Care Resources (care + resource)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Care Resources

  • health care resource


  • Selected Abstracts


    Osteoporosis and the Global Competition for Health Care Resources,

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 7 2004
    L Joseph Melton III
    Abstract Global aging superimposed on existing infectious diseases and trauma will aggravate competition for health care resources to diagnose and treat osteoporosis. Efforts to implement public health measures are needed, but the targeted approach to assessment and treatment of high-risk individuals must also be refined. Increases in the elderly population worldwide will cause a dramatic rise in osteoporotic fractures, but other age-related diseases will increase as well. Changes will be superimposed on existing public health problems (e.g., malaria, alcoholism), and these acute health care needs will take priority in some areas. Societies in most parts of the world may have to limit osteoporosis control to broad public health measures, and such efforts (e.g., calcium and vitamin D supplementation) should be supported. In these regions, clinical decision-making will generally be limited to treating patients with fractures (who presumably have already failed any public health measures in place), or in a few wealthy countries, to patients with low bone density identified by case-finding. Case-finding approaches will vary with the resources available, although unselective (mass) screening by bone densitometry is largely ineffective and unaffordable anywhere. The key to clinical decision-making on behalf of individuals will be an assessment of absolute fracture risk, and the tools needed to predict the risk of an osteoporotic fracture over the next 10 years are now being developed. These include bone density measures, but also incorporate other risk factors (e.g., fracture history, corticosteroid use), which may allow extension of fracture risk prediction to nonwhite populations and to men. Even with a universal risk prediction tool, cost-effective treatment thresholds will vary by country based on the level of fracture risk in the region and on the resources available for health care. To better compete for these resources, efforts should be made to lower the cost of osteoporosis interventions. Additionally, evidence is needed that these interventions are really effective in reducing fractures in the community. [source]


    A study of the criteria used by healthcare professionals, managers and patients to represent and evaluate quality care

    JOURNAL OF NURSING MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2001
    M. Attree msc, bnurs
    Aim,To explore the perceptions of and criteria used by healthcare professionals, managers, patients and relatives to represent and evaluate their concept of quality care. Methods A qualitative approach using grounded theory was adopted in thisexploratory descriptive study. Data collected by semi-structured interviews from a purposive sample of nurses, doctors, managers (n = 36), patients (n = 34) and relatives (n = 7) from one acute medical ward, were subjected to content, question and thematic analysis, using an inductive categorizing scheme. Findings Three categories of criteria relating to Care Resources, Processes and Outcomes were identified by healthcare professionals, managers, patients and relatives. Resource criteria included Human Resources: staff numbers, ratio to patients, skill mix; as well as Environmental/Physical and Financial Resources. Process criteria included Care Functions, Practices and Standards as well as Interpersonal Processes. Outcome criteria were either patient-focused: feeling comfort, happy, informed and satisfied; or health-related: maintenance or progress with health problems and goals. Conclusions The criteria used by healthcare stakeholders in this study were notunusual; virtually all were supported by the literature, a proportion of which was evidence-based. The criteria identified in this study are however consensual, agreed upon by healthcare professionals, managers, patients and relatives as representing their view of quality care. These consensual criteria could be used as unifying constructs for the development and testing of more comprehensive, reliable and valid methods of evaluating quality care which represent its multiple dimensions and perspectives. [source]


    The Art and Science of Surge: Experience from Israel and the U.S. Military

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 11 2006
    Boaz Tadmor MD
    In a disaster or mass casualty incident, health care resources may be exceeded and systems may be challenged by unusual requirements. These resources may include pharmaceuticals, supplies, and equipment as well as certain types of academic and administrative expertise. New agencies and decision makers may need to work together in an unfamiliar environment. Furthermore, large numbers of casualties needing treatment, newer therapies required to care for these casualties, and increased workforce and space available for these casualties all contribute to what is often referred to as "surge." Surge capacity in emergency care can be described in technical, scientific terms that are measured by numbers and benchmarks (e.g., beds, patients, and medications) or can take on a more conceptual and abstract form (e.g., decisions, authority, and responsibility). The former may be referred to as the "science" of surge, whereas the latter, an equal if not more important component of surge systems that is more conceptual and abstract, can be considered the "art" of surge. The experiences from Israel and the U.S. military may serve to educate colleagues who may be required to respond or react to an event that taxes the current health care system. This report presents concrete examples of surge capacity strategies used by both Israel and the U.S. military and provides solutions that may be applied to other health care systems when faced with similar situations. [source]


