Care Services (care + services)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Care Services

  • acute care services
  • critical care services
  • health care services
  • home care services
  • palliative care services
  • primary care services
  • primary health care services
  • social care services

  • Terms modified by Care Services

  • care services for children

  • Selected Abstracts


    The foster care system attempts to prepare children and youth who have suffered child maltreatment for successful adult lives. This study documents the economic advantages of a privately funded foster care program that provided longer term, more intensive, and more expensive services compared to public programs. The study found significant differences in major adult educational, health, and social outcomes between children placed in the private program and those placed in public programs operated by Oregon and Washington. For the outcomes for which we could find financial data, the estimated present value of the enhanced foster care services exceeded their extra costs. Generalizing to the roughly 100,000 adolescents age 12-17 entering foster care each year, if all of them were to receive the private model of services, the savings for a single cohort of these children could be about $6.3 billion in 2007 dollars. (JEL D61, H75) [source]

    Integrating Health and Social Care Services for Older Persons: Evidence from Nine European Countries

    Jon Glasby
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Access to Health Care Services for the Disabled Elderly

    Donald H. Taylor Jr.
    Objective. To determine whether difficulty walking and the strategies persons use to compensate for this deficit influenced downstream Medicare expenditures. Data Source. Secondary data analysis of Medicare claims data (1999,2000) for age-eligible Medicare beneficiaries (N=4,997) responding to the community portion of the 1999 National Long Term Care Survey (NLTCS). Study Design. Longitudinal cohort study. Walking difficulty and compensatory strategy were measured at the 1999 NLTCS, and used to predict health care use as measured in Medicare claims data from the survey date through year-end 2000. Data Extraction. Respondents to the 1999 community NLTCS with complete information on key explanatory variables (walking difficulty and compensatory strategy) were linked with Medicare claims to define outcome variables (health care use and cost). Principal Findings. Persons who reported it was very difficult to walk had more downstream home health visits (1.1/month, p<.001), but fewer outpatient physician visits (,0.16/month, p<.001) after controlling for overall disease burden. Those using a compensatory strategy for walking also had increased home health visits/month (0.55 for equipment, 1.0 for personal assistance, p<.001 for both) but did not have significantly reduced outpatient visits. Persons reporting difficulty walking had increased downstream Medicare costs ranging from $163 to $222/month (p<.001) depending upon how difficult walking was. Less than half of the persons who used equipment to adapt to walking difficulty had their difficulty fully compensated by the use of equipment. Persons using equipment that fully compensated their difficulty used around $300/month less in Medicare-financed costs compared with those with residual difficulty. Conclusions. Difficulty walking and use of compensatory strategies are correlated with the use of Medicare-financed services. The potential impact on the Medicare program is large, given how common such limitations are among the elderly. [source]

    State Prescription Drug Policies, Cost Barriers, and the Use of Acute Care Services by Medicaid Beneficiaries

    This paper examines the relationship between Medicaid pharmacy benefit restrictions and reports of prescription cost barriers by beneficiaries, and the relationship between prescription cost barriers and hospitalizations. The analysis uses data for adult Medicaid beneficiaries from the 2000,2001 and 2003 Community Tracking Survey household surveys, combined with data on states' Medicaid pharmacy benefit restrictions and characteristics of local health-care markets. Estimation results show that state Medicaid restrictions are associated with a higher incidence of reported drug cost barriers and that Medicaid recipients who report prescription cost barriers experience a greater number of hospitalizations. [source]

    Hospitalists and intensivists: Partners in caring for the critically ill,The time has come,

    Michael Heisler MD
    Abstract A report by the Committee on Manpower for Pulmonary and Critical Care Societies (COMPACCS), published in 2000, predicted that beginning in 2007 a gap between the demand and availability of intensivists in the United States would become apparent and steadily increase to 22% by 2020 and to 35% by 2030. Subsequent reports have reiterated those projections including a report to congress in 2006 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Health Resources and Services Administration. This "gap" has been called a health system "crisis" by multiple authors. Two important documents have published specific recommendations for how to resolve this crisis: the Framing Options for Critical Care in the United States (FOCCUS) Task Force Report in 2004 and the Prioritizing the Organization and Management of Intensive Care Services in the Unites States (PrOMIS) Conference Report in 2007. Since the initial COMPACCS report and since these 2 additional reports were published, a new opportunity to take a major step in resolving this crisis has emerged: the growing number of hospitalists providing critical care services at secondary and tertiary care facilities. According to the 2005/2006 Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) National Survey, that number has increased to 75%. Since the number of intensivists is unlikely to change significantly over the next 25 years, the question is no longer "if" hospitalists should be in the intensive care unit (ICU); rather the question is how to assure quality and improved clinical outcomes through enhanced collaboration between hospital medicine and critical care medicine. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2010;5:1,3. © 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine. [source]

