Case Control (case + control)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Case Control

  • case control design
  • case control studies
  • case control study

  • Selected Abstracts

    Investigation of Quantitative Trait Loci in the CCKAR Gene With Susceptibility to Alcoholism

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2002
    Takehito Okubo
    Background Cholecystokinin (CCK) plays an important role in the function of the central nervous system by interacting with dopamine and other neurotransmitters. We previously reported genetic variations in the promoter and coding regions of the CCKA receptor (CCKAR), CCKBR, and CCK genes and a possible association between polymorphisms of the CCKAR gene and alcoholism. In this study, association analyses were re-examined between the polymorphisms of the promoter region of the CCKAR gene and patients with alcohol withdrawal symptoms, in addition to patients with alcoholic liver injury. Methods A total of 131 Japanese male patients with alcohol withdrawal symptoms, 70 Japanese patients with alcoholic liver injury, and 98 age-matched Japanese male controls (nonhabitual drinkers) were examined using polymerase chain reaction-based single strand conformational polymorphism and sequencing analyses. Results Significant differences between patients with hallucination and controls were found in the allele frequencies at the ,388 and ,85 loci of the CCKAR gene (p= 0.0095, p= 0.0087, respectively), but these differences were not significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In contrast, the frequency of the homozygous genotype ,85 CC was significantly higher in hallucination-positive patients than in controls (p= 0.0031) and in patients with hallucination accompanying delirium tremens than in controls (p= 0.0022), and these differences were significant after Bonferroni correction. Conclusions The data from the case control suggest that polymorphisms of the promoter region of the CCKAR gene do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of alcohol withdrawal symptoms or alcoholic liver injury. However, a significant association was found between polymorphism at the ,85 locus of the CCKAR gene and patients with hallucination, and especially patients with hallucination accompanying delirium tremens. [source]

    Association study of a promoter polymorphism of UFD1L gene with schizophrenia

    Alessandro De Luca
    Abstract Schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders are often found in patients affected by DiGeorge/velo-cardio-facial syndrome (DGS/VCFS) as a result of hemizygosity of chromosome 22q11.2. We evaluated the UFD1L gene, mapping within the DGS/VCFS region, as a potential candidate for schizophrenia susceptibility. UFD1L encodes for the ubiquitin fusion degradation 1 protein, which is expressed in the medial telencephalon during mouse development. Using case control, simplex families (trios), and functional studies, we provided evidence for association between schizophrenia and a single nucleotide functional polymorphism, ,277A/G, located within the noncoding region upstream the first exon of the UFD1L gene. The results are supportive of UFD1L involvement in the neurodevelopmental origin of schizophrenia and contribute in delineating etiological and pathogenetic mechanism of the schizophrenia subtype related to 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Lack of association of dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphisms with ADHD subtypes in a population sample of twins

    Richard D. Todd
    Abstract Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable syndrome of childhood characterized by problems with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. A variety of case control and family-based transmission distortion genetic studies of ADHD have focused on the possible involvement of polymorphisms of the DRD4 receptor gene. The majority of studies have examined the association of variously defined ADHD with an exon 3 polymorphism containing a variable number of imperfect 48 base pair repeats. Recently, McCracken et al. [2000: Mol Psych 5:531,536] reported an association of the DSM-IV primarily inattentive ADHD subtype with a 5, 120 base pair repeat polymorphism in the DRD4 gene. In this report, we test for the possible association of these two polymorphisms with population-derived samples of DSM-IV ADHD subtypes. Furthermore, we extend previous studies by testing for associations with ADHD subtypes derived from latent-class analysis of interview responses. In contrast to most, but not all, previous studies, we failed to demonstrate any significant association of the exon 3 7-repeat allele with ADHD. Nor did we replicate the association of the 5,120 base pair repeat polymorphism. We do find a significant association of the exon 3 3-repeat allele with a novel talkative/impulsive latent-class,defined subtype of ADHD. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Environmental exposure to carcinogens causing lung cancer: Epidemiological evidence from the medical literature

    RESPIROLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Melissa J. WHITROW
    Objective: In 2000 there were 1.1 million lung or bronchial cancer deaths worldwide, with relatively limited evidence of causation other than for smoking. We aimed to search and appraise the literature regarding evidence for a causal relationship between air pollution and lung cancer according to the 10 Bradford Hill criteria for causality. Methodology: A MEDLINE search was performed using the following key words: ,lung neoplasm', ,epidemiology', ,human', ,air pollution'and ,not molec*'. The criteria for inclusion was: cited original research that described the study population, measured environmental factors, was of case control or cohort design, and was undertaken after 1982. Results: Fourteen papers (10 case control, four cohort studies) fulfilled the search criteria, with a sample size ranging from 101 cases and 89 controls, to a cohort of 552 cases and 138 controls. Of the 14 papers that fulfilled the search criteria the number of papers addressing each of the Bradford Hill critera were as follows: Strength of association: eight studies demonstrated significant positive associations between environmental exposure and lung cancer with a relative risk range of 1.14,5.2. One study found a negative association with relative risk 0.28. Consistency: eight of 14 studies found significant positive associations and one of 14 a significant negative association. Specificity: tobacco smoking and occupational exposure were addressed in all studies (often crudely with misclassification). Temporality: exposure prior to diagnosis was demonstrated in nine studies. Dose,response relationship: evident in three studies. Coherence, analogy: not addressed in any study. Conclusion: Evidence for causality is modest, with intermediate consistency of findings, limited dose,response evidence and crude adjustment for important potential confounders. Large studies with comprehensive risk factor quantification are required to clarify the potentially small effect of air pollution given the relatively large effects of tobacco smoking and occupational carcinogen exposure. [source]

