Carrageenan

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Carrageenan

  • carrageenan gel
  • carrageenan injection

  • Selected Abstracts


    STUDIES ON THE FERMENTATION OF TOMATO JUICE BY USING ,-CARRAGEENAN IMMOBILIZED LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 2 2008
    JEN-HORNG TSEN
    ABSTRACT Lactobacillus acidophilus was entrapped in ,-carrageenan and used to perform tomato juice fermentation in order to raise the survival of the bacteria in the product. Gel beads with diameters approximately 3.0 mm for cell immobilization were obtained, fresh raw tomatoes were used to make the juice and both free and immobilized cells were applied to carry out the fermentation for 80 h. Cell leakage from the gel beads and proliferation in the juice during the fermentation of immobilized cells were observed. The final viable cell number was attained with 107 cfu/mL in the juice, over 1010 cfu/mL-gel in gel beads for the fermentation of immobilized cell, and ca. 109 cfu/mL for the free cell. Immobilized cells could withstand the unfavorable low pH environment in tomato juice and better growth was achieved compared with free cells. The viable cell counts of immobilized L. acidophilus in the fermented tomato juice could maintain the level of 106 cfu/mL-gel after 10 weeks of cold storage at 4C, in comparison with 104 cfu/mL for free cells. The immobilized cell fermented tomato juice also showed better overall palatability than that of free cells in cold storage at 4C. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This study demonstrates the applicability of ,-carrageenan immobilized Lactobacillus acidophilus in the fermentation of tomato juice. The unfavorable low pH condition in tomato juice could be overcome and certain benefits were provided by cell immobilization. [source]


    Perceived Creaminess and Viscosity of Aggregated Particles of Casein Micelles and ,-Carrageenan

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 5 2010
    Kelly L. Flett
    Abstract:, Creaminess, in terms of sensory science, is a very complex and multifaceted term. It is a descriptor often reserved for fat-containing dairy emulsions, however, has also been used to describe nondairy food emulsions. In the food industry, it is a great challenge to decrease fat content while maintaining the original quality and sensory characteristics of a food product. An aggregated particle consisting of casein micelles and ,-carrageenan has the potential to enhance the perceived creaminess of a low-fat food product, due to its colloidal size. In this study, these aggregates were incorporated into nonfat dairy beverages and subjected to sensory studies. In the 1st sensory study, the aggregates, either as a powdered ingredient or a fresh ingredient, were added to thickened dairy beverages and compared to similar beverages containing skim milk powder and either no fat or 2% dairy fat. The panelists found the aggregate-containing beverages to be creamier and more viscous in comparison to the control beverages. In the 2nd sensory study, fresh and powdered aggregates, at 2 concentrations, were added to a sweetened nonfat dairy beverage and compared to a similar beverage containing 2% dairy fat. The results of this panel showed that aggregates, especially at increased concentrations, were perceived as more creamy than the fat-containing beverage. Panelists described the creaminess of the aggregates as more thick and viscous while the dairy fat was described more in terms of mouth-coating. Thus, we have developed a nonfat milk ingredient that can contribute creaminess to a food product. Practical Application:, This study shows potential applications of aggregates of casein micelles and ,-carrageenan as a fat-mimetic or creaminess-enhancing ingredient. These particles may be produced as either fresh aggregates directly formed in a dairy product or as powdered aggregates added to dairy or nondairy products. [source]


    SEQUENCE AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF ,-CARRAGEENAN-DERIVED OLIGOSACCHARIDES BY TWO-DIMENSIONAL NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE,

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Wei Zhang
    ,-Carrageenan was hydrolyzed with mild hydrochloric acid and separated into a series of oligosaccharides, the sequences and structures of which were investigated by double-quantum filtered correlation spectroscopy (DQF-COSY), total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC), and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC) techniques, respectively. The chemical structures and conformations of the individual sugar residues were identified, as well as the sequential connectivity of the oligosaccharides. The interresidue nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs)/rotating frame Overhauser effects (ROEs) revealed an ordered helical structure of the carrageenan oligosaccharide chains. Therefore, a general two-dimensional (2-D) NMR methodology for the unambiguous sequence and structure analysis of ,-carrageenan-derived oligosaccharides was established in this study. [source]


    DEVELOPMENT OF A SOY-BASED CREAM CHEESE

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 6 2008
    MUSFIRAH ZULKURNAIN
    ABSTRACT Various amounts of blended tofu, oil, salt, carrageenan, pectin and maltodextrin were used to develop soy cream cheese products that were trans fat free, with texture properties similar to those of commercial dairy cream cheese. Response surface methodology predicted three formulations with similar spreadability value of that obtained from commercial cheese. Carrageenan and salt were useful to impart the desired firmness, while maltodextrin provided body to the product. Pectin introduced viscous behavior to the final texture but was proven useful in preventing syneresis. Rheological study at 25 and 4C manifested that, although the developed products mimicked the texture of the commercial sample, they had less elasticity. Chemical analysis revealed that the soy cream cheeses had lower fat and higher protein and fiber contents than the commercial sample. They were also stable against syneresis and oil separation over storage of 20 days. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The production of soy-based products as alternatives to dairy products has attracted much attention recently. In addition to their lactose-free and reduced fat content, soy-based products are also a good source of protein. There has yet to be any published data on the development of a soy-derivative cream cheese. This paper emphasizes the rheological development of soy cream cheeses in the presence of food hydrocolloids. Their main and interaction effects on texture properties were assessed to mimic those of dairy cream cheese. A comprehensive and systematic approach of formulating the soy cream cheeses was applied by using response surface methodology. In addition, the chemical and nutritional properties of the products were also evaluated and compared with those of the commercial dairy counterpart. [source]