    Engaging Service Users in the Evaluation and Development of Forensic Mental Health Care Services, City University, London

    MARJORIE LLOYD rn rnt bsc msc

    Immediate follow-up after ICU discharge: establishment of a service and initial experiences

    Eunice Strahan
    Summary ,Follow-up of patients discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU) is recommended as a means of service evaluation (Department of Health (2000). Comprehensive Critical Care: a Review of Adult Critical Care Services), in order to monitor the quality of the services provided ,Without patient follow-up, ICU staff have only ,death' or ,discharge alive from hospital' as clinical outcomes from which to judge practice performance, and limited evidence exists on which to base decisions about improvements to critical care practice (Audit Commission (1999). Critical to Success , the Place of Efficient and Effective Critical Care Services Within the Acute Hospital ) ,To address these issues the Regional Intensive Care Unit (RICU) obtained information from patient assessment/interview on problems experienced by patients within 8,9 days (mean), following discharge from RICU ,A nurse-administered questionnaire was used to identify functional outcomes, nutrition and psychological issues such as anxiety and sleep disturbances ,Benefits of patient follow-up introduced and planned include: ,patient diaries for long-term patients ,input from clinical psychologist ,review of sedation used in RICU [source]

    Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest , implementation in UK intensive care units,

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 3 2010
    A. C. Binks
    Summary A telephone survey was carried out to determine how many United Kingdom intensive care units were using therapeutic hypothermia as part of their management of unconscious patients admitted after cardiac arrest. All 247 intensive care units listed in the 2008 Directory of Critical Care Services were contacted to determine how many units were using hypothermia as part of their post-cardiac arrest management and how it was implemented. We obtained information from 243 (98.4%) of the intensive care units. At the time of the study, 208 (85.6%) were using hypothermia as part of post-cardiac arrest management. There has been a steady increase annually in the number of units performing therapeutic cooling from 2003 to date, with the majority of units starting in 2007 or 2008. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation guidelines, which recommend the use of therapeutic hypothermia for comatose patients following successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest, have taken at least 4,5 years to achieve widespread implementation in the United Kingdom. [source]

    Children's Primary Health Care Services: A Social-Cognitive Model of Sustained High Use

    David M. Janicke
    Significant percentages of children exhibit patterns of sustained high use of primary health care services. Unfortunately, current models fail to explain the processes that drive and maintain such patterns. We draw upon the pediatric utilization and social-cognitive literature to develop a model that explains the mechanisms that ultimately drive and maintain patterns of prolonged high use. Specifically, we propose that parental stress and low self-efficacy for coping with various parenting and life demands interact to drive the utilization of pediatric services. We outlined sequelae of frequent physician that serve to maintain high use. This model suggests a number of psychological interventions that clinical health psychologists might undertake to remediate inappropriate, sustained high use of children's primary healthcare services. [source]


    The foster care system attempts to prepare children and youth who have suffered child maltreatment for successful adult lives. This study documents the economic advantages of a privately funded foster care program that provided longer term, more intensive, and more expensive services compared to public programs. The study found significant differences in major adult educational, health, and social outcomes between children placed in the private program and those placed in public programs operated by Oregon and Washington. For the outcomes for which we could find financial data, the estimated present value of the enhanced foster care services exceeded their extra costs. Generalizing to the roughly 100,000 adolescents age 12-17 entering foster care each year, if all of them were to receive the private model of services, the savings for a single cohort of these children could be about $6.3 billion in 2007 dollars. (JEL D61, H75) [source]

    The Role of Clinical and Process Quality in Achieving Patient Satisfaction in Hospitals

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 3 2004
    Kathryn A. Marley
    ABSTRACT Managers constantly struggle with where to allocate their resources and efforts in managing the complex service delivery system called a hospital. In the broadest sense, their decisions and actions focus on two important aspects of health care,clinical or technical medical care that emphasizes "what" the patient receives and process performance that emphasizes "how" health care services are delivered to patients. Here, we investigate the role of leadership, clinical quality, and process quality on patient satisfaction. A causal model is hypothesized and evaluated using structural equation modeling for a sample of 202 U.S. hospitals. Statistical results support the idea that leadership is a good exogenous construct and that clinical and process quality are good intermediate outcomes in determining patient satisfaction. Statistical results also suggest that hospital leadership has more influence on process quality than on clinical quality, which is predominantly the doctors' domain. Other results are discussed, such as that hospital managers must be mindful of the fact that process quality is at least as important as clinical quality in predicting patient satisfaction. The article concludes by proposing areas for future research. [source]

