength of 488 GPa) and toughness (fracture toughness of 4.68 MPam1/2). In addition, the stiffness decreases slowly with increasing temperature and at 1600C remains 78% of that at ambient temperature, indicating that Zr3Al3C5 is a potential high-temperature structural ceramic. [source]


    Synthesis of Various LaMO3 Perovskites in Molten Carbonates

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 12 2006
    Toshikatsu Kojima
    Lanthanum-containing perovskites, LaMO3 (M=Al, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Ga, and In), have been synthesized in molten carbonates from a mixture of lanthanum carbonate and an M-containing oxide or an acetate, or from a co-precipitation mixture of metal (M) and lanthanum. Metal aluminum, chromium, and iron, immersed in a mixture of molten (Li0.52Na0.48)2CO3 and lanthanum carbonate at 923 K, were covered, respectively, with LaAlO3, LaCrO3, and LaFeO3. Ceramic and single-crystal ,-Al2O3, immersed in molten (Li0.52Na0.48)2CO3 mixed with lanthanum carbonate, were also covered with LaAlO3. In situ X-ray diffractometry revealed that La2O2CO3 reacted with ,-LiAlO2 to yield LaAlO3; the reaction proceeded faster under N2 than under a CO2 atmosphere. [source]


    Preparation of Ceramic Well Plates for Combinatorial Methods Using the Morphogenic Effects of Droplet Drying

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 12 2006
    Yong Zhang
    When droplets of a ceramic suspension dry on a non-wetting substrate, powder migrates to the periphery and builds there a wall of powder. This intriguing phenomenon, which is a nuisance in some processes, can be used to make arrays of ceramic wells on a ceramic substrate. These wells can, after sintering, be used to hold ceramic samples made from powder by controlled mixing of ceramic inks or could be made from ceramics that act as heterogeneous catalysts and used to hold reactants. The well plates can even be made from electrically conducting ceramics so that electrical property measurements can be made with a ground electrode. [source]


    Effect of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes on Electrical and Dielectric Properties of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Ceramic

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 11 2006
    Sui-Lin Shi
    MWCNT/3Y-TZP (3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal polycrystalline zirconia) composites with different multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) contents were prepared by the spark plasma sintering technique. The effect of MWCNT addition on the electrical and dielectric properties of the composites at room temperature was studied. The experimental results showed that the DC conductivity of the composites demonstrated a typical percolation behavior with a very low percolation threshold between 1.0 and 2.0 wt% MWCNT content, and the dielectric constant was greatly increased when the MWCNT concentration was close to the percolation threshold, which was attributed to dielectric relaxation, the space charge polarization effect, and the percolation effect. [source]


    Hot Forging of a Textured ,-Sialon Ceramic

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 2 2006
    Andrew Carman
    A texture was introduced into an Sm-,-sialon ceramic by hot pressing, such that the c -axis was preferentially oriented normal to the pressing direction. The material was then uniaxially hot forged for up to 60 min, with the forging direction normal to the hot-pressing direction. The texture initially reduced to a one-dimensional preferential orientation in the direction normal to both the hot-pressing and hot-forging directions. Further deformation resulted in a two-dimensional texture normal to the hot-forging direction. The forging process was used to produce a strong one-dimensional texture by alternating between the hot-pressing and hot-forging directions, thereby producing a material with significant anisotropy in its properties. [source]


    Laminar Ceramics Utilizing the Zirconia Tetragonal-to-Monoclinic Phase Transformation to Obtain a Threshold Strength

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 12 2002
    Michael G. Pontin
    Ceramic laminates have been fabricated with thin layers, containing a mixture of unstabilized zirconia (MZ-ZrO2) and alumina (Al2O3), sandwiched between thicker layers of alumina that contain a small fraction of Y2O3 -stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 to inhibit grain growth. The MZ-ZrO2 undergoes a tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation during cooling to produce biaxial compressive stresses in the thin layers. Cracks that extend within the thicker alumina layers can be arrested by the compressive layers to produce a threshold strength, i.e., a strength below which the probability of failure is zero. Laminates composed of Al2O3 layers 315 15 ,m thick and Al2O3/MZ-ZrO2 layers 29 3 ,m thick exhibit a threshold strength of 507 36 MPa, regardless of the MZ-ZrO2 content, for volume fractions ,0.35. These results, piezospectroscopic stress measurements, and microstructural observations suggest that microcracking produced during the transformation reduces the magnitude of the compressive stresses achieved, which in turn limits the magnitude of the threshold strength. [source]


    Grain-Boundary Wetting-Dewetting in z= 1 SiAlON Ceramic

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 12 2002
    Hans-Joachim Kleebe
    The grain-boundary structure of a model SiAlON polycrystal with nominal composition Si5AlON7 was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) both in an equilibrium (as-processed) state at room temperature and after quenching from elevated temperature. In addition, low-frequency (1,13 Hz) internal friction data were recorded as a function of temperature, showing a pronounced grain-boundary sliding peak positioned at 1030C. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) of the equilibrated low-temperature microstructure revealed residual glass only at multigrain junctions, but no amorphous intergranular films were observed. The detection of clean interfaces in the as-processed sample contradicts the internal friction data, which instead suggests the presence of a low-viscosity grain boundary phase, sliding at elevated temperatures. Therefore, a thin section of the as-sintered material was heated to 1380C and rapidly quenched. HRTEM analysis of this sample showed, apart from residual glass pockets, wetted grain boundaries, which is in line with the internal friction experiment. This wetting-dewetting phenomenon observed in z= 1 SiAlON is expected to have a strong impact not only on high-temperature engineering ceramics but also on geological, temperature-activated processes such as volcanic eruptions. [source]