    Novel Gelling Systems of , -, , - and , -Carrageenans and their Composite Gels with Cellulose Using Ionic Liquid

    MACROMOLECULAR BIOSCIENCE, Issue 4 2009
    Kamalesh Prasad
    Abstract Gels of three types of carrageenans (, -, , - and , -), as well as their composite gels with cellulose, were prepared using an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl), by a heating-cooling process. , -Carrageenan gave the formation of hard gel while the other two carrageenans gave the formation of softer gels with BMIMCl. The gels were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TGA and DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compressive testing. The results indicated that, among the three types of carrageenans, , - and , -carrageenans gave better miscible gels with BMIMCl, followed by , -carrageenan. On the other hand, , -carrageenan gave a better miscible composite gel with cellulose and BMIMCl, followed by , - and , -carrageenans. The stress-strain curves indicated that the mechanical properties of the above gel systems on the compressive mode were much better than those of the hydrogels of , - and , -carrageenans as well as the cellulose gel with BMIMCl. [source]


    Carrageenan- g -poly(acrylamide)/poly(vinylsulfonic acid, sodium salt) as a novel semi-IPN hydrogel: Synthesis, characterization, and swelling behavior

    POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 9 2007
    Ali Pourjavadi
    A semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) hydrogel based on kappa-carrageenan (,C) and poly (vinylsulfonic acid, sodium salt) (PVSA) was prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) using methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. FTIR spectroscopy was used for confirming the structure of the final product. It was found that the chemical composition of the Semi-IPN hydrogel is equal to the initial homopolymers and monomer feed compositions. The swelling capacity of the hydrogel was shown to be affected by the MBA, APS, and AAm concentration as well as ,C/PVSA weight ratio. The swelling behavior of the hydrogel was also investigated in various pHs and salt solutions. Since the highly swelling biopolymer-based hydrogel exhibits low salt-sensitivity, it may be referred to as an anti-salt superabsorbent hydrogel. The swelling kinetics of the superabsorbent hydrogels was studied as well. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 47:1388,1395, 2007. © 2007 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


    Novel Gelling Systems of , -, , - and , -Carrageenans and their Composite Gels with Cellulose Using Ionic Liquid

    MACROMOLECULAR BIOSCIENCE, Issue 4 2009
    Kamalesh Prasad
    Abstract Gels of three types of carrageenans (, -, , - and , -), as well as their composite gels with cellulose, were prepared using an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl), by a heating-cooling process. , -Carrageenan gave the formation of hard gel while the other two carrageenans gave the formation of softer gels with BMIMCl. The gels were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TGA and DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compressive testing. The results indicated that, among the three types of carrageenans, , - and , -carrageenans gave better miscible gels with BMIMCl, followed by , -carrageenan. On the other hand, , -carrageenan gave a better miscible composite gel with cellulose and BMIMCl, followed by , - and , -carrageenans. The stress-strain curves indicated that the mechanical properties of the above gel systems on the compressive mode were much better than those of the hydrogels of , - and , -carrageenans as well as the cellulose gel with BMIMCl. [source]


    Effects of a new 1,3,4-thiadiazolium mesoionic compound, MI-D, on the acute inflammatory response

    DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, Issue 4 2004
    Júlio C. Cardoso
    Abstract A new mesoionic compound, 4-phenyl-5-(4-nitro-cinnamoyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazolium-2-phenylamine (MI-D), is described along with some of its biological properties. Its effects on hepatic metabolism, on O and nitric oxide (NO) production, and in in vivo models for potential antinociceptive, antipyretic, and antiinflammatory activities were determined. In perfused rat liver, MI-D (25 µM) stimulated glycogenolysis (95%), and inhibited oxygen uptake (37%) with affecting glycolysis. In phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated macrophages, O generation was reduced (95%) by MI-D (15 µM), whereas the production of NO was unaffected. MI-D (2 mg/kg) inhibited (55%) the number of abdominal writhings induced by acetic acid. At 1 mg/kg, MI-D inhibited the febrile response (5 h) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and was also effective against a preexisting febrile response. Treatment with MI-D (1 mg/kg) reduced by 67% prostaglandin (PGE2) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of LPS-exposed mice, and at a higher dose (8 mg/kg) MI-D inhibited paw edema formation (2 h) induced by carrageenan. MI-D has a spectrum of activities similar to other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, qualifying it as a potential anti-inflammatory drug. Drug Dev. Res. 61:207,217, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Effect of transglutaminase and carrageenan on restructured fish products containing dietary fibres

