Case Definition (case + definition)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Positive predictive value of ICD-9 codes 410 and 411 in the identification of cases of acute coronary syndromes in the Saskatchewan Hospital automated database

Cristina Varas-Lorenzo MD
Abstract Background Case definitions are essential to epidemiological research. Objectives To evaluate ICD-9 codes 410 and 411 to identify cases of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), and the clinical information availability in the administrative and hospital discharge records of Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods In the context of a safety cohort study, we identified hospitalisations with primary discharge codes 410 (2260) and 411 (799). We selected all records with code 411, and a random sample (200) with code 410. Based on information obtained by trained abstractors from hospital records, events were classified by two cardiologists as definite or possible according to adapted AHA/ESC criteria. The validity of 410 and 411 codes was assessed by calculating the positive predictive value (PPV). Completeness of the recorded information on risk factors and use of aspirin was explored. Results The PPVs of the codes 410 and 411 for ACS were 0.96 (95%CI: 0. 92,0.98) and 0.86 (95%CI: 0.83,0.88), respectively. The PPV of 410 for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was 0.95 (95%CI: 0.91,0.98). The PPV of 411 was 0.73 (95%CI: 0.70,0.77) for primary unstable angina (UA) and 0.09 (95%CI: 0.07,0.11) for AMI. Hospital charts review revealed key information for clinical variables, smoking, obesity and use of aspirin at admission. Conclusions ICD-9 410 code has high PPV for AMI cases, likewise 411 for UA cases. Case validation remains important in epidemiological studies with administrative health databases. Given the pathophysiology of ACS, both AMI and UA might be used as study end points. In addition to code 410, we recommend the use of 411 plus validation. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The epidemiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A public health view

Andrew S. Rowland
Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. However, basic information about how the prevalence of ADHD varies by race/ethnicity, sex, age, and socio-economic status remains poorly described. One reason is that difficulties in the diagnosis of ADHD have translated into difficulties developing an adequate case definition for epidemiologic studies. Diagnosis depends heavily on parent and teacher reports; no laboratory tests reliably predict ADHD. Prevalence estimates of ADHD are sensitive to who is asked what, and how information is combined. Consequently, recent systematic reviews report ADHD prevalence estimates as wide as 2%,18%. The diagnosis of ADHD is complicated by the frequent occurrence of comorbid conditions such as learning disability, conduct disorder, and anxiety disorder. Symptoms of these conditions may also mimic ADHD. Nevertheless, we suggest that developing an adequate epidemiologic case definition based on current diagnostic criteria is possible and is a prerequisite for further developing the epidemiology of ADHD. The etiology of ADHD is not known but recent studies suggest both a strong genetic link as well as environmental factors such as history of preterm delivery and perhaps, maternal smoking during pregnancy. Children and teenagers with ADHD use health and mental health services more often than their peers and engage in more health threatening behaviors such as smoking, and alcohol and substance abuse. Better methods are needed for monitoring the prevalence and understanding the public health implications of ADHD. Stimulant medication is the treatment of choice for treating ADHD but psychosocial interventions may also be warranted if comordid disorders are present. The treatment of ADHD is controversial because of the high prevalence of medication treatment. Epidemiologic studies could clarify whether the patterns of ADHD diagnosis and treatment in community settings is appropriate. Population-based epidemiologic studies may shed important new light on how we understand ADHD, its natural history, its treatment and its consequences. MRDD Research Reviews 2002;8:162,170. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Incidence Studies of Epilepsy and Unprovoked Seizures

EPILEPSIA, Issue 11 2002
Irene A. W. Kotsopoulos
Summary: ,Purpose: To evaluate the methodology of incidence studies of epilepsy and unprovoked seizures and to assess the value of their findings by summarizing their results. Methods: A Medline literature search from January 1966 to December 1999 was conducted. In each selected study, key methodologic items such as case definition and study design were evaluated. Furthermore, a quantitative meta-analysis of the incidence data was performed. Results: Forty incidence studies met the inclusion criteria. There was considerable heterogeneity in study methodology, and the methodologic quality score was generally low. The median incidence rate of epilepsy and unprovoked seizures was 47.4 and 56 per 100,000, respectively. The age-specific incidence of epilepsy was high in those aged 60 years or older, but was highest in childhood. Males had a slightly higher incidence of epilepsy (median, 50.7/100,000) than did females (median, 46.2/100,000), and partial seizures seemed to occur more often than generalized seizures. Developing countries had a higher incidence rate of epilepsy (median, 68.7/100,000) than did industrialized countries (median, 43.4/100,000). Similar results were found for unprovoked seizures. The incidence of epilepsy over time appears to decrease in children, whereas it increases in the elderly. Conclusions: The age-specific incidence of epilepsy showed a bimodal distribution with the highest peak in childhood. No definitive conclusions could be reached for the incidence of unprovoked seizures and other specific incidence rates of epilepsy. More incidence studies with an adequate study methodology are needed to explore geographic variations and time trends of the incidence of epilepsy and unprovoked seizures. [source]

Chronic fatigue syndrome: an endocrine disease off limits for endocrinologists?