    Treatment of major depressive disorder in the Finnish general population

    Juha Hämäläinen M.D.M.A.
    Abstract Background: Few general population studies of the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) have included the whole spectrum of treatments. We estimated the rates of different treatments and the effect of individual and disorder characteristics plus provider type on treatment received. Methods: In the Health 2000 Study, a representative sample (n=6,005) from the adult Finnish population (,30 years) were interviewed (CIDI) in 2000,2001 for the presence of DSM-IV mental disorders during the past 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to examine factors influencing the type of treatment: either pharmacotherapies (antidepressants, anxiolytics, sedatives/hypnotics, antipsychotics) or psychological treatment. Results: Of the individuals with MDD (n=288), currently 24% used antidepressants, 11% anxiolytics, 16% sedatives/hypnotics, 5% antipsychotics, and 17% reported having received psychological treatment. Overall, 31% received antidepressants or psychological treatment or both; 18% received minimally adequate treatment. Of those 33% (n=94) using health care services for mental reasons, 76% received antidepressants or psychological treatment or both; 54% received minimal adequate treatment. In logistic regression models, the use of antidepressants was associated with female sex, being single, severe MDD, perceived disability, and comorbid dysthymic disorder; psychological treatment with being divorced, perceived disability, and comorbid anxiety disorder. Conclusions: Due to the low use of health services for mental reasons, only one-third of subjects with MDD use antidepressants, and less than one-fifth receives psychological treatment. The treatments provided are determined mostly by clinical factors such as severity and comorbidity, in part by sex and marital status, but not education or income. Depression and Anxiety 26:1049,1059, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Complementary and integrative medical therapies, the FDA, and the NIH: definitions and regulation

    Michael H. Cohen
    ABSTRACT: ,,The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) presently defines complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as covering "a broad range of healing philosophies (schools of thought), approaches, and therapies that mainstream Western (conventional) medicine does not commonly use, accept, study, understand, or make available. The research landscape, including NCCAM-funded research, is continually changing and subject to vigorous methodologic and interpretive debates. Part of the impetus for greater research dollars in this arena has been increasing consumer reliance on CAM to dramatically expand. State (not federal) law controls much of CAM practice. However, a significant federal role exists in the regulation of dietary supplements. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates foods, drugs, and cosmetics in interstate commerce. No new "drug" may be introduced into interstate commerce unless proven "safe" and "effective" for its intended use, as determined by FDA regulations. "Foods", however, are subject to different regulatory requirements, and need not go through trials proving safety and efficacy. The growing phenomenon of consumer use of vitamins, minerals, herbs, and other "dietary supplements" challenged the historical divide between drugs and foods. The federal Dietary Supplements Health Education Act (DSHEA) allows manufacturers to distribute dietary supplements without having to prove safety and efficacy, so long as the manufacturers make no claims linking the supplements to a specific disease. State law regulates the use of CAM therapies through a variety of legal rules. Of these, several major areas of concern for clinicians are professional licensure, scope of practice, and malpractice. Regarding licensure, each state has enacted medical licensing that prohibits the unlicensed practice of medicine and thereby criminalizes activity by unlicensed CAM providers who offer health care services to patients. Malpractice is defined as unskillful practice which fails to conform to a standard of care in the profession and results in injury. The definition is no different in CAM than in general medicine; its application to CAM, however, raises novel questions. Courts rely on medical consensus regarding the appropriateness of a given therapy. A framework for assessing potential liability risk involves assessing the medical evidence concerning safety and efficacy, and then aligning clinical decisions with liability concerns. Ultimately research will or will not establish a specific CAM therapy as an important part of the standard of care for the condition in question. Legal rules governing CAM providers and practices are, in many cases, new and evolving. Further, laws vary by state and their application depends on the specific clinical scenario in question. New research is constantly emerging, as are federal and state legislative developments and judicial opinions resulting from litigation. [source]


    ABSTRACT A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To date, the focus of attention has been on the thriving medical and reproductive tourism sectors in Asia and Eastern Europe; there has been much less consideration given to more recent ,players' in Latin America, notably fertility clinics in Chile, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. In this paper, we examine the context-specific ethical and policy implications of private Argentinean fertility clinics that market reproductive services via the internet. Whether or not one agrees that reproductive services should be made available as consumer goods, the fact is that they are provided as such by private clinics around the world. We argue that basic national regulatory mechanisms are required in countries such as Argentina that are marketing fertility services to local and international publics. Specifically, regular oversight of all fertility clinics is essential to ensure that consumer information is accurate and that marketed services are safe and effective. It is in the best interests of consumers, health professionals and policy makers that the reproductive tourism industry adopts safe and responsible medical practices. [source]