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 11 2007
    Carlos Cardoso
    Summary The inclusion of various levels of a microbial transglutaminase or a carrageenan additive to restructured hake products with or without dietary fibre (obtained from inner pea or chicory root) was studied. These experiments were aimed at producing technologically innovative restructured fish products with improved textural and colour properties. It was found that the addition of transglutaminase, up to 0.5% (w/w), favoured better textural properties, particularly, at 0.1% (w/w) level or above. On the other hand, restructured product with a dietary fibre content of 4% (w/w) and carrageenan addition, up to 2% (w/w), exhibited increased hardness. This can be particularly interesting for those products containing chicory root inulins as this fibre presented an adverse effect on hardness. Regarding colour, higher carrageenan contents caused a slight but significant colour change in the product, making it redder (for products containing Swelite and Fibruline) and more yellow (only concerning Swelite). [source]


    Quality changes in frozen and thawed, cooked puréed vegetables containing hydrocolloids, gums and dairy powders

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 8 2002
    Gerard Downey
    Summary Freezing and thawing have been shown to adversely affect the centrifugal drip loss and maximum resistance to penetration of cooked, puréed vegetables (potatoes, carrots and turnips). Amelioration of these effects has been investigated through the addition of cryoprotectants (xanthan gum, guar gum, pectin, carrageenan, sodium caseinate, whey protein concentrate). The effect of each cryoprotectant varied with vegetable type. In general, gums (xanthan and guar) proved most effective in reducing drip losses although carrageenan and pectin exhibited some ability in this regard. Dairy powders produced no effect on drip loss but did alter maximum resistance values after thawing. Depending on the vegetable, quality maintenance or improvement after thawing may be achieved through selection of an appropriate cryoprotectant. [source]


    Covalent immobilization of ,-galactosidase on carrageenan coated with chitosan

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2009
    Magdy M.M. Elnashar
    Abstract ,-Galactosidase was covalently immobilized to carrageenan coated with chitosan for the hydrolysis of lactose. The chitosan-carrageenan polyelectrolyte interaction was found to be dependent on the chitosan pH. At pH 4, the chitosan reached its maximum binding of 28.5% (w/w) where the chitosan surface density was 4.8 mg chitosan/cm2 g of carrageenan gel disks, using Muzzarelli method. Glutaraldehyde was used as a mediator to incorporate new functionality, aldehydic carbonyl group, to the bio-polymers for covalent attachment of ,-galactosidase. The enzyme was covalently immobilized to the biopolymer at a concentration of 2.73 mg protein per g of wet gel. FTIR proved the incorporation of the aldehydic carbonyl group to the carrageenan coated with chitosan at 1720 cm,1. The optimum time for enzyme immobilization was found to be 16 h, after which a plateau was reached. The enzyme loading increased from 2.65 U/g (control gel) to 10.92 U/g gel using the covalent technique. The gel's modification has shown to improve the carrageenan gel thermal stability as well as the immobilized enzyme. For example, the carrageenan gel treated with chitosan showed an outstanding thermal stability at 95°C compared with 35°C for the untreated carrageenan gel. Similarly, the immobilization process shifted the enzyme's optimum temperature from 50°C for the free enzyme towards a wider temperature range 45,55 °C indicating that the enzyme structure is strengthened by immobilization. In brief, the newly developed immobilization method is simple; the carrier is cheap, yet effective and can be used for the immobilization of other enzymes. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]


    A novel microencapsulation of neem (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss.) seed oil (NSO) in polyelectrolyte complex of ,-carrageenan and chitosan

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2009
    Nirmala Devi
    Abstract Microcapsules containing neem (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss.) seed oil (NSO) were prepared by encapsulation of natural liquid pesticide NSO in a polyelectrolyte complex of ,-carrageenan and chitosan. The optimum ratio between carrageenan and chitosan to form a stable polyelectrolyte complex was found as 1 : 0.36. The microencapsulation method for NSO loading was also optimized. SEM study demonstrated that the surface of the microcapsules became more irregular as oil loading increased. The release rates of NSO were studied by varying the percentage of oil loading, concentration of cross-linking agent, and polymer concentration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study confirmed the complex formation between ,-carrageenan and chitosan. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and FTIR study indicated the absence of any significant interaction between polyelectrolyte complex of ,-carrageenan -chitosan and NSO. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]


    PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ,-CARRAGEENASE FROM MARINE BACTERIUM MUTANT STRAIN PSEUDOALTEROMONAS SP.