    Chronic inhibition of nitric-oxide synthase induces hypertension and erectile dysfunction in the rat that is not reversed by sildenafil

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2010
    Serap Gur
    Study Type , Aetiology (case control) Level of Evidence 3b OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of N(G)-nitro- l -arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension (HT) on erectile function in the rat and determine if the phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, can reverse the effects of nitric oxide (NO) deficiency, as HT is a risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED) and the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME induces NO-deficient HT. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-six adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into three groups, i.e. a control, L-NAME-HT (40 mg/rat/day in the drinking water for 4 weeks), and sildenafil-treated L-NAME-HT (1.5 mg/rat/day sildenafil, by oral gavage concomitantly with L-NAME). The erectile response expressed as a ratio of intracavernosal pressure (ICP)/mean arterial pressure (MAP), evaluated after electrical stimulation of the right cavernous nerve. The isometric tension of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) was measured in organ-bath experiments. NOS expression was determined immunohistochemically for neuronal (n)NOS and by Western blot analysis for endothelial (e) and inducible (i) NOS protein. cGMP levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS The erectile response was diminished in the HT group. Nitrergic and endothelium-dependent relaxation was reduced, while the relaxation response to sodium nitroprusside and contractile response to phenylephrine were not altered in CCSM from L-NAME-treated rats. HT rats showed decreased expression of nNOS, whereas eNOS and iNOS protein expression was increased. Sildenafil partly restored endothelial and molecular changes in CCSM from HT rats, but did not reverse the decreased erectile response, even as cGMP levels returned to normal levels. CONCLUSIONS Sildenafil treatment did not correct the ED in L-NAME-treated HT rats. Under sustained high blood pressure, up-regulation of PDE5 expression failed to reverse the depletion of neuronal NO and/or impaired nNOS activity. However, endothelium-dependent relaxation was restored. Drug targeting of neuronal dysfunction might delay the onset of ED in HT. [source]

    The use of Butea superba (Roxb.) compared to sildenafil for treating erectile dysfunction

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2010
    Jeff R. Cortés-González
    Study Type , Therapy (case control) Level of Evidence 3b OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of an extract of Butea superba (Roxb.) (BS) compared to sildenafil for treating erectile dysfunction (ED). PATIENTS AND METHODS An open label study was carried out among 32 men with organic ED to evaluate the response on the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5) to BS, a ,natural health' product (100 mg), compared to 50 mg of sildenafil (a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor). After a 1-week wash-out, responders to BS received either 100 mg starch or 100 mg of another batch of BS (double-blind). RESULTS Of the patients in the BS group, 27 (84%) responded positively, compared with 26 (81%) in the sildenafil group. When assessing the score alone, 12 (38%) had a better score after taking BS, compared to seven (22%) after sildenafil, and eight (25%) had the same score. The results were surprising and could not be repeated in the double-blind part of the study, where no effect of BS was recorded. CONCLUSIONS A ,natural' health product containing BS was more effective than sildenafil in the first part of the study, but in the second, using another batch of BS, the positive result could not be repeated and no effect was recorded. The conclusion is that the first preparation of BS was most likely blended with a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, later confirmed by the supplier of BS (a natural health products company) after their own analysis. [source]

    The protective role of country living on skin prick tests, immunoglobulin E and asthma in adults from the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and atopy

    F Kauffmann
    Summary Background Farming environment and traditional lifestyle seem to protect from childhood allergy. Objective The aim is to analyse the relationships of living in the country to asthma, positive skin prick tests and IgE among adults considering various windows of exposure over the life-span. Methods The study concerns 805 adults drawn from the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and atopy (EGEA) (asthmatic cases, non-asthmatic controls, and parents of cases with and without asthma). Ever living in the country concerned 55% of the subjects. Early (beginning <,1 years), childhood (beginning , 16 years), prolonged (duration , 10 years) and current life in the country were studied. Results The results based on the case control and family components of the study show that IgE levels were significantly lower in those who ever lived in the country and in particular in those who lived for , 10 years. Positive skin prick tests (SPT) were significantly less prevalent in those who ever lived in the country and in particular in those with childhood (, 16 years) exposure. These associations remained independent of age, sex, smoking or asthma with IgE levels of 64 vs. 88 IU/mL; P = 0.004 for those ever living in the country vs. others and odds ratio for SPT positivity of 0.72 (95% CI [0.53,0.98]). In the more specific group with traditional mode of heating in childhood (use of wood) associations were stronger. The association with asthma, studied in parents of asthmatic probands showed that fathers, but not mothers, of asthmatics were significantly less often asthmatic themselves in relation to country living. Conclusion Country life protects from asthma and adulthood allergy. The protective effect is not restricted to exposure in early childhood. [source]

    Hydroxyurea therapy lowers circulating DNA levels in sickle cell anemia,

    Pinar Ulug
    Hydroxyurea reduces the frequency of acute pain in sickle cell disease (SCD). We sought to determine if hydroxyurea therapy affects cell free DNA (cfDNA) levels in SCD. cfDNA levels fell in all 10 patients studied; before hydroxyurea, mean was 1,879 (95% CI 1,104,3,199) GE/mL; after hydroxyurea, mean was 780 (95% CI, 634,959) GE/mL (P = 0.002). Mean cfDNA level in the 10 HbSS adults prior to starting hydroxyurea was also significantly higher than that in 115 HbSS case controls who had never taken hydroxyurea (1,879 vs 975 GE/mL, P = 0.02). cfDNA levels may be useful in monitoring response to hydroxyurea therapy in SCD. Am. J. Hematol., 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]