Care Time (care + time)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effect of Mandated Nurse,Patient Ratios on Patient Wait Time and Care Time in the Emergency Department

Theodore C. Chan MD
Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to evaluate the effect of mandated nurse,patient ratios (NPRs) on emergency department (ED) patient flow. Methods:, Two institutions implemented an electronic tracking system embedded within the electronic medical record (EMR) of two EDs (an academic urban, teaching medical center,Hospital A; and a suburban community hospital,Hospital B), with a combined census of 60,000/year, to monitor real-time NPRs and patient acuity, such that compliance with state-mandated ratios could be prospectively monitored. Data were queried for a 1-year period after implementation and included patient wait times (WTs), ED care time (EDCT), patient acuity, ED census, and NPR status for each nurse, patient, and the ED overall. Median WT and EDCT with interquartile ranges (IQRs) were analyzed to determine the effect of NPR status of each patient, nurse, and the ED overall. To control for factors that could affect the "within the mandated ratio" and the "outside of the mandated ratio" status, including patient volume and acuity, log-linear regression models were used controlling for specified factors for each hospital facility and combined. Results:, There were a total of 30,404 (50.9%) patients who waited in the waiting room prior to being placed in an ED bed (53.8% at Hospital A and 46.4% at Hospital B). Patients who waited at Hospital A waited a median duration of 55 minutes (IQR = 15,128 minutes), compared with 32 minutes (IQR = 12,67 minutes) at Hospital B with a combined median WT of 44 minutes (IQR = 13,101 minutes). In the log-linear regression analysis, WTs were 17% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 10% to 25%, p < 0.001) longer at Hospital A and 13% (95% CI = 3% to 24%, p = 0.008) longer at Hospital B (combined 16% [95% CI = 10% to 22%, p < 0.001] longer at both sites) when the ED overall was out-of-ratio compared to in-ratio. There were a total of 45,660 patients discharged from both EDs during the study period, from which EDCT data were collected (26,894 in Hospital A and 18,766 in Hospital B). Median EDCT was 184 minutes (IQR = 97,311 minutes) at Hospital A, compared to 120 minutes (IQR = 63,208 minutes) at Hospital B, for a combined median EDCT of 153 minutes (IQR = 81,269 minutes). In the log-linear regression analysis, the EDCT for patients whose nurse was out-of-ratio were 34% (95% CI = 30% to 38%, p < 0.001) longer at Hospital A and 42% (95% CI = 37% to 48%, p < 0.001) longer at Hospital B (combined 37% [95% CI = 34% to 41%, p < 0.001] longer at both sites) when compared to patients whose nurse was in-ratio. Conclusions:, In these two EDs, throughput measures of WT and EDCT were shorter when the ED nurse staffing were within state-mandated levels, after controlling for ED census and patient acuity. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:545,552 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

Estimating nurses' workload using the Diagnosis Procedure Combination in Japan

Y. Kamijo rn
Aim:, To examine the methods used to estimate nurse staffing levels in acute care settings with Diagnosis Related Groups, which in Japan are called the Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC). Methods:, For estimating staffing requirements, the study used four DPC groups: (1) acute or recurrent myocardial infarction (AMI) with stenting, (2) angina pectoris with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), (3) sub-arachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) with clipping surgery, and (4) cerebral infarction with carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Registered nurses with more than 3-year nursing experience in nine university hospitals in the Tokyo metropolitan area completed self-report questionnaires in order to obtain nursing care time and care intensity per each DPC. The concordance rate was measured by Kendall's coefficient of concordance. The relationship between the care time and the care intensity was examined by a time series graph per DPC. Care intensity consisted of professional judgement, mental effort for helping patients, professional skill, physical effort for providing activities of daily living support, and nurse stress, based on the Hsiao and colleagues' model of resource-based relative value scale. Results:, Twenty-five nurses in nine university hospitals answered for a hypothetical typical patient with AMI and with CABG, and 28 nurses in nine university hospitals answered for a hypothetical typical patient with SAH and with CEA. Kendall's coefficient of concordance was 0.896 for AMI, 0.855 for CABG, 0.848 for SAH, 0.854 for CEA. The time series data of the care time and the care intensity items showed different patterns for each DPC. Conclusion:, The DPC for cardiovascular and cerebral surgical procedures can be used for estimating nurses' workload. [source]

Parental education, time in paid work and time with children: an Australian time-diary analysis

Lyn Craig
Abstract How does parental education affect time in the paid workforce and time with children? Potentially, the effects are contradictory. An economic perspective suggests higher education means a pull to the market. Human capital theory predicts that, because higher education improves earning capacity, educated women face higher opportunity costs if they forego wages, so will allocate more time to market work and less to unpaid domestic labour. But education may also exercise a pull to the home. Attitudes to child rearing are subject to strong social norms, and parents with higher levels of education may be particularly receptive to the current social ideal of attentive, sustained and intensive nurturing. Using data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Time-use Survey 1997, this study offers a snapshot of how these contradictory pulls play out in daily life. It finds that in Australia, households with university-educated parents spend more daily time with children than other households in physical care and in developmental activities. Sex inequality in care time persists, but fathers with university education do contribute more time to care of children, including time alone with them, than other fathers. Mothers with university education allocate more daily time than other mothers to both childcare and to paid work. [source]