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2010
    AJ5-13 AND ITS DEGRADED PRODUCTS
    ABSTRACT A ,-carrageenan-degrading bacterial strain AJ5 isolated from the intestine of Apostichopus japonicus was identified as Pseudoalteromonas sp. based on the phenotypic characters and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The mutant Pseudoalteromonas sp. AJ5-13 with ,-carrageenase activity of 61 U/mg protein was obtained from Pseudoalteromonas sp. AJ5 using mutagenesis technique. An extracellular ,-carrageenase was purified from Pseudoalteromonas sp. AJ5-13 cultural supernatant by ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-200) and cation-exchange chromatography (CM-cellulose 52). The purified enzyme yielded a single band on SDS-PAGE with the molecular mass of 35 kDa. Data of the N-terminal amino acid sequence indicated that this protein might be a novel ,-carrageenase. The pI and Km of the enzyme were 8.5 and 9.8 ± 0.2 mg/mL, respectively. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 55C. It hydrolyzed the ,-1, 4-glycosidic linkages of ,-carrageenan yielding ,-neocarrabiose, -tetraose, -hexaose, -octaose and -decaose sulfates as the main end-products. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS ,-Carrageenases degrade ,-carrageenan by hydrolyzing the ,-1,4 linkages to a series of oligosaccharides. Thus, it is expected that like other ,-carrageenases, the ,-carrageenase isolated from Pseudoalteromonas sp. AJ5-13 would also be useful in seaweed biotechnology, pharmacy and immunology. ,-Carrageenases can be applied to study the composition and structure of carrageenans from different red alga, and to study the bacterial ,-carrageenan metabolism. They also provide the opportunity to investigate the structure-function relationship of the hydrolases that degrade self-associating sulfated polysaccharides. Examples of the practical applications of ,-carrageenases include their use in degrading the cell walls of seaweeds to obtain protoplasts, and in hydrolyzing ,-carrageenan to produce oligosaccharides. ,-Carrageenan-oligosaccharides have various potential biological properties, such as antiviral, antitumor, antioxidant activities, cytoprotection, immunomodulation, etc. [source]


    TEXTURE STABILITY OF HYDROGEL COMPLEX CONTAINING CURDLAN GUM OVER MULTIPLE FREEZE,THAW CYCLES

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 1 2009
    PATRICK D. WILLIAMS
    ABSTRACT The texture stability of hydrogel complexes containing curdlan gum over multiple freeze,thaw cycles (FTCs) was investigated. The hydrogels formed by curdlan and xanthan gum, locust bean gum, carrageenan or guar gum at various combinations were stored at 4C for 24 h before subjected to five FTCs alternating between,16 (18 h) and 25C (6 h). Xanthan/curdlan hydrogels showed the highest freeze,thaw stability in terms of syneresis, heat stability and adhesiveness. The viscosity of xanthan/curdlan combination was the lowest among all samples studied yet the most stable over the five FTCs, whereas significant changes were observed with locust bean/curdlan hydrogels. The guar/curdlan combination before freeze,thaw treatments exhibited predominant elasticity; however, as the cycles progressed the elasticity decreased. The most stable gel strength was achieved when curdlan was combined with guar or xanthan at 2% (w/v) total concentration, while carrageenan/curdlan gels were the least stable. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Texture instability remains the most significant challenge for frozen food products, especially with inevitable post-production temperature fluctuations. Loss of moisture and changes in textural attributes often results in significant reduction of product quality. Precise control of hydrogel complexes that provide texture stabilization over multiple freeze,thaw cycles will enhance the quality of existing products while enabling the development of new ones. [source]


    STUDIES ON THE FERMENTATION OF TOMATO JUICE BY USING ,-CARRAGEENAN IMMOBILIZED LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 2 2008
    JEN-HORNG TSEN
    ABSTRACT Lactobacillus acidophilus was entrapped in ,-carrageenan and used to perform tomato juice fermentation in order to raise the survival of the bacteria in the product. Gel beads with diameters approximately 3.0 mm for cell immobilization were obtained, fresh raw tomatoes were used to make the juice and both free and immobilized cells were applied to carry out the fermentation for 80 h. Cell leakage from the gel beads and proliferation in the juice during the fermentation of immobilized cells were observed. The final viable cell number was attained with 107 cfu/mL in the juice, over 1010 cfu/mL-gel in gel beads for the fermentation of immobilized cell, and ca. 109 cfu/mL for the free cell. Immobilized cells could withstand the unfavorable low pH environment in tomato juice and better growth was achieved compared with free cells. The viable cell counts of immobilized L. acidophilus in the fermented tomato juice could maintain the level of 106 cfu/mL-gel after 10 weeks of cold storage at 4C, in comparison with 104 cfu/mL for free cells. The immobilized cell fermented tomato juice also showed better overall palatability than that of free cells in cold storage at 4C. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This study demonstrates the applicability of ,-carrageenan immobilized Lactobacillus acidophilus in the fermentation of tomato juice. The unfavorable low pH condition in tomato juice could be overcome and certain benefits were provided by cell immobilization. [source]


    Addition of Soluble Soybean Polysaccharides to Dairy Products as a Source of Dietary Fiber

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 6 2010
    Wenpu Chen
    Abstract:, Increasing consumption of dietary fiber in food leads to many important health benefits: for example, reduction in blood cholesterol, reduced risk of diabetes, and improved laxation. Water soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) is a dietary fiber extracted and refined from okara, a byproduct of soy manufacturing. It was incorporated into 3 categories of dairy-based products, thickened milkshake-style beverages, puddings, and low-fat ice cream, to the maximum amount without over-texturing the food. Rheological measurements and sensory tests were used to develop desirable SSPS-fortified products. From the rheological data, 4% SSPS-fortified dairy beverages and 4% SSPS -fortified puddings were in the range of commercial products. From sensory analyses, 4% SSPS-fortified dairy beverage with 0.015%,,carrageenan, 4% SSPS-fortified pudding with 0.1%,,carrageenan, and 2% SSPS-fortified low-fat ice cream gained the highest scores in consumer hedonic rating. Panelists also indicated their willingness to consume those products if they were available commercially. Practical Application:, Since the dietary fiber intake of many people is below their suggested adequate intake values, strategies to successfully fortify foods with fiber may help alleviate this gap. We have developed 3 dairy products, a beverage, a pudding, and a low-fat ice cream, that have been fortified with soluble soybean polysaccharide at levels of 4%, 4%, and 2%, respectively. These products were within acceptable ranges of rheological parameters and other physical stability measurements and were judged to be acceptable by sensory analyses. [source]