R. Baschetti
Abstract Endocrinologists were not included in the multidisciplinary working groups that prepared two recent reports on chronic fatigue syndrome, despite its unequalled clinical overlap with Addison's disease, which is a classic endocrine disorder. The failure to include at least one endocrinologist in those panels may explain why in their extensive reports there is not a single word about the 42 clinical features that chronic fatigue syndrome shares with Addison's disease, including all the signs and symptoms listed in the case definition of this syndrome. [source]

The use of oseltamivir during an influenza B outbreak in a chronic care hospital

Holly Seale
Background, Residents of nursing homes and long-term care facilities are at a higher risk of outbreaks of influenza and of serious complications of influenza than those in the community. In late July 2005, a 90-bed chronic care psycho-geriatric hospital in Sydney, Australia, reported cases of influenza-like illness (ILI) occurring amongst its residents. Methods, An investigation to confirm the outbreak, and its cause, was undertaken. Influenza vaccination levels amongst residents, and the effects of antiviral drugs used for prevention and treatment, were assessed. Oseltamivir was only given to the residents, in the form of both treatment and prophylaxis. Results, A total of 22 out of 89 residents met the clinical case definition of ILI with onset on or after 27 July 2005. This represents an attack rate of 25%. Oseltamivir was commenced on day 9 of the outbreak. Influenza B was identified in six residents as the causative agent of the outbreak. No deaths or acute hospitalization were recorded for this outbreak and there were no further reported cases after the introduction of oseltamivir. Vaccine effectiveness was 75% and the strain of influenza B isolated was well matched to that year's vaccine. Conclusions, There are few data on the use of oseltamivir in influenza B outbreaks. Early antiviral intervention appeared to curtail this outbreak of influenza B in a chronic care facility. We found high vaccine effectiveness in this frail, institutionalized population, highlighting the importance of influenza vaccination for residents of chronic care facilities. [source]

A case for case studies: exploring the use of case study design in community nursing research

Ann Bergen BA MSc RGN DipN DNCert Cert Ed DNT
A case for case studies: exploring the use of case study design in community nursing research The case study has become an accepted vehicle for conducting research in a variety of disciplines. However, the meaning behind the term is not always made explicit by researchers and this has given rise to a number of assumptions which are open to challenge, and to questions about the robustness of the method. This paper explores some of the issues arising from one particular definition of case study research, used in a study by Yin which examined the practice of case management in community nursing. Four main areas are discussed. First, defining ,case' is seen to pose questions about the relationship of the phenomenon to its context, the degree of researcher control over case definition, the limits to what may constitute a ,case' and what is meant by the term ,unit of analysis'. Second, the relevance of external validity to case study research is supported through the use of a number of tactics, in particular Yin's concept of replication logic, which involves generalizing to theory, rather than to empirical data. Third, the use of method triangulation (multiple methods of data collection) is advanced as a means of enhancing construct validity in research where data converge around a particular theory. Finally, the relationship of the case study to theory construction, through the prior development of ,propositions' is discussed. Each of these issues is applied to the design and conduct of a research study based closely on Yin's multiple case study framework. Thirteen ,cases' were selected of case management practice and data were collected through interviews and examination of literature and documentation, to explore the suitability of community nurses for the role. It is concluded that, given the appropriate subject matter, context and research aims, the case study method may be seen as a credible option in nursing research. [source]

Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Report of a Task Force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research,,

Sundeep Khosla (Chair)
Abstract ONJ has been increasingly suspected to be a potential complication of bisphosphonate therapy in recent years. Thus, the ASBMR leadership appointed a multidisciplinary task force to address key questions related to case definition, epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic imaging, clinical management, and future areas for research related to the disorder. This report summarizes the findings and recommendations of the task force. Introduction: The increasing recognition that use of bisphosphonates may be associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) led the leadership of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) to appoint a task force to address a number of key questions related to this disorder. Materials and Methods: A multidisciplinary expert group reviewed all pertinent published data on bisphosphonate-associated ONJ. Food and Drug Administration drug adverse event reports were also reviewed. Results and Conclusions: A case definition was developed so that subsequent studies could report on the same condition. The task force defined ONJ as the presence of exposed bone in the maxillofacial region that did not heal within 8 wk after identification by a health care provider. Based on review of both published and unpublished data, the risk of ONJ associated with oral bisphosphonate therapy for osteoporosis seems to be low, estimated between 1 in 10,000 and <1 in 100,000 patient-treatment years. However, the task force recognized that information on incidence of ONJ is rapidly evolving and that the true incidence may be higher. The risk of ONJ in patients with cancer treated with high doses of intravenous bisphosphonates is clearly higher, in the range of 1,10 per 100 patients (depending on duration of therapy). In the future, improved diagnostic imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography or MRI combined with contrast agents and the manipulation of image planes, may identify patients at preclinical or early stages of the disease. Management is largely supportive. A research agenda aimed at filling the considerable gaps in knowledge regarding this disorder was also outlined. [source]

A study of gross, histological and blood biochemical changes in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with rainbow trout gastroenteritis (RTGE)