    Health status of children with moderate to severe cerebral palsy

    DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 6 2001
    Gregory S Liptak MD MPH
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the health of children with cerebral palsy (CP) using a global assessment of quality of life, condition-specific measures, and assessments of health care use. A multicenter population-based cross-sectional survey of 235 children, aged 2 to 18 years, with moderate to severe impairment, was carried out using Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III (n= 56), IV (n=55), and V (n=122). This study group scored significantly below the mean on the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) for Pain, General Health, Physical Functioning, and Impact on Parents. These children used more medications than children without CP from a national sample. Fifty-nine children used feeding tubes. Children in GMFCS level V who used a feeding tube had the lowest estimate of mental age, required the most health care resources, used the most medications, had the most respiratory problems, and had the lowest Global Health scores. Children with the most severe motor disability who have feeding tubes are an especially frail group who require numerous health-related resources and treatments. Also, there is a relationship among measures of health status such as the CHQ, functional abilities, use of resources, and mental age, but each appears to measure different aspects of health and well-being and should be used in combination to reflect children's overall health status. [source]


    Mechanisms of behavior change in alcoholics anonymous: does Alcoholics Anonymous lead to better alcohol use outcomes by reducing depression symptoms?

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
    John F. Kelly
    ABSTRACT Rationale Indices of negative affect, such as depression, have been implicated in stress-induced pathways to alcohol relapse. Empirically supported continuing care resources, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), emphasize reducing negative affect to reduce relapse risk, but little research has been conducted to examine putative affective mechanisms of AA's effects. Methods Using lagged, controlled, hierarchical linear modeling and mediational analyses this study investigated whether AA participation mobilized changes in depression symptoms and whether such changes explained subsequent reductions in alcohol use. Alcohol-dependent adults (n = 1706), receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial, were assessed at intake, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months. Results Findings revealed elevated levels of depression compared to the general population, which decreased during treatment and then remained stable over follow-up. Greater AA attendance was associated with better subsequent alcohol use outcomes and decreased depression. Greater depression was associated with heavier and more frequent drinking. Lagged mediation analyses revealed that the effects of AA on alcohol use was mediated partially by reductions in depression symptoms. However, this salutary effect on depression itself appeared to be explained by AA's proximal effect on reducing concurrent drinking. Conclusions AA attendance was associated both concurrently and predictively with improved alcohol outcomes. Although AA attendance was associated additionally with subsequent improvements in depression, it did not predict such improvements over and above concurrent alcohol use. AA appears to lead both to improvements in alcohol use and psychological and emotional wellbeing which, in turn, may reinforce further abstinence and recovery-related change. [source]


    A global view on prophylaxis: possibilities and consequences

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 2003
    A. D. Shapiro
    Summary., Prophylactic infusion therapy, both primary and secondary, has proven of great benefit to patients with haemophilia, specifically those with severe disease or bleeding episodes and patterns that have lead to development of arthropathy. At this time, optimal outcome in patients with severe haemophilia has been proven achievable with primary prophylaxis initiated at an early age in a regimen of three times weekly or every other day for patients with factor VIII deficiency, and twice weekly for those with factor IX deficiency. Despite the demonstrated benefit of primary prophylaxis, this treatment regimen has not been uniformly adopted into clinical practice even in developed countries. In developing countries, where issues of allocation of precious health care resources are of paramount importance, access to adequate treatment for persons with haemophilia on a programme of on-demand therapy is not commonly available; the cost of primary prophylaxis, even with intermediate purity plasma-derived factor concentrates or plasma fractions such as cryoprecipitate, renders this treatment the exception rather than the rule. [source]


    Reducing avoidable inequalities in health: a new criterion for setting health care capitation payments