    Perceived Creaminess and Viscosity of Aggregated Particles of Casein Micelles and ,-Carrageenan

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 5 2010
    Kelly L. Flett
    Abstract:, Creaminess, in terms of sensory science, is a very complex and multifaceted term. It is a descriptor often reserved for fat-containing dairy emulsions, however, has also been used to describe nondairy food emulsions. In the food industry, it is a great challenge to decrease fat content while maintaining the original quality and sensory characteristics of a food product. An aggregated particle consisting of casein micelles and ,-carrageenan has the potential to enhance the perceived creaminess of a low-fat food product, due to its colloidal size. In this study, these aggregates were incorporated into nonfat dairy beverages and subjected to sensory studies. In the 1st sensory study, the aggregates, either as a powdered ingredient or a fresh ingredient, were added to thickened dairy beverages and compared to similar beverages containing skim milk powder and either no fat or 2% dairy fat. The panelists found the aggregate-containing beverages to be creamier and more viscous in comparison to the control beverages. In the 2nd sensory study, fresh and powdered aggregates, at 2 concentrations, were added to a sweetened nonfat dairy beverage and compared to a similar beverage containing 2% dairy fat. The results of this panel showed that aggregates, especially at increased concentrations, were perceived as more creamy than the fat-containing beverage. Panelists described the creaminess of the aggregates as more thick and viscous while the dairy fat was described more in terms of mouth-coating. Thus, we have developed a nonfat milk ingredient that can contribute creaminess to a food product. Practical Application:, This study shows potential applications of aggregates of casein micelles and ,-carrageenan as a fat-mimetic or creaminess-enhancing ingredient. These particles may be produced as either fresh aggregates directly formed in a dairy product or as powdered aggregates added to dairy or nondairy products. [source]


    Interactions of ,-carrageenan Plus Other Hydrocolloids in Fish Myosystem Gels

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 6 2001
    M. Pérez-Mateos
    ABSTRACT: Mixtures of ,-carrageenan plus other hydrocolloids (locust bean, guar, xanthan, iota-carrageenan, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, and sodium alginate) were examined for their effects on the mechanical and water holding properties of heat-induced gels made from washed blue whiting mince. Gel structure and thermal behavior were also studied. No synergistic effect was detectable through functional properties except for the mixture of ,-carrageenan with locust bean gum. Light microscopy revealed that ,-carrageenan and xanthan mixed locally with locust bean at its rich domains. ,-carrageenan and xanthan presented interactions with the protein matrix, which were more discernible in the first case. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed faint interactions for the mixtures of ,-carrageenan with locust bean and with xanthan, and weakly synergistic gelling effects between the last two hydrocolloids. The blend of ,-carrageenan with sodium alginate exhibited thermally strong synergistic interactions but no particular effects were induced on corresponding functional properties. [source]


    Relaxation Time Spectrum of Hydrogels by CONTIN Analysis

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 3 2000
    R. Mao
    ABSTRACT: CONTIN is a general-purpose program for inverting noisy linear algebraic and integral equations by means of inverse Laplace transform. This study explored the application of CONTIN analysis to determine the relaxation time distribution spectra for food gels, including gellan, carrageenan, whey protein, and gelatin gels, based on stress-relaxation data. CONTIN results represent the continuous relaxation time spectra when the number of the terms in the discrete Maxwell stress-relaxation model approached infinity. The CONTIN results for gellan gels were correlated to the texture properties of gels from compression tests with respect to the effects of calcium concentrations. CONTIN analysis may be a very effective tool in elucidating the microstructural properties of a hydrogel from mechanical testing. [source]


    Adsorption and rheological properties of biopolymers at the air-water interface

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 7 2006
    Rosa Baeza
    Abstract Dynamics of adsorption and viscoelasticity of biopolymers (,-lactoglobulin (,-lg) + polysaccharides (PS)) at 20 °C and pH 7 have been studied. Protein concentration in the bulk phase was 0.1 wt %, and the concentration of polysaccharides (xanthan gum, ,-carrageenan, and propylenglicol alginate with different degrees of esterification and viscosity) was varied from 0.1% to 0.5 wt %. The results reveal a significant effect of surface-active and non surface-active polysaccharides on the dynamics of the formation and viscoelasticity of adsorbed films at the air-water interface. The rate of diffusion of the biopolymers increased in the mixed systems, but the effect was more significant at the highest concentration of polysaccharide (0.5 wt %). The rate of rearrangement of the adsorbed films decreased in the presence of polysaccharides as compared to the protein film. Competitive adsorption, complexation and limited thermodynamic incompatibility between ,-lactoglobulin and polysaccharide would explain the observed effects. © 2006 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2006 [source]