J Del-Pozo
Abstract The mechanisms behind the pathogenesis of rainbow trout gastroenteritis (RTGE) are still unknown. This study examined the macroscopic and microscopic changes in trout with RTGE (RTGE+), as well as the blood chemistry. A total of 464 rainbow trout were sampled from 11 sites in the UK, comprising 152 RTGE+ fish and 330 random, apparently healthy fish. A case definition for RTGE was assessed by the analysis of its agreement with three laboratory tests: histopathology, packed cell volume and kidney bacteriology. Cluster analysis indicated the presence of three distinct presentations within the population of RTGE+ fish. Cluster A included gross signs associated with moribund RTGE+ fish, and clusters B and C identified gross signs consistent with concurrent diseases, notably furunculosis, enteric redmouth and proliferative kidney disease. The information gained was used to select RTGE+ fish without concurrent disease for the analysis of RTGE pathogenesis with blood biochemistry. This analysis revealed a severe osmotic imbalance and a reduced albumin/globulin ratio as indicatives of selective loss of albumin. These findings are compatible with a protein losing enteropathy. [source]

Polioviruses and other enteroviruses isolated from faecal samples of patients with acute flaccid paralysis in Australia, 1996,2004

Heath Kelly
Background: Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is the most common clinical presentation of acute poliovirus infection, occurring in 0.1,1% of infected cases. AFP surveillance has been used world-wide to monitor the control and eradication of circulating wild poliovirus. This study aims to review the significance of all enteroviruses, including polioviruses, isolated from patients with AFP in Australia between 1996 and 2004. Methods: We undertook a retrospective review of all notified cases of AFP, aged 0,15 years and resident in Australia at the time of notification. We reviewed all available clinical and virological data for these cases and all records of the Polio Expert Committee, which determined the final classification for all cases. Results: There were 335 notified cases that satisfied the case definition for AFP, 162 (48%) of whom had at least one faecal sample tested. Enteroviruses isolated from the faeces of 26 (16%) of the 162 cases were Coxsackie A24, Coxsackie B5, enterovirus 71, enterovirus 75, echovirus 9, echovirus 11 and echovirus 18. In addition, one or more polioviruses were isolated from the faeces of seven patients. Six of seven polioviruses were characterised as Sabin-like, one was not characterised, but all were considered to be incidental isolates. Five of these cases were classified as infant botulism, one case as transverse myelitis and one as a focal mononeuropathy. Conclusion: With the eradication of circulating wild polioviruses, other enteroviruses are being more commonly identified as the cause of polio-like illnesses. In the polio end game, when there is increased testing for polioviruses, it is important to consider infant botulism as a differential diagnosis in cases presenting with AFP. [source]

A Dengue Outbreak among Camp Participants in a Caribbean Island, 1995

Rob Lyerla
Background: Dengue, a mosquito-transmitted viral disease, is a risk for visitors in tropical and subtropical areas. Several participants in a community-assistance program in Tortola, British Virgin Islands, in August, 1995, reported dengue-like symptoms either before or soon after leaving the island. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine the extent of the outbreak, risk factors for illness, and the proportion of inapparent infections. Program participants were interviewed by telephone or mail, and asked to submit a serum sample for dengue diagnosis. A clinically-diagnosed case of dengue was defined as a person with fever and two or more of the following: headache, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, or hemorrhagic manifestations. Serum specimens were tested for virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), plaque-reduction neutralization (PRNT) or anti-dengue IgM and IgG antibody. Results: Thirty-two (97%) of the 33 program participants responded; 21 of the 32 (66%) provided at least one serum sample for study. The median age was 17 years; 20 (62%) were women. Of 32 respondents, 22 (69%) met the clinical case definition for dengue: 15 of them (68%) had a positive IgM antibody response and 7 did not submit a serum sample. Dengue 1 virus (DEN-1) was identified by PCR in one case and all 11 positive PRNT results. No asymptomatic infections were identified. No respondent used effective mosquito repellent, and only 2 (6%) used bednets. Conclusion: A DEN-1 outbreak with a high attack rate (69%) occurred in a group of young short-term community aid workers. There were no asymptomatic infections documented. Participants' rare use of bednets or effective mosquito repellent highlights the importance of providing travelers to tropical areas with information about dengue fever and the recommended precautions to protect against infection. [source]

Distal symmetric polyneuropathy: Limitations of the proposed case definition

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 2 2006
DPhil, Michael Benatar MBChB
First page of article [source]

Oral graft-versus-host disease

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 5 2008
MM Imanguli
Objective:, Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving hematopoietic cell transplant. It is estimated that 40,70% of engrafted patients surviving the initial transplant eventually develop chronic GVHD (cGVHD), which can persist for months to years and require long-term management from multiple disciplines. This review describes the oral component of this transplant complication. Design:, The search related to GVHD patho-biology, salivary gland disease after hematopoietic cell transplant and treatments for oral GVHD encompassed literature from 1966 through 2008. Searches were limited to the MEDLINE/PubMed database and English language literature in peer-reviewed journals. Results:, Our understanding of the patho-biology of oral cGVHD is based on studies of other affected tissues. It is difficult to determine the prevalence and incidence of salivary gland disease after transplant because there is no universally accepted case definition. In general, clinical trials for treatment of oral cGVHD have been too small to make strong recommendations for use in clinical practice. Conclusions:, Larger well-designed clinical studies are needed to understand the patho-biology of oral cGVHD and determine best treatments for this disease. [source]