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 8 2002
    Katharina Hauck
    Abstract Traditionally, most health care systems which pretend to any sort of rationality and cost control have sought to allocate their limited funds in order to secure equal opportunity of access for equal need. The UK government is implementing a fundamental change of resource allocation philosophy towards ,contributing to the reduction of avoidable health inequalities'. The purpose of this essay is to explore some of the economic issues that arise when seeking to allocate health care resources according to the new criterion. It indicates that health inequalities might arise because of variations in the quality of health services, variations in access to those services, or variations in the way people produce health, and that the resource allocation consequences differ depending on which source is being addressed. The paper shows that an objective of reducing health inequalities is not necessarily compatible with an objective of equity of access, nor with the objective of maximising health gain. The results have profound consequences for approaches towards economic evaluation, the role of clinical guidelines and performance management, as well as for resource allocation methods. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The Effect of Capitation on Switching Primary Care Physicians

    HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 1p1 2003
    Melony E. S. Sorbero
    Objective To examine the relationship between patient case-mix, utilization, primary care physician (PCP) payment method, and the probability that patients switch their PCPs. Data Sources/Study Setting Administrative enrollment and claims/encounter data for 1994,1995 from four physician organizations. Study Design We developed a conceptual model of patient switching behavior, which we used to guide the specification of multivariate logistic analyses focusing on interactions between patient case-mix, utilization, and PCP reimbursement methods. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Claims data were aggregated to the encounter level; a switch was defined as a change in PCP since the previous encounter. The PCPs were reimbursed on either a capitated or fee-for-service (FFS) basis. Principal Findings Patients with stable chronic conditions (Ambulatory Diagnostic Groups [ADG] 10) and capitated PCPs were 36 percent more likely to switch PCPs than similar patients with FFS PCPs, controlling for patient age and sex and physician fixed effects. When the number of previous encounters was included in the model, this relationship was no longer significant. Instead high utilizers with capitated PCPs were significantly more likely to switch PCPs than were similar patients with FFS PCPs. Conclusions A patient's demographics and utilization are associated with the probability that the patient will switch PCPs. Capitated PCP payment was associated with higher rates of switching among high utilizers of health care resources. These findings raise concerns about the continuity and quality of care experienced by vulnerable patients in an era of changing financial incentives. [source]


    Survey of the medical financial assistance schemes of the urban poor in Shanghai

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2002
    Sun Xiao-ming
    Abstract After 1990, being a ,pilot city' for health care reform, Shanghai constructed modernized medical financial assistance schemes (MFAS), which were progressively applied by the central government rate in the 1990s. As the pioneer of social security reform in China, Shanghai again is the place with most experience of the problems of the transition from ,Public-Relief' to ,Social-Assistance'. From the ,user' perspective of MFAS, the study reported has attempted to evaluate MFASs. Furthermore, the research seeks to point to future policy and programme options for implementing MFAS and optimizing the allocation of urban health care resources. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Health Care Need: Three Interpretations

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHILOSOPHY, Issue 2 2006
    ANDREAS HASMAN
    abstract The argument that scarce health care resources should be distributed so that patients in ,need' are given priority for treatment is rarely contested. In this paper, we argue that if need is to play a significant role in distributive decisions it is crucial that what is meant by need can be precisely articulated. Following a discussion of the general features of health care need, we propose three principal interpretations of need, each of which focuses on separate intuitions. Although this account may not be a completely exhaustive reflection of what people mean when they refer to need, the three interpretations provide a starting-point for further debate of what the concept means in its specific application. We discuss combined interpretations, the meaning of grading needs, and compare needs-based priority setting to social welfare maximisation. [source]


    Osteoporosis and the Global Competition for Health Care Resources,

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 7 2004
    L Joseph Melton III
    Abstract Global aging superimposed on existing infectious diseases and trauma will aggravate competition for health care resources to diagnose and treat osteoporosis. Efforts to implement public health measures are needed, but the targeted approach to assessment and treatment of high-risk individuals must also be refined. Increases in the elderly population worldwide will cause a dramatic rise in osteoporotic fractures, but other age-related diseases will increase as well. Changes will be superimposed on existing public health problems (e.g., malaria, alcoholism), and these acute health care needs will take priority in some areas. Societies in most parts of the world may have to limit osteoporosis control to broad public health measures, and such efforts (e.g., calcium and vitamin D supplementation) should be supported. In these regions, clinical decision-making will generally be limited to treating patients with fractures (who presumably have already failed any public health measures in place), or in a few wealthy countries, to patients with low bone density identified by case-finding. Case-finding approaches will vary with the resources available, although unselective (mass) screening by bone densitometry is largely ineffective and unaffordable anywhere. The key to clinical decision-making on behalf of individuals will be an assessment of absolute fracture risk, and the tools needed to predict the risk of an osteoporotic fracture over the next 10 years are now being developed. These include bone density measures, but also incorporate other risk factors (e.g., fracture history, corticosteroid use), which may allow extension of fracture risk prediction to nonwhite populations and to men. Even with a universal risk prediction tool, cost-effective treatment thresholds will vary by country based on the level of fracture risk in the region and on the resources available for health care. To better compete for these resources, efforts should be made to lower the cost of osteoporosis interventions. Additionally, evidence is needed that these interventions are really effective in reducing fractures in the community. [source]