    Continuous pilot plant,scale immobilization of yeast in ,-carrageenan gel beads

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 7 2004
    C. Decamps
    Abstract A novel continuous two-phase dispersion process was developed to produce ,-carrageenan gel microspheres, using static mixers. It was shown that yeast-loaded carrageenan beads, with controlled diameter and tight size distribution, can be produced on a continuous basis, in a scalable mixer, at production rates appropriate to both pilot plant,scale and, potentially, industrial-scale operations. Immobilized yeast are intended to be used in continuous brewing operations. The effects of the static mixer diameter (D), the number of mixing elements (Ne), the fluid linear velocity (V), and the volumetric fraction (,) of ,-carrageenan, on the mean diameter and size distribution of the resulting gel microspheres, were studied. Image analysis showed that mean diameter was strongly influenced by the average linear fluid velocity through the mixer, and by the mixer diameter. The number of mixer elements and the mixer diameter governed bead size dispersion. A productivity of 10 L h,1 of beads was attained using a 1.27-cm-diameter static mixer. Because the productivity is proportional to the mixer diameter squared, this process, although suited for the production of small-size beads (down to 50 ,m), would be technically and economically feasible for a large industrial immobilization process. However, because the coefficient of variability increased with mixer diameter, and thus with scale-up, operational improvements are suggested, such as the use of smaller-diameter mixers operating in parallel, to reduce the size dispersion. © 2004 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 50: 1599,1605, 2004 [source]


    Spheronization of small extrudates containing ,-carrageenan

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Issue 10 2009
    Angelina Yoo
    Abstract Spheronization of extrudates of around 500 µm diameter needs improvement of the Schlueter spheronizer conditions with regard to moisture content of the extrudates. The extrudates were obtained by a twin-screw extruder and contained ,-carrageenan as pelletization aid. The influences of spheronization speed, residence time, temperature of the spheronizer wall and loading on the responses aspect ratio, pellet size and yield, were studied with a central composite circumscribed design. The Schlueter spheronizer was compared with a Nica spheronizer. Further, additional spheronizer process variables such as temperature of the spheronizer wall and inlet air pressure were also investigated. The results were evaluated in a full factorial (mixed) design. The micropellets in general showed a pellet size between 500 and 700 µm. A twisted-rope movement during the spheronization process was not observed and adhesion to the spheronizer wall resulted in suboptimal micropellets. However, at suitable moisture content, less loading in the spheronizer, higher spheronization speed and longer residence time micropellets with an aspect ratio below 1.1 were obtained. In addition the adhesion to the spheronizer wall was reduced. Spheronizer wall temperature and inlet air pressure were negligible variables. Significant differences between the two spheronizers could not be established. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 98:3776,3787, 2009 [source]


    Physicochemical characterization of papain entrapped in ionotropically cross-linked kappa-carrageenan gel beads for stability improvement using Doehlert shell design

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Issue 9 2006
    Mayur G. Sankalia
    Abstract This work examines the influence of various process parameters on papain entrapped in cross-linked ,-carrageenan beads for improvement of its stability. A Doehlert shell design (DSD) was employed to investigate the effect of three process variables, namely ,-carrageenan concentration, KCl concentration, and hardening time, on the entrapment, time required for 50% enzyme release (T50), time required for 90% enzyme release (T90), and particle size. The beads were prepared by dropping the ,-carrageenan containing papain into a magnetically stirred KCl solution. Topographical characterization was carried out by scanning electron microscopy and entrapment was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Stability testing was carried out according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines for zone III and IV. A polymeric matrix was prepared with ,-carrageenan (3.5% w/v) and potassium chloride (0.5 M) using the ionotropic gelation method, with a hardening time of 20 min. Beads characterized by a spherical disc shape with a collapsed center, an absence of aggregates, an entrapment of 82.75%, a T90 value of 55.36 min, and a composite index of 88.55 were produced. The shelf-life of the enzyme-loaded beads was found to increase to 3.63 years compared with 1.01 years for the conventional formulation. It can be inferred that the proposed methodology can be used to prepare papain-loaded ,-carrageenan beads for stability improvement. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 95: 1994,2013, 2006 [source]


    Self-assembly of drug,polymer complexes: A spontaneous nanoencapsulation process monitored by atomic force microscopy,