Risk factors for the development of bronchiectasis in HIV-infected children

David M. Berman DO
Abstract Our objective was to describe the risk factors for the development of bronchiectasis in HIV-1 infected children. This study was a retrospective, case controlled study based upon medical record review of HIV-1 infected children receiving primary care at a single large, urban medical center in Miami, Florida. Cases (HIV-1 infected children who developed bronchiectasis while being cared for between January 1982 and September 2000) were matched 1:3 (birth,,24 months) with controls (HIV-1 infected children without bronchiectasis). Variables analyzed including number of episodes of pneumonia (including Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonitis [PCP], lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP), and CDC category of immunosuppression) were noted in both cases and controls until the age at which the cases developed bronchiectasis. Of the 749 patients whose charts were reviewed, 43 met the case definition for bronchiectasis and 19 met the eligibility criteria for this study. Fifty-seven controls were randomly selected from the patients without bronchiectasis. Cases were more likely to have experienced recurrent pneumonia than the controls; 17 (89.5%) versus 5 children (8.8%) respectively (P -value ,0.001) as well as a greater mean number of episodes of pneumonia 8.2 (range, 4,13) versus 1.45 (range, 0,9) respectively (CI,=,(5.58,7.82); P -value ,0.001). Cases were more likely to have progressed to CDC immunological category 3 than the controls; 19 (100%) versus 32 (56%) children respectively (P -value <0.001). LIP occurred more frequently in the cases than in the controls; 14/19 (73.6%) versus 19/57 (33.3%), respectively (P -value,=,0.005). HIV-1 infected children with a history of recurrent pneumonia, profound immuno-suppression (CDC immunologic category 3), and LIP appear to have a higher risk of developing bronchiectasis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2007; 42:871,875. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A computer case definition for sudden cardiac death,

Cecilia P. Chung M.D.
Abstract Purpose To facilitate studies of medications and sudden cardiac death, we developed and validated a computer case definition for these deaths. The study of community dwelling Tennessee Medicaid enrollees 30,74 years of age utilized a linked database with Medicaid inpatient/outpatient files, state death certificate files, and a state ,all-payers' hospital discharge file. Methods The computerized case definition was developed from a retrospective cohort study of sudden cardiac deaths occurring between 1990 and 1993. Medical records for 926 potential cases had been adjudicated for this study to determine if they met the clinical definition for sudden cardiac death occurring in the community and were likely to be due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The computerized case definition included deaths with (1) no evidence of a terminal hospital admission/nursing home stay in any of the data sources; (2) an underlying cause of death code consistent with sudden cardiac death; and (3) no terminal procedures inconsistent with unresuscitated cardiac arrest. This definition was validated in an independent sample of 174 adjudicated deaths occurring between 1994 and 2005. Results The positive predictive value of the computer case definition was 86.0% in the development sample and 86.8% in the validation sample. The positive predictive value did not vary materially for deaths coded according to the ICO-9 (1994,1998, positive predictive value,=,85.1%) or ICD-10 (1999,2005, 87.4%) systems. Conclusion A computerized Medicaid database, linked with death certificate files and a state hospital discharge database, can be used for a computer case definition of sudden cardiac death. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Case series of liver failure associated with rosiglitazone and pioglitazone,

James S. Floyd MD
Abstract Purpose The thiazolidinedione drugs rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are not widely known to be hepatotoxic. We evaluated the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) to determine the number of reported cases of liver failure associated with rosiglitazone and pioglitazone between 1997 and 2006, and described their clinical characteristics. Methods Adverse event reports spontaneously submitted to the FDA AERS from 1997 to 2006 were examined. Liver failure associated with rosiglitazone or pioglitazone was defined as liver injury accompanied by hepatic encephalopathy, liver transplantation, placement on a liver transplant list, or death in which all other likely etiologies were excluded. Using prescribing data, the number of reported cases of liver failure per million patient-years of exposure was calculated for each drug. Results Twenty-one cases met our case definition. Clinical characteristics, outcomes, and pathologic data were similar between cases of liver failure associated with rosiglitazone and with pioglitazone. The median duration of therapy was 9 weeks and 85% of cases were acute, defined as symptom onset to liver failure in less than 26 weeks. The case-fatality rate was 81% (17/21), and only 14% (3/21) spontaneously recovered. Accounting for underreporting, the number needed to harm (NNH) for each case of liver failure was 44,000 patient-years of exposure for rosiglitazone and 52,000 patient-years of exposure for pioglitazone. Conclusions This is the largest case series of liver failure associated with rosiglitazone or pioglitazone reported to date, strengthening the evidence that these drugs can cause severe hepatotoxicity. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Pesticide illness among flight attendants due to aircraft disinsection,

