Cascade Approach (cascade + approach)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


A Highly Selective Cascade Approach to Diverse Aromatic Ring Systems from Simple Aromatic Aldehydes and Propiolates.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 30 2006
Yan-Guang Wang
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]


The Audit Commission review of diabetes services in England and Wales, 1998,2001

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2002
B. Fitzsimons
Abstract Aims of the Audit Commission The Audit Commission has a statutory duty to promote the best use of public money. It does this through value for money studies, such as that reported in Testing Times[1]. This work has been followed with a review of innovative practice in commissioning. These initiatives aim to support the implementation of the diabetes national service framework. The Audit Commission also appoints external auditors to NHS organizations who assess probity and value for money in the NHS; the latter by applying national studies locally and by carrying out local studies. Methods Research for Testing Times consisted of structured visits to nine acute trusts, a telephone survey of 26 health authorities and a postal survey of 1400 people with diabetes and 250 general practitioners. Local audits used a subset of the original research tools. Case studies were identified through a cascade approach to contacts established during Testing Times and through self-nomination. Results Rising numbers of people with diabetes are placing increasing pressure on hospital services. Some health authorities and primary care organizations have reviewed patterns of service provision in the light of the increasing demands. These reviews show wide variations in patterns of routine care. In addition, there is a widespread lack of data on the delivery of structured care to people with diabetes. People with diabetes report delays in gaining access to services, and insufficient time with staff. There are insufficient arrangements in place for providing information and learning opportunities to support self-management. Conclusion As the number of people with diabetes continues to rise, the potential for providing more care in a primary care setting needs to be explored. This will enable specialist services to focus more effectively on those with the most complex needs. [source]


World Gastroenterology Organization Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of IBD in 2010

INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES, Issue 1 2010
Dr. Charles N. Bernstein Chairman
Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a group of idiopathic, chronic, inflammatory intestinal conditions. Its two main disease categories are: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), which feature both overlapping and distinct clinical and pathological features. While these diseases have, in the past, been most evident in the developed world, their prevalence in the developing world has been gradually increasing in recent decades. This poses unique issues in diagnosis and management which have been scarcely addressed in the literature or in extant guidelines. Depending on the nature of the complaints, investigations to diagnose either form of IBD or to assess disease activity will vary and will also be influenced by geographic variations in other conditions that might mimic IBD. Similarly, therapy varies depending on the phenotype of the disease being treated and available resources. The World Gastroenterology Organization has, accordingly, developed guidelines for diagnosing and treating IBD using a cascade approach to account for variability in resources in countries around the world. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010 [source]


Block copolymers by chemoenzymatic cascade polymerization: A comparison of consecutive and simultaneous reactions

JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 14 2006
Matthijs de Geus
Abstract The synthetic parameters for the chemoenzymatic cascade synthesis of block copolymers combining enzymatic ring-opening polymerization (EROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) in one pot were investigated. A detailed analysis of the mutual interactions between the single reaction components revealed that the ATRP catalyst system could have a significant inhibiting effect on the enzyme activity. The inhibition of the enzyme was less pronounced in the presence of multivalent ligands such as dinonyl bipyridine, which thus could be used in this reaction as an ATRP catalyst. Moreover, the choice of the ATRP monomer was investigated. Methyl methacrylate interfered with EROP by transesterification, whereas t -butyl methacrylate was inert. Block copolymers were successfully synthesized with this cascade approach by the activation of ATRP after EROP by the addition of the ATRP catalyst and, with lower block copolymer yields, by the mixing of all the components before the copolymerization. Adetailed kinetic analysis of the reactions and the structure of the block copolymers showed that the first procedure proceeded smoothly to high block copolymer yields, whereas in the latter a noteworthy amount of the poly(t -butyl methacrylate) homopolymer was detected. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 44: 4290,4297, 2006 [source]