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Issue 1 2003
    Mireia Oliva
    Abstract Since hydrophilic matrices were proposed for controlled drug delivery, many polymeric excipients have been studied to make drug release fit the desired profiles. It has been pointed out that ,-carrageenan, a sulfated polymer from algae, can suitably control the release rate of basic drugs from hydrophilic matrices. Furthermore, the relevance of hydrophobic interactions in drug,polymer aqueous systems has already been demonstrated, although no references to morphological features as well as to the kinetics of the interaction complexes formation have been published to date. In this work, we propose a method to monitor the topographical evolution of the interaction between ,-carrageenan and dexchlorpheniramine maleate, in order to determine how the release profiles can be so easily controlled. For this purpose, solutions of both polymer and drug were prepared at very low concentration. Solutions were mixed and small volumes were taken every hour for over a period of 24 h and subsequently analyzed. The characterization technique used, atomic force microscopy, provides a high resolution, allowing plotting of three-dimensional images of the sample morphology within the nanometric scale. The results demonstrate that ,-carrageenan is able to nanoencapsulate spontaneously dexchlorpheniramine maleate molecules, which offers the possibility of controlling the release rate of the drug with no need of complex technological processes. Moreover, this work demonstrates the suitability of atomic force microscopy for the specific case of the on-time monitoring of interaction processes that occur in pharmaceutical systems. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 92:77,83, 2003 [source]


    Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil from Eremanthus erythropappus leaves

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY: AN INTERNATI ONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE, Issue 6 2008
    Orlando V. Sousa
    The chemical composition of the essential oil from air-dried leaves of Eremanthus erythropappus was studied. The main compounds were ,-pinene (23.24%), ,-caryophyllene (22.92%), ,-myrcene (10.03%) and germacrene D (9.40%). The essential oil had an LD50 of 2.90 gkg,1 in mice. Doses of 200 and 400 mgkg,1 inhibited 10.69% and 27.06% of acetic-acid-induced writhing in mice, respectively. In the formalin-induced nociception test in mice, the essential oil inhibited the first phase of paw licking by 29.13% (400 mgkg,1) and the second phase by 32.74% (200 mgkg,1) and 37.55% (400 mgkg,1). In the hot-plate test in mice, doses of 200 mgkg,1 and 400 mgkg,1 significantly increased the reaction time after 30, 60 and 90 min of treatment. Doses of 200 and 400 mgkg,1 inhibited carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats by 15.18% and 36.61%, respectively. Doses of 200 and 400 mgkg,1 administered 4 h before intra-pleural injection of carrageenan significantly reduced exudate volume (by 20.20% and 48.70%, respectively) and leucocyte mobilization (by 5.88% and 17.29%, respectively). These results demonstrate that E. erythropappus has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, supporting the use of this plant in folk medicine. [source]


    The anti-inflammatory modulatory role of Solidago chilensis Meyen in the murine model of the air pouch

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY: AN INTERNATI ONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE, Issue 4 2008
    Rafael Liz
    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of an aqueous extract (AE), and its butanolic (BuOH) and aqueous residual (AR) fractions, derived from the rhizome of Solidago chilensis in inflammation caused by carrageenan in mice. Solidago chilensis Meyen rhizome was extracted using hot water at 90°C under infusion. The extract was filtered and lyophilized. Part of the aqueous extract was fractionated with n-BuOH, resulting in butanolic (BuOH) and aqueous residual (AR) fractions. Adult Swiss mice were used in the in-vivo experiments. We evaluated the effect of rhizome aqueous extract of Solidago chilensis and these two derived fractions on the inflammation induced by carrageenan in the mouse model of the air pouch. The aqueous extract and its derived fractions significantly inhibited leucocytes, neutrophils, exudation, myeloperoxidase and adenosine deaminase activity, as well as nitric oxide, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1,), neutrophil chemokine (KC) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-,) levels (P < 0.05). Indometacin and dexamethasone inhibited all the studied inflammatory parameters (P < 0.01) with the exceptions that indometacin did not inhibit TNF-, levels and dexamethasone did not inhibit KC levels (P > 0.05). These results indicate that Solidago chilensis has a significant anti-inflammatory action on acute inflammatory responses and that its inhibitory activity may be due not only to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators, but also to the inhibition of leucocyte infiltration. [source]


    Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the ethanolic extracts from Zanthoxylum riedelianum (Rutaceae) leaves and stem bark

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY: AN INTERNATI ONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE, Issue 8 2007
    Leonardo Mandalho Lima
    We have evaluated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the leaves (LCE) and stem bark (BCE) crude extracts of Zanthoxylum riedelianum (Rutaceae). Different fractions of the stem bark extract (hexane, BCEH; dichloromethane, BCED; ethyl acetate, BCEE; and lyophilized aqueous residual, BCEW) were also investigated. We studied the effects of the extracts and fractions using the rat paw oedema test induced by carrageenan, dextran, histamine or nystatin; the mouse abdominal constriction test; the mouse hot-plate test (only for LCE and BCE); and the mouse formalin test. Both extracts and all BCE fractions displayed anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced oedema model, but not for dextran, histamine or nystatin. Considering the analgesic models, both extracts showed antinociceptive activity, but BCE was more active than LCE in models of central pain. All BCE fractions showed significant inhibition in the abdominal constriction test and in both phases of the formalin test. When BCED was submitted to phytochemical procedures it led to the isolation of six lignans (sesamin, methylpluviatolide, dimethylmatairesinol, piperitol-4,-O-,,,-dimethylallyl ether, kaerophyllin and hinokinin), and a triterpene (lupeol). Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and its metabolites may have been involved in the mechanism of action of this plant, considering previous studies reporting the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity for the identified lignans, as well as anti-inflammatory activity for lupeol. [source]