Patrice M. Sutton MPH
Abstract Background Aircraft "disinsection" is the application of pesticides inside an aircraft to kill insects that may be on board. Over a 1-year period, California's tracking system received 17 reports of illness involving flight attendants exposed to pesticides following disinsection. Methods Interviews, work process observations, and a records review were conducted. Illness reports were evaluated according to the case definition established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Results Twelve cases met the definition for work-related pesticide illness. Eleven cases were attributed to the "Residual" method of disinsection, i.e., application of a solution of permethrin (2.2% w/w), solvents (0.8%), and a surfactant (1.4%); the method of disinsection could not be determined for one case. Conclusions The aerosol application of a pesticide in the confined space of an aircraft cabin poses a hazard to flight attendants. Nontoxic alternative methods, such as air curtains, should be used to minimize disease vector importation via aircraft cabins. Employers should mitigate flight attendant pesticide exposure in the interim. Am. J. Ind. Med. 50:345,356, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Carpal tunnel syndrome among apprentice construction workers,

John C. Rosecrance PT
Abstract Background In terms of lost-work time and restricted workdays, surgery, and rehabilitation, one of the most costly occupational musculoskeletal disorders is carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of CTS among apprentice construction workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included apprentices from four construction trades. Apprentices completed a self-administered questionnaire and received electrophysiologic studies assessing median nerve function across the carpal tunnel. A surveillance case definition for CTS was based on characteristic hand symptoms and the presence of median mononeuropathy across the carpal tunnel. Results Of the 1,325 eligible apprentices, 1,142 (86.2%) participated in the study. The prevalence of CTS among apprentices was 8.2%; sheet metal workers had the highest rate (9.2%). In operating engineers, the prevalence of CTS was significantly higher (OR,=,6.9; 95% CI,=,2.6,18.2) among the heavy equipment mechanics than the drivers of those vehicles. Body mass index, age, and self-reports of working overhead were associated with prevalent CTS. Less than 15% of the apprentices with CTS sought medical attention for their disorder. Conclusions Many construction workers begin developing CTS before or during their apprenticeship. Few apprentices seek medical attention for hand symptoms characteristic of CTS. The results of this study indicate a public health need for the implementation of prevention strategies for CTS in the construction industry. Am. J. Ind. Med. 42:107,116, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Musculoskeletal problems of the neck, shoulder, and back and functional consequences in nurses

Alison M. Trinkoff ScD
Abstract Background Though musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are highly prevalent among registered nurses (RNs), little is known about functional consequences of MSDs in nurses. Methods Data on neck, shoulder, and back MSD problems were analyzed in 1,163 working nurses (response rate,=,74%). Cases had relevant symptoms lasting at least 1 week or occurring at least monthly in the past year, with at least moderate pain intensity, on average. MSD problems with a frequency, duration, or pain intensity below the level needed to meet the case definition were defined as MSD symptoms. Those who did not meet symptom or case criteria at any body site were defined as asymptomatic. Odds of consequences (e.g., saw a doctor/provider, missed work, reduced/modified work, non-work activities, or recreation, medication use, inadequate sleep) were estimated for cases versus those with symptoms. Results We found 45.8, 35.1, and 47.0% of nurses had neck, shoulder, or back MSD problems (either at the case or symptom level), respectively, within the past year. Cases were far more likely to have seen a provider versus those with symptoms (adjusted odds ratio, aOR Neck: 4.33, 95% CI: 2.85,6.56; aOR Shoulder: 4.83, 95% CI: 3.00,7.77; aOR Back: 3.69, 95% CI: 2.47,5.49). Cases also were more likely to experience all other functional consequences. Conclusions MSD consequences are substantial and suggest opportunities for intervention. Future research will examine the impact of work organization and physical demands on MSDs. Am. J. Ind. Med. 41:170,178, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The Need for Standardization of Methods for Worldwide Infant Hearing Screening: A Systematic Review

Bolajoko O. Olusanya MBBS, FMCPaed, FRCPCH
Abstract No uniform case definition presently exists for infant hearing screening programs worldwide especially for minimal hearing loss (HL). This article systematically reviewed the current practices in developing countries for programs aimed at early detection of "disabling" congenital and early-onset HL and found significant variations which undermine comparability of key findings in the reported studies. Implications for the exclusion of minimal HL are explored within the context of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) of the World Health Organization and its adapted version for children and youth (ICF-CY). A revised World Health Organization classification that accounts for all categories of HL based on ICF-CY may provide a suitable framework for improved uniformity in reporting standards. [source]

Characteristics of non-fatal opioid overdoses attended by ambulance services in Australia