    Microstructural Characterization of High-Thermal-Conductivity Aluminum Nitride Ceramic

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 12 2002
    Hiromi Nakano
    An aluminum nitride (AlN) ceramic with a thermal conductivity value of 272 W(mK),1, which is as high as the experimentally measured thermal conductivity of an AlN single crystal, was successfully fabricated by firing at 1900C with a sintering aid of 1 mol% Y2O3 under a reducing N2 atmosphere for 100 h. Oxygen concentrations were determined to be 0.02 and 0.03 mass% in the grains and in the grain-boundary phases, respectively. Neither stacking fault in the grains nor crystalline phase in the grain-boundary regions was found by transmission electron microscopy. An amorphous phase possessing yttrium and oxygen elements was detected between the grains as thin films with a thickness of <1 nm. Because the amount of grain-boundary phase was small, the high-thermal conductivity of the ceramic was attributable to the low oxygen concentration in the AlN grains. [source]


    Fabrication of Ceramic,Polymer Photonic Crystals by Stereolithography and Their Microwave Properties

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 6 2002
    Soshu Kirihara
    Three-dimensional photonic crystals with periodic variations in the dielectric constant were fabricated using a stereolithographic rapid prototyping method. The structures were composed of millimeter-scale ordered epoxy lattices in which ceramic particles with high dielectric constants (such as silica and titania) were dispersed. These crystals were designed to reflect microwaves via the formation of photonic band gaps in a gigahertz range. The attenuation of transmission amplitude through the photonic crystals, which was measured as a function of frequency using a network analyzer, clearly showed the formation of band gaps in the microwave range. [source]


    Calcium- and Lanthanum-Modified Lead Titanate (PCLT) Ceramic and PCLT/Vinylidene Fluoride-Trifluoroethylene 0-3 Nanocomposites

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 9 2000
    Q. Q. Zhang
    Calcium- and lanthanum-modified lead titanate (PCLT) powders with size in the nanometer range were prepared by a sol,gel process. The PCLT gel was annealed at 850C to produce powder with an average particle diameter of 80 nm. A dense and fine-grained PCLT ceramic, with grain size of ,0.7 ,m, was prepared by sintering the sol,gel-derived powder at 1150C. The piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of the PCLT ceramic varied linearly with the degree of poling in the ceramic. PCLT/vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) 0-3 nanocomposites with PCLT volume fractions of 0.1,0.5 were fabricated, using PCLT powders imbedded in a P(VDF-TrFE) matrix. The ceramic data were used to model the piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of the PCLT/P(VDF-TrFE) composites, and good agreements were obtained. [source]


    Transparent Polycrystalline Alumina Ceramic with Sub-Micrometre Microstructure by Means of Electrophoretic Deposition

    MATERIALWISSENSCHAFT UND WERKSTOFFTECHNIK, Issue 4 2006
    A. Braun
    Abstract The optical quality attainable in coarse-grained polycrystalline alumina is severely limited by grain-boundary scattering, which is inherent to non-cubic materials. The optical properties of sub-micrometre polycrystalline alumina are of growing interest triggered by the fact that a decrease in the grain sizes of the final sintered material yields an improvement in the optical quality while the scattering mechanism changes as the grain size becomes comparable with the wavelength of light. To achieve transparent alumina ceramics with a fine-grained microstructure, however, porosity and other defects must be avoided. This necessitates the optimization of processing and sintering procedures. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is a colloidal process in which ceramic bodies are directly shaped from a stable suspension by application of an electric field. Electrophoretic deposition enables the formation of homogeneous, uniform green microstructures with high density, which can be sintered to transparency. It is a simple and precise technique to synthesize not only monoliths, but also composites with complex geometries [1]. Alumina green bodies were deposited from stabilized aqueous suspensions with and without doping. Green alumina compacts were evaluated based on their pore size distribution and density. Densification behaviour was characterized by dilatometric studies conducted at constant heating rate. Samples were sintered at different temperatures with subsequent post-densification by hot isostatic pressing. Transparency was evaluated by means of spectroscopic measurements. The measured in-line transmission of the samples at 645 nm was more than 50,% and that is 58,% of the value of sapphire. The influence of dopings on transparency was investigated. The mechanical properties of the samples were tested. [source]


    Surface Modification of Al2O3 -Cr Ceramic by Non-isothermal N2 Plasma Treatment at Atmospheric Pressure

    PLASMA PROCESSES AND POLYMERS, Issue S1 2007
    Andrzej R. Olszyna
    Abstract Al2O3/Cr composite ceramic was ion-nitrided in N2 under atmospheric pressure. The plasma was generated by two different systems: an ac high voltage corona discharge, and an ac high voltage concentric dielectric barrier discharge. An analysis of the plasma light emission revealed the presence of N ions (upto 50%) and confirmed the non-isothermal state of the plasma. The treated surface of the high melting sinter was smoothened when its components were nitrided so that Cr is transformed into Cr2N and Al2O3 is transformed into AlN. [source]