    Co-morbidity and the utilization of health care for Australian veterans with diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 1 2010
    Y. Zhang
    Diabet. Med. 27, 65,71 (2010) Abstract Objective, To examine the impact of co-morbidity on health service utilization by Australian veterans with diabetes. Methods, A retrospective cohort study was undertaken including veterans aged , 65 years dispensed medicines for diabetes in 2006. Data were sourced from the Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs health claims database. Utilization of preventive health services for diabetes was assessed, including claims for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) test, microabuminuria, podiatry services, diabetes care plans, medication reviews, case conferences, general practitioner (GP) management plans and ophthalmology/optometry services. Results, Among the 17 095 veterans dispensed medicines for diabetes, more than 80% had four or more co-morbid conditions. Those with a higher number of co-morbidities were more likely to have had claims for optometry/ophthalmology services and podiatry services, but not for other services. Veterans with at least one diabetes-related hospital admission had no more claims for diabetes health services than those who had no diabetics-related hospital admission, except for endocrinology services (relative risk = 1.26, 95% confidence intervals 1.15,1.37). Veterans with dementia were less likely to have had claims for diabetes health services while patients with renal failure were more likely to have had claims for the services. Conclusions, Low utilization of preventive diabetes care services is apparent in all co-morbidity groups. Patients with renal failure or dementia used more and less health services resources, respectively. Given the high mean age of this population, there may be valid reasons for the low use, such as competing health demands and patients' preferences. [source]

    Injecting risk behaviour and related harm among men who use performance- and image-enhancing drugs

    Abstract Introduction and Aims. Performance- and image-enhancing drugs have the potential to be a significant public health issue. Detailed data on PIEDs injection are difficult to obtain because of the illicit and unsupervised way in which many PIEDs are used, and the hidden nature of the group. Our study examines the patterns of use, risk behaviours and related harm associated with PIEDs injection. We also report the ways in which PIEDs users currently seek injecting equipment and harm-reduction advice. Design and Method. Data were obtained via a structured questionnaire administered in face-to-face interviews with 60 men who used PIEDs (primarily anabolic androgenic steroids) for non-medical purposes. Results. Although the rates of needle sharing were low (5%), the men more frequently reported re-use of needles/equipment, injecting from a shared container (bladders, vials, etc.), injecting other illicit drugs, injecting insulin and targeting small muscle groups. Self-reports of being hepatitis C antibody positive were associated with lifetime use of heroin and injection of other illicit drugs. All HIV positive participants were gay/bisexual men. Participants reported a range of other injection-related injuries and diseases such as fevers, scarring and abscesses. ,Risky' injectors (38% of participants) were more likely to initiate PIEDs use at a younger age, use PIEDs in a larger number of cycles per year and report involvement in a violent/aggressive incident than ,low risk' injectors and report involvement in a violent/aggressive incident than ,low risk' injectors. Participants mainly reported seeking information about PIEDs from internet sites (62%) and friends (55%). Conclusions. An over-reliance on personal networks and internet forums limits this groups' access to objective harm reduction advice and primary care services. Targeted, PIEDs-specific interventions are needed. [source]

    At-risk mental state (ARMS) detection in a community service center for early attention to psychosis in Barcelona

    Yanet Quijada
    Abstract Aim: To describe the strategy and some results in at-risk mental state (ARMS) patient detection as well as some of the ARMS clinical and socio-demographical characteristics. The subjects were selected among the patients visited by an Early Care Equipment for patients at high risk of psychoses, in Barcelona (Spain) during its first year in operation. Methods: Descriptive study of the community,team relations, selection criteria and intervention procedure. Description of patient's socio-demographic and symptomatic characteristics according to the different instruments used in detection and diagnoses, taking account of four principal origins of referrals: mental health services, primary care services, education services and social services. Results: Twenty of 55 referred people fulfilled the at-risk mental state criteria, showing an incidence of 2.4 cases per 10 000 inhabitants. They were mainly adolescent males referred from health, education and social services. Overall, negative symptoms were predominant symptoms and the more frequent specific symptoms were decrease of motivation and poor work and school performance, decreased ability to maintain or initiate social relationships, depressed mood and withdrawal. Conclusions: It is possible to detect and to provide early treatment to patients with prodromal symptoms if the whole matrix of the community , including the social services , contributes to the process. The utilization of a screening instrument and a two-phase strategy , the second carried out by the specialized team , seems to be an appropriate approach for early psychosis and ARMS detection. [source]

