Cell Adhesion Proteins (cell + adhesion_protein)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Activity of nAChRs containing ,9 subunits modulates synapse stabilization via bidirectional signaling programs

Vidya Murthy
Abstract Although the synaptogenic program for cholinergic synapses of the neuromuscular junction is well known, little is known of the identity or dynamic expression patterns of proteins involved in non-neuromuscular nicotinic synapse development. We have previously demonstrated abnormal presynaptic terminal morphology following loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ,9 subunit expression in adult cochleae. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes have remained obscure. To better understand synapse formation and the role of cholinergic activity in the synaptogenesis of the inner ear, we exploit the nAChR ,9 subunit null mouse. In this mouse, functional acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmission to the hair cells is completely silenced. Results demonstrate a premature, effusive innervation to the synaptic pole of the outer hair cells in ,9 null mice coinciding with delayed expression of cell adhesion proteins during the period of effusive contact. Collapse of the ectopic innervation coincides with an age-related hyperexpression pattern in the null mice. In addition, we document changes in expression of presynaptic vesicle recycling/trafficking machinery in the ,9 null mice that suggests a bidirectional information flow between the target of the neural innervation (the hair cells) and the presynaptic terminal that is modified by hair cell nAChR activity. Loss of nAChR activity may alter transcriptional activity, as CREB binding protein expression is decreased coincident with the increased expression of N-Cadherin in the adult ,9 null mice. Finally, by using mice expressing the nondesensitizing ,9 L9,T point mutant nAChR subunit, we show that increased nAChR activity drives synaptic hyperinnervation. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2009 [source]

Stable Non-Covalent Large Area Patterning of Inert Teflon-AF Surface: A New Approach to Multiscale Cell Guidance,

Francesco Valle
Micro- and nano-patterning of cell adhesion proteins is demonstrated to direct the growth of neural cells, viz. human neuroblastoma SHSY5Y, at precise positions on a strongly antifouling substrate of technolological interest. We adopt a soft-lithographic approach with oxygen plasma modified PDMS stamps to pattern human laminin on Teflon-AF films. These patterns are based on the interplay of capillary forces within the stamp and non-covalent intermolecular and surface interactions. Remarkably, they remain stable for several days upon cell culture conditions. The fabrication of substrates with adjacent antifouling and adhesion-promoting regions allows us to reach absolute spatial control in the positioning of neuroblastoma cells on the Teflon-AF films. This patterning approach of a technologically-relevant substrate can be of interest in tissue engineering and biosensing. [source]

Epigenetics of prostate cancer: beyond DNA methylation

W. A. Schulz
Abstract Epigenetic mechanisms permit the stable inheritance of cellular properties without changes in DNA sequence or amount. In prostate carcinoma, epigenetic mechanisms are essential for development and progression, complementing, amplifying and diversifying genetic alterations. DNA hypermethylation affects at least 30 individual genes, while repetitive sequences including retrotransposons and selected genes become hypomethylated. Hypermethylation of several genes occurs in a coordinate manner early in carcinogenesis and can be exploited for cancer detection, whereas hypomethylation and further hypermethylation events are associated with progression. DNA methylation alterations interact with changes in chromatin proteins. Prominent alterations at this level include altered patterns of histone modification, increased expression of the EZH2 polycomb histone methyltransferase, and changes in transcriptional corepressors and coactivators. These changes may make prostate carcinoma particularly susceptible to drugs targeting chromatin and DNA modifications. They relate to crucial alterations in a network of transcription factors comprising ETS family proteins, the androgen receptor, NKX3.1, KLF, and HOXB13 homeobox proteins. This network controls differentiation and proliferation of prostate epithelial cells integrating signals from hormones, growth factors and cell adhesion proteins that are likewise distorted in prostate cancer. As a consequence, prostate carcinoma cells appear to be locked into an aberrant state, characterized by continued proliferation of largely differentiated cells. Accordingly, stem cell characteristics of prostate cancer cells appear to be secondarily acquired. The aberrant differentiation state of prostate carcinoma cells also results in distorted mutual interactions between epithelial and stromal cells in the tumor that promote tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. [source]

Effects of Ethanol and Transforming Growth Factor , (TGF,) on Neuronal Proliferation and nCAM Expression