Paul Dietze
Objective: To examine the feasibility of establishing a database on non-fatal opioid overdose in order to examine patterns and characteristics of these overdoses across Australia. Methods: Unit record data on opioid overdose attended by ambulances were obtained from ambulance services in the five mainland States of Australia for available periods, along with information or case definition and opioid overdose management within these jurisdictions. Variables common across States were examined including the age and sex of cases attended, the time of day and day of week of the attendance, and the transportation outcome (whether the victim was left at the scene or transported to hospital). Results: The monthly rate of non-fatal opioid overdose attended by ambulance was generally highest in Victoria (Melbourne) followed by NSW, with the rates substantially lower in the remaining States over the period January 1999 to February 2001. Non-fatal opioid overdose victims were most likely to be male in all States, with the proportion of males highes in Victoria (77%), and were aged around 28 years with ages lowest in Western Australia (m=26) and highest in NSW (m=30). Most of the attendances occurred in the afternoon/early evening and towards the later days of the working week in all States. The rates of transportation varied according to ambulance service practice across the States with around 94% of cases transported in Western Australia and around 18% and 29% of cases transported in Melbourne and NSW respectively. Conclusions: It is feasible to establish a database of comparable data on non-fatal opioid overdoses attended by ambulances in Australia. This compilation represents a useful adjunct to existing surveillance systems on heroin (and other opioid) use and related harms. [source]

Measuring Quality of Care in Syncope: Case Definition Affects Reported Electrocardiogram Use but Does Not Bias Reporting

Jeremiah D. Schuur MD
Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to calculate agreement between syncope as a reason for visiting (RFV) an emergency department (ED) and as a discharge diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9]), to determine whether syncope case definition biases reported electrocardiogram (ECG) usage, a national quality measure. Methods:, The authors analyzed the ED portion of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), 1993,2004, for patients age ,18 years. A visit was defined as being for syncope if it received one of three RFV or ICD-9 codes. Agreement between RFV and ICD-9 codes was calculated, and the percentages of syncope patients (RFV vs. ICD-9) who had an ECG were compared using chi-square and multivariate logistic regression. Results:, Raw agreement between syncope as an RFV and as an ICD-9 diagnosis code was 30.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 32.6% to 35.5%), representing only moderate agreement beyond chance (, = 0.50). ECG utilization was lower among visits defined by RFV (64.1%; 95% CI = 62.0% to 66.3%) than for ICD-9 diagnosis (73.6%; 95% CI = 71.4% to 75.8%). There was no meaningful variation in adjusted ECG use by patient, visit, or hospital characteristics between case definitions. Adjusted ECG use was lower under both case definitions among female patients and discharged patients and increased with age (p < 0.05). Conclusions:, Despite only moderate agreement, syncope case definition should not bias reported ECG rate by patient, visit, or hospital characteristics. Among ED patients with syncope, ECG is performed less frequently in women, a potentially important disparity. [source]

Birth Defects Cluster Study: A national approach to birth defects cluster investigations,,

James E. Kucik
Abstract BACKGROUND: Investigations of clusters of birth defects have been challenging endeavors that have had only modest success identifying causes or risk factors. Some of the challenges to individual cluster investigations have been small sample size and limited data collection. We describe a novel approach for investigating and analyzing pooled information from a series of birth defects cluster investigations. METHODS: The Birth Defects Cluster Study uses a case-control study design with standardized methods, including a case definition, control selection, data collection methods, and data collected (e.g., maternal interviews, blood samples, and environmental samples). Analyses of pooled data from several clusters of the same defect are conducted for specific hypotheses once a sufficient sample size has been achieved. The feasibility of conducting individual birth defect investigations was evaluated on a cluster of gastroschisis. RESULTS: The pilot investigation of a cluster of gastroschisis demonstrated success in recruiting participants and in collecting data and specimens for eventual inclusion in a pooled analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The Birth Defects Cluster Study offers a unique and effective approach to cluster investigations that improves the likelihood of identifying genetic and environmental causes of birth defects and provides a model for cluster investigations of other noninfectious health outcomes. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2008. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Pathologic Correlates of Dementia in Individuals with Lewy Body Disease

Joshua A. Sonnen
Abstract Cognitive impairment and dementia are more common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) than age-matched controls and appear to become more frequent as PD progresses. However, estimates of dementia in patients with PD have varied widely, likely due in part to differences in case definition, case ascertainment and methodology. First, we review investigations of usual pathologic correlates of dementia in patients with brainstem (b) Lewy Body Disease (LBD) and report our findings from the initial 266 brain autopsies from a population-based study of brain aging and incident dementia. Our results showed that 2.6% of subjects were diagnosed with PD during life but that 20% had bLBD at autopsy. Seventy percent of individuals with bLBD had high level of one or more cerebral pathologic changes significantly associated with dementia: Alzheimer's disease (AD), cerebral (c) LBD or microvascular brain injury (VBI); these were commonly co-morbid. Next we consider proposed contributors to cognitive impairment and dementia in the approximately 30% of patients with only bLBD, including regionally selective dendritic degeneration of neostriatal medium spiny neurons. Diseases contributing to cognitive impairment and dementia in patients with bLBD are heterogeneous, providing diagnostic challenges as well as multiple opportunities for successful intervention in patients with PD. [source]

Case ascertainment and estimated incidence of drug-induced long-QT syndrome: study in Southwest France