    Epidemiology of Adult Psychiatric Visits to U.S. Emergency Departments

    Sara B. Hazlett MD
    Objectives: To characterize psychiatric-related emergency department visits (PREDVs) among adults in the United States for the year 2000 and to analyze PREDV trends from 1992 to 2000. Methods: Emergency department (ED) visit data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were used to estimate the number of PREDVs for adults aged 18 years and older. A PREDV was defined as any visit with a psychiatric discharge diagnosis (ICD N290, N312) or a suicide attempt (ICD E950,E959). Results: Approximately 4.3 million PREDVs occurred in the United States in the year 2000, yielding an annual rate of 21 visits per 1,000 adults. The PREDV rates increased 15% between 1992 and 2000. The PREDVs accounted for 5.4% of all ED visits. Substance abuse (27%), neuroses (26%), and psychoses (21%) were the most common conditions. African Americans had significantly higher visit rates (29/1,000; 95% CI = 27/1,000 to 31/1,000) compared with whites (23/1,000; 95% CI = 22/1,000 to 25/1,000). Persons with Medicaid (66/1,000; 95% CI = 64/1,000 to 68/1,000) had double the rate of PREDVs than the uninsured (33/1,000; 95% CI = 31/1,000 to 35/1,000) and almost eight times the rate of those privately insured (8/1,000; 95% CI = 7/1,000 to 10/1,000). Patients with psychiatric diagnoses had a higher admission rate (22%) than those with nonpsychiatric diagnoses (15%). The uninsured were the least likely to be admitted for all major psychiatric conditions except suicide (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Psychiatric-related ED visits represent a substantial and growing number of ED visits each year. Patient characteristics influence the likelihood of a PREDV. Further research is needed to better understand the role that hospital EDs play in the delivery of health care services to those with mental illness. [source]

    Implementing a national treatment service for dependant smokers: initial challenges and solutions

    ADDICTION, Issue 2005
    Tim Coleman
    ABSTRACT Background Before 1999, few treatment services for nicotine-addicted smokers existed in England. When national treatment services were introduced, those responsible for setting them up liaised closely with primary care health services. Setting up an entirely new national service, treating a new category of patient (smokers motivated to stop) was an ambitious aim and this paper documents the problems encountered in the early stages of this process. Objectives To describe the principal challenges encountered and solutions employed by those setting up the services during the initial period of smoking cessation service implementation. Methods Qualitative, semistructured interviews with 50 smoking cessation staff in two former English health regions conducted in autumn 2001. Findings Two principal factors which slowed the initial development of smoking cessation services were: (i) the lack of a work-force with experience in smoking cessation methods and (ii) the fact that services were set up outside existing primary and secondary care health services in England. As few training courses in smoking cessation were available, many services provided their own in-house training for staff appointed as smoking cessation advisers. Consequently, senior service staff devoted a lot of effort to training new staff which meant that they had less time to spend on other important tasks which were necessary for service implementation. Smoking cessation services needed to develop relationships with primary care health services in order to generate referrals and find venues for the delivery of smoking cessation interventions. Liaising with primary care physicians was time-consuming, however, and some primary care physicians were opposed to the ideas that service staff had for the interface between primary care and smoking cessation services. As new smoking cessation services were not set up within existing primary or secondary health care services, service staff had to spend large amounts of time on this process of negotiation and overcoming scepticism from some primary health care physicians. Conclusions If smoking cessation services are set up in other countries, rapid implementation would be facilitated by ensuring that adequate numbers of health professionals trained in smoking cessation methods are available to staff services. Additionally, locating new smoking cessation services within existing health providers' services may speed up service implementation, but this option may not suit all health systems. [source]