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2002
Michael W. Miller
Background Developmental events targeted by ethanol are cell proliferation, neuronal migration, and neurite outgrowth; the latter processes being mediated by neural cell adhesion molecule (nCAM). TGF,1 affects all three of these events. Therefore, the effects of ethanol on transforming growth factor (TGF) ,1 mediated activities in neocortical neurons in vitro were examined. Methods Primary cultures of cortical neurons were obtained from 16-day-old fetuses and were treated with TGF,1 (0 or 10 ng/ml) and ethanol (0 or 400 mg/dl) for 48 hr. The effects of these substances on cell numbers, [3H]thymidine incorporation, and the expression of nCAM were determined. Results Both cell growth (the change in cell numbers over time) and cell proliferation were inhibited by TGF,1 and ethanol. The action of these two anti-mitogenic factors was additive. In contrast, TGF,1 also promoted the expression of three isoforms of nCAM. Likewise, ethanol also up-regulated nCAM expression. On the other hand, ethanol blocked TGF,1-mediated nCAM expression, particularly of the 120 and 180 kDa isoforms. Conclusions TGF, ligands inhibit neuronal proliferation and stimulate the expression of cell adhesion proteins that promote the movement of postmitotic neurons and process outgrowth. Ethanol alters these phenomena as well. Thus, in neurons, as in astrocytes, TGF,1 and ethanol may interact. [source]

Attachment of Osteocyte Cell Processes to the Bone Matrix

L.M. McNamara
Abstract In order for osteocytes to perceive mechanical information and regulate bone remodeling accordingly they must be anchored to their extracellular matrix (ECM). To date the nature of this attachment is not understood. Osteocytes are embedded in mineralized bone matrix, but maintain a pericellular space (50,80 nm) to facilitate fluid flow and transport of metabolites. This provides a spatial limit for their attachment to bone matrix. Integrins are cell adhesion proteins that may play a role in osteocyte attachment. However, integrin attachments require proximity between the ECM, cell membrane, and cytoskeleton, which conflicts with the osteocytes requirement for a pericellular fluid space. In this study, we hypothesize that the challenge for osteocytes to attach to surrounding bone matrix, while also maintaining fluid-filled pericellular space, requires different "engineering" solutions than in other tissues that are not similarly constrained. Using novel rapid fixation techniques, to improve cell membrane and matrix protein preservation, and transmission electron microscopy, the attachment of osteocyte processes to their canalicular boundaries are quantified. We report that the canalicular wall is wave-like with periodic conical protrusions extending into the pericellular space. By immunohistochemistry we identify that the integrin ,v,3 may play a role in attachment at these complexes; a punctate pattern of staining of ,3 along the canalicular wall was consistent with observations of periodic protrusions extending into the pericellular space. We propose that during osteocyte attachment the pericellular space is periodically interrupted by underlying collagen fibrils that attach directly to the cell process membrane via integrin-attachments. Anat Rec, 292:355,363, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Tumor volume of colon carcinoma is related to the invasive pattern but not to the expression of cell adhesion proteins

APMIS, Issue 3 2009
Tumor volume increases during growth and due to tumor progression various mutations appear that may cause phenotypic changes. The invasive pattern may thus be affected resulting in a more disorganized growth. This phenomenon might be due to mutations in the genome of the adhesion proteins, which are responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial tissue. Tumor volume was assessed in whole mount sections of 33 colon carcinomas using Cavalieri's principle. Images from the entire invasive border were captured and used for calculating the irregularity of the border (Complexity Index). The expression of the adhesion proteins E-cadherin, ,-catenin, Claudin 2 and Occludin was assessed after immunohistochemical staining of two randomly selected areas of the invasive front of the tumor. Statistical significance for differences in volume was obtained for tumor Complexity Index, tumor stage (pT) and lymph node status (pN). Expression of adhesion proteins was significantly perturbed in the tumors compared with normal mucosa but only infrequently correlated to tumor differentiation or invasive pattern. The results show that when tumor volume increases the invasive pattern becomes more irregular which is compatible with tumor progression. A direct contribution of adhesion protein derangement to this process appears to be insignificant. [source]

Minimal aberrant behavioral phenotypes of neuroligin-3 R451C knockin mice

Kathryn K. Chadman
Abstract Neuroligin-3 is a member of the class of cell adhesion proteins that mediate synapse development and have been implicated in autism. Mice with the human R451C mutation (NL3), identical to the point mutation found in two brothers with autism spectrum disorders, were generated and phenotyped in multiple behavioral assays with face validity to the diagnostic symptoms of autism. No differences between NL3 and their wildtype (WT) littermate controls were detected on measures of juvenile reciprocal social interaction, adult social approach, cognitive abilities, and resistance to change in a spatial habit, findings which were replicated in several cohorts of males and females. Physical and procedural abilities were similar across genotypes on measures of general health, sensory abilities, sensorimotor gating, motor functions, and anxiety-related traits. Minor developmental differences were detected between NL3 and WT, including slightly different rates of somatic growth, slower righting reflexes at postnatal days 2,6, faster homing reflexes in females, and less vocalizations on postnatal day 8 in males. Significant differences in NL3 adults included somewhat longer latencies to fall from the rotarod, less vertical activity in the open field, and less acoustic startle to high decibel tones. The humanized R451C mutation in mice did not result in apparent autism-like phenotypes, but produced detectable functional consequences that may be interpreted in terms of physical development and/or reduced sensitivity to stimuli. [source]