Mariam Molokhia
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT , Drug-induced long-QT syndrome (LQTS) is a potentially fatal condition that has led to a number of postmarketing withdrawals in recent years. , However, many cases may not survive long enough to reach hospital, and only a small proportion are reported to pharmacovigilance agencies. , The extent to which genetic determinants of susceptibility to LQTS are specific to particular drugs, or common to several classes of drug, remains to be determined. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS , We estimated population prevalence of drug-induced LQTS in the Midi-Pyrenees region, southwest France, using five different institutions and assessed feasibility of tracing potential cases (in addition to pharmacovigilance data), using hospital data and rigorous case definition. , These methods can be adapted to a wider region, used to augment pharmacovigilance reporting, and offer researchers the opportunity to study genetic susceptibility to drug-induced LQTS. AIMS The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and reporting rate of drug-induced long-QT syndrome (LQTS) in France [defined by evidence of torsades de pointes (TdP), QT prolongation and exposure to a relevant drug] and to assess feasibility of case collection for drug-induced LQTS. METHODS A retrospective population-based study was carried out in Southwest France in five institutions: three main hospitals, one private clinic and one cardiac emergency unit, searched from 1 January 1999 to 1 January 2005 (population coverage of 614 000). The study population consisted of 861 cases with International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnostic codes for ventricular tachycardia (I147.2), ventricular fibrillation (I149.0) and sudden cardiac death (I146.1) from hospital discharge summaries, supplemented by cases reported to national or regional pharmacovigilance systems, and voluntary reporting by physicians, validated according to internationally defined criteria for drug-induced LQTS. RESULTS Of 861 patients coded with arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death, there were 40 confirmed surviving acquired cases of drug-induced LQTS. We estimated that the incidence of those who survive to reach hospital drug-induced LQTS is approximately 10.9 per million annually in France (95% confidence interval 7.8, 14.8). CONCLUSIONS Many cases of drug-induced LQTS may not survive before they reach hospital, as the reporting rate for drug-induced LQTS identified through the cardiology records and also reported to pharmacovigilance systems for the Midi-Pyrenees area is 3/40 (7.5%). Using the methods outlined it is possible to assemble cases to study genetic susceptibility to drug-induced LQTS and adapt these methods more widely. [source]

Endemic measles in Karachi, Pakistan and validation of IMCI criteria for measles

Hamidah Hussain
Abstract Aim: To estimate the incidence of measles in Karachi, Pakistan and to determine the proportion of children with measles based on the WHO integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) criteria with a positive IgM for measles or dengue. Methods: Patients up to 14 years old were screened for febrile rash illnesses at five Karachi hospitals. Active measles cases were classified as measles, measles with eye and mouth complications, or severe complicated measles using IMCI criteria. Results: Screening 1 219 061 patients over a 39-month period identified 3503 qualified children. Most (76.8%) measles cases occurred in children under five years of age. The average annual incidence rate was 0.68 per 1000 in year 1; 0.19 in year 2 and 0.08 in year 3 of surveillance. Pneumonia and diarrhoea were the most common complications. Of 18.1% hospitalized, 1.6% died. Of 2286 children tested, 1599 (69.9%) were measles IgM positive. Of 542 measles IgM negative children, 66 (12%) were dengue IgM positive. The predictive positive value for the IMCI case definition was 75%. Conclusion: The IMCI case definitions for measles is reasonable but may overestimate measles incidence. Measles continues to be a public health problem in Pakistan; increased efforts to control measles are urgently needed. [source]

The burden of influenza in East and South-East Asia: a review of the English language literature

James M. Simmerman
Abstract, While human infections with avian influenza A (H5NI) viruses in Asia have prompted concerns about an influenza pandemic, the burden of human influenza in East and Southeast Asia has received far less attention. We conducted a review of English language articles on influenza in 18 countries in East and Southeast Asia published from 1980 to 2006 that were indexed on PubMed. Articles that described human influenza-associated illnesses among outpatients or hospitalized patients, influenza-associated deaths, or influenza-associated socioeconomic costs were reviewed. We found 35 articles from 9 countries that met criteria for inclusion in the review. The quality of articles varied substantially. Significant heterogeneity was noted in case definitions, sampling schemes and laboratory methods. Early studies relied on cell culture, had difficulties with specimen collection and handling, and reported a low burden of disease. The recent addition of PCR testing has greatly improved the proportion of respiratory illnesses diagnosed with influenza. These more recent studies reported that 11,26% of outpatient febrile illness and 6-14% of hospitalized pneumonia cases had laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. The influenza disease burden literature from East and Southeast Asia is limited but expanding. Recent studies using improved laboratory testing methods and indirect statistical approaches report a substantial burden of disease, similar to that of Europe and North America. Current increased international focus on influenza, coupled with unprecedented funding for surveillance and research, provide a unique opportunity to more comprehensively describe the burden of human influenza in the region. [source]