    The inhibition of paw oedema formation caused by the oil of Copaifera multijuga Hayne and its fractions

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY: AN INTERNATI ONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE, Issue 10 2006
    Valdir F. Veiga Junior
    Two oils exuded from a Copaifera multijuga Hayne tree (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae), collected from the same plant, but in different periods of the year, and the hexanic, dichloromethanic and methanolic fractions of one of these oils were analysed by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and HRGC coupled with mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS). In addition, the in-vivo preliminary anti-oedematogenic actions of the oil and some fractions of it were assessed against carrageenan- and bradykinin-induced oedema formation in the rat paw. Twenty-seven sesquiterpenes and six diterpenes were identified, ,-caryophyllene, ,-copaene and copalic acid being the main components. The dichloromethanic and methanolic fractions obtained from C. multijuga oil given by the intraperitoneal route caused a significant inhibition of paw oedema caused by carrageenan with inhibition of 49 ± 13% and 64 ± 9 %, respectively. Likewise, dexamethasone (the positive control drug) also greatly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw oedema formation (60 ± 4% at 2 h). The hexanic fraction also significantly inhibited (50 ± 6%) the paw oedema formation caused by bradykinin. These results suggest the presence of still non-identified active terpene compounds in the oil of C. multijuga that exhibit anti-oedematogenic properties. Of note, the yield of these compounds and the pharmacological actions of the oil, exhibited great seasonal variations, a relevant aspect that should be carefully observed for the correct medicinal use of this plant by the population. [source]


    Antinociceptive action of the extract and the flavonoid quercitrin isolated from Bauhinia microstachya leaves

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY: AN INTERNATI ONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE, Issue 10 2005
    Vinícius M. Gadotti
    This study examined the antinociceptive effect of Bauhinia microstachya (Leguminosae), a native plant widely distributed in the South of Brazil, in several chemical and mechanical models of pain. The methanolic extract (ME) from B. microstachya (3,30 mg kg,1, i.p.) and the isolated compound quercitrin (1,10 mg kg,1, i.p.), given 30 min earlier, produced a dose-dependent inhibition of acetic-acid-induced visceral pain in mice, with a mean ID50 value (dose necessary to reduce the nociceptive response by 50% relative to the control value) of 7.9 and 2.4 mg kg,1, respectively. The ME of B. microstachya (3,100 mg kg,1, i.p., 30 min earlier) also caused a dose-dependent inhibition of capsaicin-induced pain, with a mean ID50 value of 18.8 mg kg,1. Moreover, the ME (3,100 mg kg,1, i.p., 30 min earlier) produced marked inhibition of both phases of formalin-induced pain, with mean ID50 values for the neurogenic and the inflammatory phases of 30.3 and 17.2 mg kg,1, respectively. In addition, the ME of B. microstachya (3,300 mg kg ,1, i.p., 30 min earlier) inhibited, in a graded manner, the hyperalgesia induced by bradykinin (3.2 ,g/paw), substance P (13.5 ,g/paw), carrageenan (300 ,g/paw), capsaicin (100 ,g/paw) and adrenaline (100ng/paw) in the rat paw, with mean ID50 values of 20.5, 17.9, 101.8, 54.2 and 99.7 mg kg,1, respectively. Taken together, these data demonstrate that ME of B. microstachya elicited a pronounced antinociceptive action against several chemical and mechanical models of pain in mice and rats. The precise mechanism responsible for the antinociceptive effect of the extract still remains unclear, but seems to be partly related to modulation of the release or action of pro-inflammatory mediators involved in the models of pain used. Finally, the flavonoid quercitrin isolated from this plant appears to contribute for the antinociceptive property of the methanolic extract. [source]


    DEVELOPMENT OF A SOY-BASED CREAM CHEESE

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 6 2008
    MUSFIRAH ZULKURNAIN
    ABSTRACT Various amounts of blended tofu, oil, salt, carrageenan, pectin and maltodextrin were used to develop soy cream cheese products that were trans fat free, with texture properties similar to those of commercial dairy cream cheese. Response surface methodology predicted three formulations with similar spreadability value of that obtained from commercial cheese. Carrageenan and salt were useful to impart the desired firmness, while maltodextrin provided body to the product. Pectin introduced viscous behavior to the final texture but was proven useful in preventing syneresis. Rheological study at 25 and 4C manifested that, although the developed products mimicked the texture of the commercial sample, they had less elasticity. Chemical analysis revealed that the soy cream cheeses had lower fat and higher protein and fiber contents than the commercial sample. They were also stable against syneresis and oil separation over storage of 20 days. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The production of soy-based products as alternatives to dairy products has attracted much attention recently. In addition to their lactose-free and reduced fat content, soy-based products are also a good source of protein. There has yet to be any published data on the development of a soy-derivative cream cheese. This paper emphasizes the rheological development of soy cream cheeses in the presence of food hydrocolloids. Their main and interaction effects on texture properties were assessed to mimic those of dairy cream cheese. A comprehensive and systematic approach of formulating the soy cream cheeses was applied by using response surface methodology. In addition, the chemical and nutritional properties of the products were also evaluated and compared with those of the commercial dairy counterpart. [source]