Care Therapy (care + therapy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A systematic review of the effectiveness of negative pressure wound therapy in the management of diabetes foot ulcers

Georgia Noble-Bell
Abstract Foot ulcers are a common complication in patients with diabetes. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a wound care therapy that is being increasingly used in the management of foot ulcers. This article presents a systematic review examining the effectiveness of this therapy. The review question is how effective is NPWT in achieving wound healing in diabetes foot ulcers? The primary outcome for this study was the number of patients achieving complete wound healing (secondary outcomes, other markers of wound healing, adverse events and patient satisfaction). A systematic literature review and tabulative synthesis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The review identified four RCTs of weak to moderate quality. Only one study examining NPWT in postamputation wound healing reported data on the primary outcome. These data show a 20% improvement in wound healing [odds ratios = 2·0%, confidence interval (CI) ,1·0 to 4·0] and number needed to treat = 6 (CI 4,64). No serious treatment-related complications were reported by any of the studies. One study suggested a reduction in the risk of secondary amputation (absolute risk reduction = 7·9%, CI 0·5,15·43). Studies also reported an increase in granulation and wound-healing rates in patients treated with NPWT therapy. No data on patient satisfaction or experience were reported. While all the studies included in the review indicated that the NPWT therapy is more effective than conventional dressings, the quality of the studies were weak and the nature of the inquiries in terms of outcome and patient selection divergent. There is a strong need for larger trials to assess NPWT therapy in diabetes care with different groups of patients and in relation to different clinical objectives and parameters. [source]

The first intensive care unit in the world: Copenhagen 1953

P. G. Berthelsen
After an extensive survey of the medical literature we present compelling evidence that the first intensive care unit was established at Kommunehospitalet in Copenhagen in December 1953. The pioneer was the Danish anaesthetist Bjørn Ibsen. The many factors that interacted favourably in Copenhagen to promote the idea of intensive care therapy, half a century ago, are also described. [source]

Small-volume resuscitation: from experimental evidence to clinical routine.

Advantages, disadvantages of hypertonic solutions
Background: The concept of small-volume resuscitatioin (SVR) using hypertonic solutions encompasses the rapid infusion of a small dose (4 ml per kg body weight, i.e. approximately 250 ml in an adult patient) of 7.2,7.5% NaCl/colloid solution. Originally, SVR was aimed for initial therapy of severe hypovolemia and shock associated with trauma. Methods: The present review focusses on the findings concerning the working mechanisms responsible for the rapid onset of the circulatory effect, the impact of the colloid component on microcirculatory resuscitation, and describes the indications for its application in the preclinical scenario as well as perioperatively and in intensive care medicine. Results: With respect to the actual data base of clinical trials SVR seems to be superior to conventional volume therapy with regard to faster normalization of microvascular perfusion during shock phases and early resumption of organ function. Particularly patients with head trauma in association with systemic hypotension appear to benefit. Besides, potential indications for this concept include cardiac and cardiovascular surgery (attenuation of reperfusion injury during declamping phase) and burn injury. The review also describes disadvantaages and potential adverse effects of SVR: Conclusion: Small-volume resuscitation by means of hypertonic NaCl/colloid solutions stands for one of the most innovative concepts for primary resuscitation from trauma and shock established in the past decade. Today the spectrum of potential indications envolves not only prehospital trauma care, but also perioperative and intensive care therapy. [source]

Effect of long-term belimumab treatment on b cells in systemic lupus erythematosus: Extension of a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study,

Annett M. Jacobi
Objective To understand the effects of long-term BLyS inhibition in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Seventeen patients with SLE who were enrolled in a clinical trial of belimumab, a BLyS-specific inhibitor, plus standard of care therapy were studied. Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes was performed using flow cytometry. Circulating antibody-secreting cells were enumerated using enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Serum was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using an antibody that recognizes products of the VH4,34 gene. Lymphocyte counts, Ig levels, and anti,double-stranded DNA antibody levels were available as part of the clinical trial analyses. Results Samples were collected on days 0, 84, 168, 365, and 532 and after day 730. The total number of B cells started to decrease from baseline between days 84 and 168. This was due to a decrease in naive and transitional B cells. CD27+IgD+ memory B cells and plasmablasts decreased only after 532 days, whereas CD27+IgD, memory B cells were not affected, and there were no changes in T cells. Serum IgM levels began to decline between days 84 and 168, but there were no changes in serum levels of IgG, IgG anti-DNA antibodies, or VH4,34 antibodies during the study. SLE patients had more IgM-, IgG-, and autoantibody-producing B cells than did normal controls on day 0. There was only a modest decrease in the frequency of total IgM-producing, but not IgG-producing, cells on days 365 and 532, consistent with the phenotypic and serologic data. Conclusion Our data confirm the dependence of newly formed B cells on BLyS for survival in humans. In contrast, memory B cells and plasma cells are less susceptible to selective BLyS inhibition. [source]