Case Identification (case + identification)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Multivariate analysis of leaf shape patterns in Asian species of the Uvaria group (Annonaceae)

BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 3 2003
CONOR MEADE
Multivariate analysis of leaf radian measurements was used to investigate variation in leaf shape among 34 Asian species of the Uvaria group, a large palaeotropical group of climbing Annonaceae characterized by imbricate petals and stellate hairs. Raw data were normalized by conversion into 15 ratio characters and using the log10 transformation. All species surveyed showed a unique leaf-shape ,bauplan'. The ratio character with the greatest discriminating power in both the Principal Components Analysis and Discriminant Analysis (DA) results was a measure of the shape of the leaf base. Ratio characters with the highest factor loadings for principal components 1 and 2 clearly separated the sampled taxa when plotted against one another and provided support for the retention of several taxa as distinct species or varieties. Classification of cases into taxa using DA yielded a correct classification rate of only 52% for the ratio-transformed data; however, division of taxa in the dataset into smaller subgroups defined by discrete morphological characters significantly increased the accuracy of case identification to between 67 and 100% of cases correctly classified, depending on the group. Case identification using DA on log10 -transformed data was higher than for the ratio values in the entire dataset (61.7%) and the larger subgroups. However, the rate of correct case assignment was lower in the smaller groups than for the ratio data. 2003 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2003, 143, 231,242. [source]


The epidemiology of epilepsy in Europe , a systematic review

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 4 2005
L. Forsgren
Population-based epidemiological studies on epilepsy are available mainly from the UK and the Nordic, Baltic and western Mediterranean countries. No studies were identified from large areas of Europe, especially from the former eastern Europe (except the Baltic countries) and the eastern Mediterranean countries. Based on the prevalence of epilepsy in different studies and accounting for incomplete case identification the estimated number of children and adolescents in Europe with active epilepsy is 0.9 million (prevalence 4.5,5.0 per 1000), 1.9 million in ages 20,64 years (prevalence six per 1000) and 0.6 million in ages 65 years and older (prevalence seven per 1000). Approximately 20,30% of the epilepsy population have more than one seizure per month. Based on the age-specific incidence rates in European studies, the estimated number of new cases per year amongst European children and adolescents is 130 000 (incidence rate 70 per 100 000), 96 000 in adults 20,64 years (incidence rate 30 per 100 000) and 85 000 in the elderly 65 years and older (incidence 100 per 100 000). The proportion of both new and established cases with epilepsy in the young, adults and elderly in individual countries may differ substantially from total European distribution because of differences in age structure. [source]


Work-related amputations in Washington state, 1997,2005

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE, Issue 7 2010
Naomi J. Anderson MPH
Abstract Background Work-related amputations are infrequent but devastating injuries. Attempts to more accurately estimate the burden of amputations and industries at risk have led the Washington State occupational surveillance program to explore new methods for case identification in Washington State workers' compensation data. Methods Two methods were utilized for case identification of work-related amputations. The first method used the ANSI Z16 nature code for amputation. An alternative method utilized medical, hospital, and claim administration coding of medical bills and bill payment systems. After identifying suspected amputation claims, a sample of the medical records associated with different case identification methods were reviewed to verify that an amputation likely occurred. Results From 1997 to 2005, 2,528 amputations were identified using the ANSI Z16 code for amputation (Nature,=,100) and an additional 3,912 amputations were identified using the alternative method. There was an increasing trend of amputation injuries over the time period using the ANSI amputation definition; however, the trend in amputation injuries captured by the alternative method was decreasing. This may indicate a bias in estimating a trend due to misclassification of amputation injuries. The sectors with the highest amputation claims rates were Manufacturing; Construction; Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting; Accommodation and Food Services; and Wholesale and Retail Trade. Conclusions Current methods to identify work-related amputations in the workers' compensation data system underestimate the burden of amputations in Washington State. By utilizing alternative case identification methods, we estimate that there were about 150% more amputations in Washington State over the time period. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:693,705, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Adolescent Suicide Risk Screening in the Emergency Department

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 11 2009
Cheryl A. King PhD
Abstract Objectives:, Many adolescents who die by suicide have never obtained mental health services. In response to this, the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention recommends screening for elevated suicide risk in emergency departments (EDs). This cross-sectional study was designed to examine 1) the concurrent validity and utility of an adolescent suicide risk screen for use in general medical EDs and 2) the prevalence of positive screens for adolescent males and females using two different sets of screening criteria. Methods:, Participants were 298 adolescents seeking pediatric or psychiatric emergency services (50% male; 83% white, 16% black or African American, 5.4% Hispanic). The inclusion criterion was age 13 to 17 years. Exclusion criteria were severe cognitive impairment, no parent or legal guardian present to provide consent, or abnormal vital signs. Parent or guardian consent and adolescent assent were obtained for 61% of consecutively eligible adolescents. Elevated risk was defined as 1) Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior [SIQ-JR] score of ,31 or suicide attempt in the past 3 months or 2) alcohol abuse plus depression (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-3 [AUDIT-3] score of ,3, Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale-2 [RADS-2] score of ,76). The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) were used to ascertain concurrent validity. Results:, Sixteen percent (n = 48) of adolescents screened positive for elevated suicide risk. Within this group, 98% reported severe suicide ideation or a recent suicide attempt (46% attempt and ideation, 10% attempt only, 42% ideation only) and 27% reported alcohol abuse and depression. Nineteen percent of adolescents who screened positive presented for nonpsychiatric reasons. One-third of adolescents with positive screens were not receiving any mental health or substance use treatment. Demonstrating concurrent validity, the BHS scores of adolescents with positive screens and the POSIT scores of those with positive screens due to alcohol abuse and depression indicated substantial impairment. The addition of alcohol abuse with co-occurring depression as a positive screen criterion did not result in improved case identification. Among the subgroup screening positive due to depression plus alcohol abuse, all but one (>90%) also reported severe suicide ideation and/or a recent suicide attempt. This subgroup (approximately 17% of adolescents who screened positive) also reported significantly more impulsivity than other adolescents who screened positive. Conclusions:, The suicide risk screen showed evidence of concurrent validity. It also demonstrated utility in identifying 1) adolescents at elevated risk for suicide who presented to the ED with unrelated medical concerns and 2) a subgroup of adolescents who may be at highly elevated risk for suicide due to the combination of depression, alcohol abuse, suicidality, and impulsivity. [source]


Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in persons 60 years of age and older in the United States: Effect of different methods of case classification

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 4 2003
Elizabeth K. Rasch
Objective To determine prevalence estimates for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in noninstitutionalized older adults in the US. Prevalence estimates were compared using 3 different classification methods based on current classification criteria for RA. Methods Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) were used to generate prevalence estimates by 3 classification methods in persons 60 years of age and older (n = 5,302). Method 1 applied the "n of k" rule, such that subjects who met 3 of 6 of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1987 criteria were classified as having RA (data from hand radiographs were not available). In method 2, the ACR classification tree algorithm was applied. For method 3, medication data were used to augment case identification via method 2. Population prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were determined using the 3 methods on data stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and education. Results Overall prevalence estimates using the 3 classification methods were 2.03% (95% CI 1.30,2.76), 2.15% (95% CI 1.43,2.87), and 2.34% (95% CI 1.66,3.02), respectively. The prevalence of RA was generally greater in the following groups: women, Mexican Americans, respondents with less education, and respondents who were 70 years of age and older. Conclusion The prevalence of RA in persons 60 years of age and older is ,2%, representing the proportion of the US elderly population who will most likely require medical intervention because of disease activity. Different classification methods yielded similar prevalence estimates, although detection of RA was enhanced by incorporation of data on use of prescription medications, an important consideration in large population surveys. [source]


Three-Dimensional Array-Based Group Testing Algorithms

BIOMETRICS, Issue 3 2009
Hae-Young Kim
Summary We derive the operating characteristics of three-dimensional array-based testing algorithms for case identification in the presence of testing error. The operating characteristics investigated include efficiency (i.e., expected number of tests per specimen) and error rates (e.g., sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values). The methods are illustrated by comparing the proposed algorithms with previously studied hierarchical and two-dimensional array algorithms for detecting recent HIV infections in North Carolina. Our results indicate that three-dimensional array-based algorithms can be more efficient and accurate than previously proposed algorithms in settings with test error and low prevalence. [source]


Smoking and pregnancy-related pelvic pain

BJOG : AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 8 2010
K Biering
Please cite this paper as: Biering K, Aagaard Nohr E, Olsen J, Hjollund N, Nybo Andersen A-M, Juhl M. Smoking and pregnancy-related pelvic pain. BJOG 2010;117:1019,1026. Objective, To investigate possible associations between smoking and pregnancy-related pelvic pain. Design, Nested case,control study. Setting, Denmark 2000,2001. Population, The Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods, The women were interviewed twice in pregnancy and twice after childbirth. The first pregnancy interview provided information on smoking and possible confounding factors, whereas the first interview after birth addressed case identification. Cases (n = 2302) were defined on the basis of self-reported pelvic pain, and controls were selected among women who did not report pelvic pain (n = 2692). Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between smoking and pelvic pain. Main outcome mreasue, Pregnancy-related pelvic pain. Results, Compared with non-smokers, women who smoked during pregnancy had an adjusted odds ratio of 1.2 (1.0,1.4) for overall pelvic pain, similar to women who stopped smoking in early pregnancy 1.3 (1.1,1.7). The equivalent adjusted odds ratio for severe pelvic pain was 1.2 (1.0,1.5) for smokers, and 1.5 (1.2,1.9) for women who stopped smoking. Smoking intensity, measured as number of cigarettes smoked per day, was associated with pelvic pain in a dose,response pattern. Information about smoking was collected prospectively, which makes it unlikely that differential recall alone explains the results. Conclusions, Smoking was associated with pregnancy-related pelvic pain, with a dose,response pattern between reported smoking intensity and pelvic pain. These findings suggest a possible new risk factor for a common ailment during pregnancy. [source]


Multivariate analysis of leaf shape patterns in Asian species of the Uvaria group (Annonaceae)

BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 3 2003
CONOR MEADE
Multivariate analysis of leaf radian measurements was used to investigate variation in leaf shape among 34 Asian species of the Uvaria group, a large palaeotropical group of climbing Annonaceae characterized by imbricate petals and stellate hairs. Raw data were normalized by conversion into 15 ratio characters and using the log10 transformation. All species surveyed showed a unique leaf-shape ,bauplan'. The ratio character with the greatest discriminating power in both the Principal Components Analysis and Discriminant Analysis (DA) results was a measure of the shape of the leaf base. Ratio characters with the highest factor loadings for principal components 1 and 2 clearly separated the sampled taxa when plotted against one another and provided support for the retention of several taxa as distinct species or varieties. Classification of cases into taxa using DA yielded a correct classification rate of only 52% for the ratio-transformed data; however, division of taxa in the dataset into smaller subgroups defined by discrete morphological characters significantly increased the accuracy of case identification to between 67 and 100% of cases correctly classified, depending on the group. Case identification using DA on log10 -transformed data was higher than for the ratio values in the entire dataset (61.7%) and the larger subgroups. However, the rate of correct case assignment was lower in the smaller groups than for the ratio data. 2003 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2003, 143, 231,242. [source]