    Prudent evidence-fettered shared decision making

    JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 2 2010
    Elizabeth (Libby) Bogdan-Lovis MA
    Abstract In its brief tenure evidence-based medicine (EBM) has proven to be a powerful magnet for criticism, while at the same time it has demonstrated impressive resilience. Located within the ongoing critical discourse surrounding the strengths and weaknesses of an EBM approach is the persistent question of the proper place of the social sciences relative to other disciplinary perspectives. This article considers one way the social sciences might usefully illuminate EBM-mediated human interactions to influence policy. We focus on the ethical nexus of the human impulse for unlimited consumption of health care resources in those situations where there exist competing clinical management options and suggest strategies for resource-preserving shared decision making. We conclude that a frugal default option is a fruitful avenue for future exploration in such situations. [source]


    Identifying Children with Dental Care Needs: Evaluation of a Targeted School-based Dental Screening Program

    JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH DENTISTRY, Issue 2 2004
    David Locker BDS
    Abstract Objectives: It has been suggested that changes in the distribution of dental caries mean that targeting high-risk groups can maximize the cost effectiveness of dental health programs. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a targeted school-based dental screening program in terms of the proportion of children with dental care needs it identified. Methods: The target population was all children in junior and senior kindergarten and grades 2, 4, 6, and 8 who attended schools in four Ontario communities. The study was conducted in a random sample of 38 schools stratified according to caries risk. Universal screening was implemented in these schools. The parents of all children identified as having dental care needs were sent a short questionnaire to document the sociodemographic and family characteristics of these children. Children with needs were divided into two groups: those who would and who would not have been identified had the targeted program been implemented. The characteristics of the two groups were compared. Results: Overall, 21.0 percent of the target population were identified as needing dental care, with 7.4 percent needing urgent care. The targeted program would have identified 43.5 percent of those with dental care needs and 58.0 percent of those with urgent needs. There were substantial differences across the four communities in the proportions identified by the targeted program. Identification rates were lowest when the difference in prevalence of need between the high- and low-risk groups was small and where the low-risk group was large in relation to the high-risk group. The targeted program was more effective at identifying children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Of those with needs who lived in households receiving government income support, 59.0 percent of those with needs and 80.1 percent of those with urgent needs would be identified. Conclusions: The targeted program was most effective at identifying children with dental care needs from disadvantaged backgrounds. However, any improvements in cost effectiveness achieved by targeting must be balanced against inequities in access to public health care resources. [source]


    Mechanisms of renal disease in indigenous populations: influences at work in Canadian indigenous peoples

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    Roland F Dyck
    SUMMARY: Canadian aboriginal people experience end-stage renal disease at rates 2.5,4 times higher than those found in the general population. Up to 60% of cases are due to diabetic end-stage renal disease, while most of the remainder are caused by a variety of types of glomerulonephritis. The greatest increase in cases of end-stage renal disease among aboriginal people since 1981 has been observed in those with diabetes. There appear to be three major contributing influences to the increase in diabetic end-stage renal disease among Canadian aboriginal people. First, the rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus have increased from virtually zero to several times those seen in the general population in less than 60 years. Second, aboriginal people with diabetes have seven times the rate of diabetic end-stage renal disease compared with their non-aboriginal counterparts. Finally, birth rates among aboriginal people are higher than in any other segment of the population. An epidemic of diabetic end-stage renal disease is the most important nephrological issue facing Canadian aboriginal people and threatens to overwhelm health care resources in many parts of the country unless effective early recognition and prevention programmes are established. [source]