    Provision of oncology services in remote rural areas: a Scottish perspective

    S.M. SMITH research assistant
    There is a paucity of research into rural health care services. In particular little is known about the provision of specialist cancer services for patients who live in remote rural areas of the UK. This study set out to investigate current models of medical and clinical oncology care in Scotland. A national survey with key health professionals was conducted to identify rural oncology schemes currently in operation. Detailed quantitative data about the schemes together with qualitative data on how health professionals view current models of care were collected by a computer-assisted telephone survey. Schemes that currently provide outpatient and chemotherapy oncology services for remote rural patients fell into three categories: central clinics (5); shared care outreach clinics with chemotherapy provision (11); and shared care outreach clinics without chemotherapy provision (7). All radiotherapy was conducted at central clinics (5). Widely varying practices in delivery of cancer care were found across the country. The main issues for professionals about current models of care involved expertise, travelling and accessibility (for patients), communication and expansion of the rural service. Nation-wide consistency in cancer care has still to be achieved. Travelling for treatment was seen to take its toll on all patients but particularly for the very remote, elderly and poor. Most professionals believe that an expansion of rural services would be of benefit to these patients. It is clear, however, that the proper infrastructure needs to be in place in terms of local expertise, ensured quality of care, and good communication links with cancer centres before this could happen. [source]

    Personal Care Services Utilization by Individuals With Developmental Disabilities

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 2 2010
    Charlene Harrington
    This study examined factors associated with the use of personal care services (PCS) and the amount of authorized hours in California in 2004,2005. Of those Medicaid-eligible individuals with developmental disabilities living at home, 31% received PCS. When we controlled for client need, gender, and age, individuals who were Asian/Pacific Islanders, African Americans, Hispanics, and other races had higher odds of receiving PCS than Whites but were authorized between 16 and 39 hours fewer than Whites. [source]

    Hospital care of people living in residential care facilities: Profile, utilization patterns and factors impacting on quality and safety of care

    Sanjay Jayasinghe
    Background: Residents in residential care facilities (RCF) are frequent users of acute hospital services. However, the interface between the two sectors remains relatively unexplored. Our objective was to determine the patterns of utilization, characteristics and experiences of RCF residents accessing a tertiary referral center (TRC). Methods: An observational study of RCF residents presenting to the TRC emergency department (ED). The experiences of acute care services were explored for more than one-quarter of this group 2,3 days postdischarge. The carer within the RCF acted as the proxy respondent. Results: During the study period, RCF residents accounted for 2.3% of all ED presentations. These presentations involved 526 residents. The dimension "continuity of care" for the Picker Patient Experience questionnaire had the highest proportion (53.1%) reporting a problem. The likelihood of reporting a problem for "continuity of care" (odds ratio [OR], 3.58; confidence interval [CI], 1.72,7.45) and "information and education" (OR, 2.62; CI, 1.14,3.01) were higher if the resident was admitted to a ward compared to ED only. If the resident had a low level care status the likelihood of reporting a problem for "continuity of care" (OR, 2.8; CI, 1.02,7.72) also increased. The odds of RCF staff reporting a problem for "ambulance service" were significantly higher if the resident's presentation was related to a fall. (OR, 3.35; CI, 1.28,8.8). Conclusion: The utilization rates for acute hospital care in our study were similar to the two previous Australian studies. Factors at the patient and organizational level impacted significantly on problems relating to the quality and safety of care being reported. [source]

    Inquiry into the ideal function of the pharmacy in home care,

    Mitsuko Onda
    Background: The aim of this study is to analyze why home-care services provided by pharmacists have not been effectively utilized. Method: Questionnaires were submitted to home-care service users, physicians, visiting nurses and home-helpers and pharmacy directors. We studied whether gaps existed between users' needs, physicians' expectations of pharmacy services and pharmacists' awareness of the importance of pharmacy services. We also investigated whether a failure to recognize the importance of cooperation with pharmacists in home-care provision existed among physicians and nurses/home-helpers. Results: Users and physicians expect pharmacists to be more involved in counseling about home care and welfare services than home-visiting services. Pharmacists recognize home visiting services as being of greater importance than counseling about home care and welfare services. The results indicated that gaps existed between users' needs, the physicians' expectations and pharmacists' awareness of the importance of pharmacy services. In terms of cooperation with pharmacists, study results implied that: (i) nurses/home-helpers' awareness of pharmacists' home-visiting service is lower than that of physicians; (ii) physicians' expectations regarding pharmacists' participation in home care services is lower than that of nurses/home-helpers; (iii) over 70% of both groups recognize the necessity of pharmacists' home-visiting service. Conclusions: Pharmacists need to get more involved in counseling users about home care and welfare. Also, there should be a special focus on heightening nurses/home-helpers' awareness of pharmacists' home-visiting service and on raising physicians' expectations for pharmacists' participation in home care services to develop home-care related pharmacy services in Japan. [source]

