Cellular Respiration (cellular + respiration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The Bifidogenic Growth Stimulator Inhibits the Growth and Respiration of Helicobacter pylori

HELICOBACTER, Issue 5 2010
Kumiko Nagata
Abstract Background:, Triple therapy with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and a proton-pump inhibitor is a common therapeutic strategy for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). However, frequent appearance of clarithromycin-resistant strains is a therapeutic challenge. While various quinones are known to specifically inhibit the growth of H. pylori, the quinone 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (DHNA) produced by Propionibacterium has strong stimulating effect on Bifidobacterium. We were interested to see whether DHNA could inhibit the growth of H. pylori in in vitro or in vivo experimental setting. Materials and Methods:, The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of DHNA was determined by the agar dilution method. The inhibitory action of DHNA on the respiratory activity was measured by using an oxygen electrode. Germ-free mice infected with H. pylori were given DHNA in free drinking water containing 100 ,g/mL for 7 days. Results:, DHNA inhibited H. pylori growth at low MIC values, 1.6,3.2 ,g/mL. Likewise, DHNA inhibited clinical isolates of H. pylori, resistant to clarithromycin. However, DHNA did not inhibit other Gram negative or anaerobic bacteria in the normal flora of the human intestine. Both H. pylori cellular respiration and adenosine 5,-triphosphate (ATP) generation were dose-dependently inhibited by DHNA. Similarly, the culture filtrates of propionibacterial strains inhibited the growth of H. pylori, and oral administration of DHNA could eradicate H. pylori in the infected germ-free mice. Conclusions:, The bifidogenic growth stimulator DHNA specifically inhibited the growth of H. pylori including clarithromycin-resistant strains in vitro and its colonization activity in vivo. The bactericidal activity of DHNA was via inhibition of cellular respiration. These actions of DHNA may have clinical relevance in the eradication of H. pylori. [source]

Multiple strategies for O2 transport: from simplicity to complexity

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 8-9 2007
Paolo Ascenzi
Abstract O2carriers (extracellular and intracellular as well as monomeric and multimeric) have evolved over the last billion of years, displaying iron and copper reactive centers; very different O2carriers may co-exist in the same organism. Circulating O2carriers, faced to the external environment, are responsible for maintaining an adequate delivery of O2to tissues and organs almost independently of the environmental O2partial pressure. Then, intracellular globins facilitate O2transfer to mitochondria sustaining cellular respiration. Here, molecular aspects of multiple strategies evolved for O2transport and delivery are examined, from the simplest myoglobin to the most complex giant O2carriers and the red blood cell, mostly focusing on the aspects which have been mainly addressed by the so called 'Rome Group'. [source]

Effects of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands on proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

D.H. Lee
The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) has been known to have many functions such as a role in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, steroidogenesis, calcium flow, cellular respiration, cellular immunity, malignancy, and apoptosis. However, the presence of PBR has not been examined in mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of PBR in human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and human adipose stromal cells (hATSCs) by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. To determine the roles of PBR in cellular functions of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), effects of diazepam, PK11195, and Ro5-4864 were examined. Adipose differentiation of hMSCs was decreased by high concentration of PBR ligands (50 ,M), whereas it was increased by low concentrations of PBR ligands (<10 ,M). PBR ligands showed a biphasic effect on glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. High concentration of PBR ligands (from 25 to 75 ,M) inhibited proliferation of hMSCs. However, clonazepam, which does not have an affinity to PBR, did not affect adipose differentiation and proliferation of hMSCs. The PBR ligands did not induce cell death in hMSCs. PK11195 (50 ,M) and Ro5-5864 (50 ,M) induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. These results indicate that PBR ligands play roles in adipose differentiation and proliferation of hMSCs. J. Cell. Physiol. 198: 91,99, 2004. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Connecting photosynthesis and cellular respiration: Preservice teachers' conceptions

Mary H. Brown
Abstract The biological processes of photosynthesis and plant cellular respiration include multiple biochemical steps, occur simultaneously within plant cells, and share common molecular components. Yet, learners often compartmentalize functions and specialization of cell organelles relevant to these two processes, without considering the interconnections as well as the significance of the plant as an independent biological system functioning as a nested component within local and global ecosystems. Understanding connections among biological systems at macro and micro levels is important to biological literacy. This study examined preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of photosynthesis and plant cellular respiration, with attention to interconnections and systems. Participants were limited in their understanding of the processes impacting multiple ecological levels, and they held inadequate representations of interconnections between the processes. Participants' views were laden with sociological and egocentric components. They often compared plant functions with analogous human functions. Most participants viewed plants as dependent on humans while having societal use. Justifications for views included nominal knowledge of the processes; experiential authoritarian reasoning; and anthropomorphism. We discuss instructional implications in light of the findings. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 46: 791,812, 2009 [source]

Nitric oxide scavenging and detoxification by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis haemoglobin, HbN in Escherichia coli

Ranjana Pathania
Summary Nitric oxide (NO), generated in large amounts within the macrophages, controls and restricts the growth of internalized human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The molecular mechanism by which tubercle bacilli survive within macrophages is currently of intense interest. In this work, we have demonstrated that dimeric haemoglobin, HbN, from M. tuberculosis exhibits distinct nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) activity and protects growth and cellular respiration of heterologous hosts, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis, from the toxic effect of exogenous NO and the NO-releasing compounds. A flavohaemoglobin (HMP)-deficient mutant of E. coli, unable to metabolize NO, acquired an oxygen-dependent NO consumption activity in the presence of HbN. On the basis of cellular haem content, the specific NOD activity of HbN was nearly 35-fold higher than the single-domain Vitreoscilla haemoglobin (VHb) but was sevenfold lower than the two-domain flavohaemoglobin. HbN-dependent NO consumption was sustained with repeated addition of NO, demonstrating that HbN is catalytically reduced within E. coli. Aerobic growth and respiration of a flavohaemoglobin (HMP) mutant of E. coli was inhibited in the presence of exogenous NO but remained insensitive to NO inhibition when these cells produced HbN, VHb or flavohaemoglobin. M. smegmatis, carrying a native HbN very similar to M. tuberculosis HbN, exhibited a 7.5-fold increase in NO uptake when exposed to gaseous NO, suggesting NO-induced NOD activity in these cells. In addition, expression of plasmid-encoded HbN of M. tuberculosis in M. smegmatis resulted in 100-fold higher NO consumption activity than the isogenic control cells. These results provide strong experimental evidence in support of NO scavenging and detoxification function for the M. tuberculosis HbN. The catalytic NO scavenging by HbN may be highly advantageous for the survival of tubercle bacilli during infection and pathogenesis. [source]

Azaanthraquinone inhibits respiration and in vitro growth of long slender bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma congolense

Andrew Jonathan Nok
Abstract An ethanolic extract of Mitracarpus scaber was found to possess in vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma congolense. At a dosage of 50,mg kg,1 day,1 in normal saline for 5 days, the extract cured Balbc mice infected with T. congolense without any relapse. The isolated active component benz(g)isoquinoline 5,10 dione (Azaanthraquinone) (AQ) purified from the extract was found to inhibit glucose-dependent cellular respiration and glycerol-3-phosphate-dependent mitochondrial O2 assimilation of the long bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma congolense. On account of the pattern of inhibition, the target could be the mitochondrial electron transport system composed of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH). The azaanthraquinone specifically inhibited the reduced coenzyme Q1 -dependent O2 uptake of the mitochondria with respect to ubiquinone. The susceptible site could be due to ubiquinone redox system which links the two enzyme activities. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]