Analytical epidemiology of periodontitis

Luisa N. Borrell
Abstract Aims: To review the literature related to the analytical epidemiology of periodontitis generated over the past decade. This review does not deal with descriptive epidemiologic studies of the prevalence, extent and severity of periodontitis with respect to global geography, but focuses exclusively on analytical epidemiology issues, including the challenges posed by the use of different case definitions across studies, current theories and models of disease progression, and risk factors associated with the onset and progression of periodontitis. Methods: Relevant publications in the English language were identified after Medline and PubMed database searches. Findings and conclusions: There is a conspicuous lack of uniformity in the definition of periodontitis used in epidemiologic studies, and findings from different research groups are not readily interpretable. There is a lack of studies that specifically address the distinction between factors responsible for the onset of periodontitis versus those affecting its progression. Colonization by specific bacteria at high levels, smoking, and poorly controlled diabetes have been established as risk factors for periodontitis, while a number of putative factors, including specific gene polymorphisms, have been identified in association studies. There is a clear need for longitudinal prospective studies that address hypotheses emerging from the cross-sectional data and include established risk factors as covariates along with new exposures of interest. Intervention studies, fulfilling the "targeting" step of the risk assessment process, are particularly warranted. Obvious candidates in this context are studies of the efficacy of elimination of specific bacterial species and of smoking cessation interventions as an alternative to the traditional broad anti-plaque approach in the prevention and control of periodontitis. Ideally, such studies should have a randomized-controlled trial design. [source]

Four million neonatal deaths: counting and attribution of cause of death

Joy E. Lawn
Summary Each year there are an estimated four million neonatal deaths and at least 3.2 million stillbirths. Three-quarters of the world's neonatal deaths are counted only through five-yearly retrospective household surveys. Without these surveys we would have no data, but limitations remain particularly in detecting deaths on the first day of life. Comparable reliable neonatal cause of death data through vital registration are available for less than 5% of the world's neonatal deaths, necessitating modelled estimates for the majority of the world. Improving the quantity, quality and frequency of data for numbers and causes of neonatal deaths is essential to effectively guide the increasing investments to reduce these deaths. Advancing the data requires general investment in information systems and specific improvements of tools and methods for both household surveys and verbal autopsy, particularly the use of consistent case definitions and hierarchical attribution of cause of death. An important paradigm shift is from historical categories for cause of death (,perinatal causes') to programmatic categories which are consistent with the International Classification of Diseases. If neonatal deaths remain uncounted, they cannot count in policy and in programmes. [source]

Specific and non-specific upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder syndromes in automobile manufacturing workers

Judith E. Gold ScD
Abstract Objective A longitudinal cohort of automobile manufacturing workers (n,=,1,214) was examined for: (1) prevalence and persistence of specific upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSDs) such as lateral epicondylitis and de Quervain's disease, and non-specific disorders (NSDs) defined in symptomatic individuals without any specific disorder, and (2) disorder prognoses based on symptom characteristics and other factors. Methods Eight specific disorders were identified through case definitions based on upper extremity physical examinations and symptom surveys administered on three occasions over 6 years. Results At baseline, 41% of the cohort reported upper extremity symptoms; 18% (n,=,214) of these had NSDs. In each survey, tendon-related conditions accounted for over half of the specific morbidity. Twenty-five percent had UEMSDs in multiple anatomical sites, and most with hand/wrist disorders had two or more hand/wrist UEMSDs. Persistence for all specific disorders decreased with length of follow-up. Specific UEMSDs were characterized by greater pain severity and functional impairment, and more lost work days than NSDs. Conclusions Upper extremity symptoms and diagnoses vary over time. NSDs may be the early stages of conditions that will eventually become more specific. NSDs and overlapping specific UEMSDs should be taken into account in UEMSD classification. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:124,132, 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Autoantibodies and neuropsychiatric events at the time of systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosis: Results from an international inception cohort study

J. G. Hanly
Objective To examine, in an inception cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, the association between neuropsychiatric (NP) events and anti,ribosomal P (anti-P), antiphospholipid (lupus anticoagulant [LAC], anticardiolipin), anti,,2-glycoprotein I, and anti,NR2 glutamate receptor antibodies. Methods NP events were identified using the American College of Rheumatology case definitions and clustered into central/peripheral and diffuse/focal events. Attribution of NP events to SLE was determined using decision rules of differing stringency. Autoantibodies were measured without knowledge of NP events or their attribution. Results Four hundred twelve patients were studied (87.4% female; mean SD age 34.9 13.5 years, mean SD disease duration 5.0 4.2 months). There were 214 NP events in 133 patients (32.3%). The proportion of NP events attributed to SLE varied from 15% to 36%. There was no association between autoantibodies and NP events overall. However, the frequency of anti-P antibodies in patients with central NP events attributed to SLE was 4 of 20 (20%), versus 3 of 107 (2.8%) in patients with other NP events and 24 of 279 (8.6%) in those with no NP events (P = 0.04). Among patients with diffuse NP events, 3 of 11 had anti-P antibodies (27%), compared with 4 of 111 patients with other NP events (3.6%) and 24 of 279 of those with no NP events (8.6%) (P = 0.02). Specific clinical,serologic associations were found between anti-P and psychosis attributed to SLE (P = 0.02) and between LAC and cerebrovascular disease attributed to SLE (P = 0.038). There was no significant association between other autoantibodies and NP events. Conclusion Clinically distinct NP events attributed to SLE and occurring around the time of diagnosis were found to be associated with anti-P antibodies and LAC. This suggests that there are different autoimmune pathogenetic mechanisms, although low sensitivity limits the clinical application of testing for these antibodies. [source]