    Current admission policies of long-term care facilities in Japan

    Yoshihisa Hirakawa
    Background: The rapidly aging society in Japan is putting demands on long-term care facilities for the elderly who require care. In Europe and the USA, there is ongoing reform of elderly care services, but the establishment of system based on social insurance is still being explored in Japan. Methods: Two studies were conducted, the first in 2000 and the second in 2001, involving 91 long-term care facilities located in or around the city of Nagoya. Questionnaires were sent to facility directors, chief administrators or head nurses to inquire about their admission policies for six major patient categories. Two educational lectures on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and urinary incontinence were given between the distribution of the questionnaires. Results: For all six categories featured on the questionnaire, the acceptance rate in both studies was the highest in geriatric hospitals, and an improvement in acceptance rates was seen in the second study in all three types of care facilities. When the effect the lectures had on changes in admission policies at these facilities was examined, no correlation was found. Conclusions: Lectures should be given to facility management and personnel to raise their awareness of key issues and improve their efficiency. [source]

    A Pivotal Moment in 50 Years of Headache History: The First American Migraine Study

    HEADACHE, Issue 5 2008
    Stewart J. Tepper MD
    Objective., To describe the magnitude and distribution of the public health problem posed by migraine in the United States by examining migraine prevalence, attack frequency, and attack-related disability by gender, age, race, household income, geographic region, and urban vs rural residence. Design., In 1989, a self-administered questionnaire was sent to a sample of 15,000 households. A designated member of each household initially responded to the questionnaire. Each household member with severe headache was asked to respond to detailed questions about symptoms, frequency, and severity of headaches. Setting., A sample of households selected from a panel to be representative of the US population in terms of age, gender, household size, and geographic area. Participants., After a single mailing, 20,468 subjects (63.4% response rate) between 12 and 80 Years of age responded to the survey. Respondents and nonrespondents did not differ by gender, household income, region of the country, or urban vs rural status. Whites and the elderly were more likely to respond. Migraine headache cases were identified on the basis of reported symptoms using established diagnostic criteria. Results., In total, 17.6% of females and 5.7% of males were found to have 1 or more migraine headaches per year. The prevalence of migraine varied considerably by age and was highest in both men and women between the ages of 35 to 45 years. Migraine prevalence was strongly associated with household income; prevalence in the lowest-income group (less than $10,000) was more than 60% higher than in the 2 highest-income groups (greater than or equal to $30,000). The proportion of migraine sufferers who experienced moderate to severe disability was not related to gender, age, income, urban vs rural residence, or region of the country. In contrast, the frequency of headaches was lower in higher-income groups. Attack frequency was inversely related to disability. Conclusions., A projection to the US population suggests that 8.7 million females and 2.6 million males suffer from migraine headache with moderate to severe disability. Of these, 3.4 million females and 1.1 million males experience 1 or more attacks per month. Females between ages 30 and 49 years from lower-income households are at especially high risk of having migraines and are more likely than other groups to use emergency care services for their acute condition. [source]

    Etiology and Distribution of Headaches in Two Brazilian Primary Care Units

    HEADACHE, Issue 3 2000
    Marcelo E. Bigal MD
    Objectives.,To determine (a) which patients seek primary care services with a complaint of headache, (b) the percentages of the various types of headache in this population, and (c) the impact of the care provided to these patients on the basic health care network. Background.,Headache is one of the most frequent symptoms reported in medical practice, resulting in significant medical services costs and loss of patient productivity, as well as reduced quality of life. Methods.,A prospective study was conducted in two towns (Ribeirão Preto and São Carlos) in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The participants in the study consisted of 6006 patients (52.4% women) with highly varied acute symptoms. The patients ranged in age from 14 to 98 years. Results.,Headache as the main complaint was reported by 561 (9.3%) of the patients considered, with 312 (55.6%) of those patients presenting with primary headache, 221 (39.4%) with headaches secondary to systemic disorders, and 28 (5.0%) with headaches secondary to neurological disorders. Migraine, the most prevalent primary headache, accounted for 45.1% of patients reporting headache as the single symptom. The most frequent etiologies of headaches secondary to systemic disorders were fever, acute hypertension, and sinusitis. The most frequent headaches secondary to neurological disorders were posttraumatic headaches, headaches secondary to cervical disease, and expansive intracranial processes. Of the 26 cases of drug abuse, 20 were secondary to alcohol (hangover). Headaches secondary to systemic disorders were more frequent in the extreme age ranges. Conclusions.,Headache is a very frequent symptom among patients seen at primary health care units and should be considered a public health problem. The dissemination of the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society among primary health care physicians is urgently needed in order to avoid the repeated return of patients or their referral to more differentiated emergency units, which overburden an already insufficient health care network. [source]

    Developing world class commissioning competencies in care services in England: the role of the service improvement agency