    Management of HIV and AIDS in the African context

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 2002
    R Wood
    The initial response to the African HIV epidemic was to concentrate on the prevention of new infections. There is now an urgent need to address the health care requirements of large numbers of already infected individuals. The spectrum of disease in the African setting is dominated by tuberculosis, bacterial and protozoan infections. In much of Africa, health services are overwhelmed by the care of terminally ill AIDS patients. In the absence of specific HIV therapy, health care resources are being increasingly utilised, but with little survival benefit for the individual. Resources available for treating patients vary considerably between the richer and poorer countries of the continent. Primary prevention of opportunistic infections and maternal child transmission are at present affordable and cost-effective interventions. Whilst antiretroviral therapies may presently be unaffordable in much of Africa, they represent a modality that can have a major effect on HIV survival. The challenge is to improve the health and longevity of HIV-infected individuals with the rational use of the limited health resources available in Africa today. [source]


    Outcomes of inpatients with and without sickle cell disease after high-volume surgical procedures,

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Issue 11 2009
    Michaela A. Dinan
    In this study, we examined differences in inpatient costs, length of stay, and in-hospital mortality between hospitalizations for patients with and without sickle cell disease (SCD) undergoing high-volume surgical procedures. We used Clinical Classification Software (CCS) codes to identify discharges in the 2002,2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project for patients who had undergone either cholecystectomy or hip replacement. We limited the non-SCD cohort to hospitals where patients with SCD had undergone the same procedure. We compared inpatient outcomes using summary statistics and generalized linear regression analysis to adjust for patient, hospital, and procedural characteristics. Overall, the median age of surgical patients with SCD was more than three decades less than the median age of patients without SCD undergoing the same procedure. In recognition of the age disparity, we limited the analyses to patients aged 18 to 64 years. Nonetheless, patients with SCD undergoing cholecystectomy or hip replacement were 12.1 and 14.4 years younger, had inpatient stays that were 73% and 82% longer, and incurred costs that were 46% and 40% higher per discharge than patients without SCD, respectively. Inpatient mortality for these procedures was low, ,0.6% for cholecystectomy and 0.2% for hip replacement and did not differ significantly between patients with and without SCD. Multivariable regression analyses revealed that higher inpatient costs among patients with SCD were primarily attributable to longer hospital stays. Patients with SCD who underwent cholecystectomy or hip replacement required more health care resources than patients without SCD. Am. J. Hematol. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    The course and correlates of high hospital utilization in sickle cell disease: Evidence from a large, urban Medicaid managed care organization,

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Issue 10 2009
    C. Patrick Carroll
    Although most patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are hospitalized infrequently and manage painful crises at home, a small subpopulation is frequently admitted to emergency departments and inpatient units. This small group accounts for the majority of health care expenses for patients with SCD. Using inpatient claims data from a large, urban Medicaid MCO for 5 consecutive years, this study sought to describe the course of high inpatient utilization (averaging four or more admissions enrolled per year for at least 1 year) in members with a diagnosis of SCD and a history of hospitalizations for vaso-occlusive crisis. High utilizers were compared with the other members with SCD on demographics, medical and psychiatric comorbidity, and use of other health care resources. Members who were high utilizers had more diagnostic mentions of sickle cell complications than low utilizers. However, the pattern of high inpatient utilization was likely to moderate over successive years, and return to the pattern after moderation was uncommon. Despite this, a small subpopulation engaged in exceptional levels of inpatient utilization over multiple years. Am. J. Hematol., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    New challenges in the management of prolonged survivors of pediatric neuromuscular diseases: A pulmonologist's perspective

    PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY, Issue 12 2006
    David J. Birnkrant MD
    Abstract Many patients with pediatric neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) are now achieving prolonged survival through advances in management of the cardiopulmonary complications of their illnesses. Because respiratory complications are among the main causes of mortality and morbidity in these diseases, pulmonologists are in a unique position to observe and describe the largely unanticipated medical, social, and ethical problems generated when patients with progressive NMDs achieve prolonged survival. For example, prolonged survivors of pediatric NMDs are now experiencing previously rare or unknown medical complications, an unprecedented severity of burden of disease and the potential for prolonged impairment of quality of life. As the patients age, their families must cope with a high level of burden of care. Society's acceptance of the eligibility of these patients to utilize critical care resources, and issues related to the transition of prolonged survivors from pediatric to adult medical providers and venues have resulted in complex practical and ethical issues. In this article, the author, a pediatric pulmonologist closely involved in the care of patients with NMDs, will identify and discuss some of the major medical, social, and ethical implications of prolonged survival among these patients, with an emphasis on Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common of the pediatric NMDs. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2006; 41:1113,1117. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Cost-effectiveness of routine and group programs for treatment of obese children