    Michelle Cornes BA (Hons) PhD
    Abstract This article provides an insight into the support needs of health and social care commissioners seeking to develop world class commissioning competencies and the role of service improvement agencies in meeting these needs. Reporting findings from the evaluation of one service improvement agency based in England, we focus on the ,improvement supports' (the products and services) that were delivered by the ,Care Services Improvement Partnership' through its ,Better Commissioning Programme'. In-depth interviews were carried out with 25 care commissioners (n = 25) exploring how the Programme was used in their day to day work, its perceived value and limitations. Given the lack of employer-led training and induction we conclude that service improvement agencies play an important role in developing commissioners' skills and competencies. However, we suggest that achieving world class commissioning may depend on a more fundamental rethink of commissioning organisations' approaches to learning and development. [source]

    The health, social care and housing needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender older people: a review of the literature

    Samia Addis MSc
    Abstract This paper reports the findings of a literature review of the health, social care and housing needs of older lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) adults undertaken in 2006 for the Welsh Assembly Government. Peer-reviewed literature was identified through database searches of BNI, PubMed, CINAHL, DARE, ASSIA and PsychInfo. Follow-up searches were conducted using references to key papers and journals as well as specific authors who had published key papers. A total of 187 papers or chapters were retrieved, of which 66 were included in the study; major themes were identified and the findings synthesised using a meta-narrative approach. The main themes that emerged from the review were isolation, health behaviours, mental health and sexual health behaviours. The literature indicates that the health, social care and housing needs of LGBT older people is influenced by a number of forms of discrimination which may impact upon the provision of, access to and take up of health, social care and housing services. Understanding of the health, social care and housing needs of older LGBT people is limited and research in this area is scarce. The research which exists has been criticised for using small samples and for tending to exclude participants from less affluent backgrounds. The focus of research tends to be on gay men and lesbians; consequently, the needs of bisexual and transgender people remain largely unknown. Additionally, research which does exist tends to focus on a narrow range of health issues, often related to the health needs of younger LGBT people. Discrimination in various forms has a major impact on needs and experiences, leading to marginalisation of LGBT people both in the provision of health and social care services and neglect of these groups in public health research. [source]

    Understanding service context: development of a service pro forma to describe and measure elderly peoples' community and intermediate care services

    Susan A. Nancarrow PhD
    Abstract The purpose of this paper was to develop a pro forma which classifies the components of service delivery and organization which may impact on the outcomes of elderly peoples' community and intermediate care services. The resulting analytic template provides a basis for comparison between services and may help guide service commissioning and development. A qualitative approach was used in which key evaluations and reports were selected on the basis that they described elderly peoples' community and intermediate care services. These were analysed systematically using a qualitative (template) approach to draw out the key themes used to describe services. Themes were then structured hierarchically into an analytic template. Seventeen key documents were analysed. The initial coding framework classified 334 themes describing intermediate care services. These items were then clustered into 78 categories, which were reduced to 17 subcategories, then six overall groupings to describe the services, namely; (1) context; (2) reason for the service; (3) service-users; (4) access to the service; (5) service structure; and (6) the organization of care. The resulting analytic template has been developed into a ,service pro forma' which can be used as a basis to describe and compare a range of services. We propose that all service evaluations should describe, in detail, their context in a comparable way, so that other services can learn from and/or apply the findings from these studies. [source]

    Costs and health outcomes of intermediate care: results from five UK case study sites

    Billingsley Kaambwa MA
    Abstract The objectives of this study were to explore the costs and outcomes associated with different types of intermediate care (IC) services, and also to examine the characteristics of patients receiving such services. Five UK case studies of ,whole systems' of IC were used, with data collected on a sample of consecutive IC episodes between January 2003 and January 2004. Statistical differences in costs and outcomes associated with different IC services and patient groups were explored. Factors associated with variation in IC episode outcomes (EuroQol EQ-5D and Barthel Index) were explored using an econometric framework. Data were available for 2253 episodes of IC. In terms of Department of Health criteria, a large proportion of patients (up to 47% of those for whom data were available) in this study were inappropriately admitted to IC services. As regards service function, compared to supported discharge, admission avoidance services were associated with both lower costs and greater health and functional gains. These gains appear to be driven, in part, by illness severity (more dependent patients tended to gain most benefit). In addition, these gains appear to be larger where the admission was appropriate. Our work suggests a need for the development and application of robust and reliable clinical criteria for admission to IC, and close co-operation between hospital and community service providers over selection of patients and targeting of IC and acute care services to meet defined clinical need. [source]