    PEDIATRICS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 5 2009
    Marja Kalavainen
    Abstract Background:, Cost-effectiveness analyses facilitate the allocation of health care resources. The aim of the study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of group treatment, already known to be more effective, with routine counseling in obese children. Method:, A prospective 6-month intervention assessed family-based group treatment (15 separate sessions for parents and children) and routine counseling (two appointments for children). Children's weights and heights were measured at baseline, at the end of the intervention and at follow up 6 months later, and the changes in weight for height and body mass index standard deviations scores (BMI-SDS) were calculated and used as main outcome measures. The mean costs and effects of the programs were analyzed to produce the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, which is an estimate of the additional costs per 1% decrease in weight for height or 0.1 decrease in BMI-SDS. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the perspective of the service provider. Results:, At the end of the intervention, group treatment costs were 1.4-fold (non-calculable 6 months later) when counted per 1% weight for height decrease, and 3.5-fold (2.8-fold 6 months later) when counted per 0.1 BMI-SDS decrease. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio estimates were ,53 when calculated for 1% weight for height decrease, and ,266 (,275 6 months later) when calculated for 0.1 BMI-SDS decrease. Conclusions:, Family-based group treatment is more costly compared with individual routine counseling. Salaries form most of the total costs. [source]


    Impact of genetic variation on perioperative bleeding

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Issue 9 2008
    Jochen D. Muehlschlegel
    Variation in bleeding in the perioperative period is a complex and multifactorial event associated with immediate and delayed consequences for the patient and health care resources. Little is known about the complex genetic influences on perioperative bleeding. With the discovery of multiple variations in the human genome and ever-growing databases of well-phenotyped surgical patients, better identification of patients at risk of bleeding is becoming a reality. In this review, polymorphisms in the platelet receptor genes, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and angiotensin genes among others will be discussed. We will explore the nature, effects, and implications of the genetics that influence perioperative bleeding above and beyond surgical bleeding, particularly in cardiac surgery. Am. J. Hematol., 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Relationship of age to symptom severity, psychiatric comorbidity and health care utilization in persons with borderline personality disorder

    PERSONALITY AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 1 2008
    Nancee Blum
    Background,The objective of the study was to test the association of age with symptom severity, frequency and pattern of psychiatric comorbidity, health care utilization and quality of life in subjects with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Methods,The analysis is based on a sample of subjects with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disroders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) BPD (n = 163) recruited for participation in a clinical trial at an academic medical center. The subjects were assessed using structured and semi-structured instruments of known reliability. Results,Tests of trend with age showed relationships with important variables assessing symptom severity, comorbidity, quality of life and health care utilization. As expected, younger subjects were less likely to be married, to be employed or to receive disability payments. The frequency of most lifetime comorbid Axis I disorders was not related to age, although posttraumatic stress disorder was more frequent in the 35- to 44-year age group, and younger patients were more likely to have comorbid histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders. Baseline severity variables were mostly unrelated to age, with the exception of impulsivity, which was more common in younger patients, as were acts of deliberate self-harm. As expected, older patients reported poorer quality of life in categories indicating worse health perception and greater pain levels, and tended to use more health care resources than younger patients. Conclusion,Most characteristics of patients with BPD are unrelated to age, yet impulsivity and acts of deliberate self-harm were less frequent in older patients. Expected age-related changes, such as reports of worse physical health, greater pain levels and greater health care utilization, were observed in older subjects. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Capacity building through research and educational collaboration: a report of a UK,Sri Lanka collaboration

    PRACTICAL DIABETES INTERNATIONAL (INCORPORATING CARDIABETES), Issue 8 2006
    A Dissanayake MD Lecturer, International Training Fellow
    Abstract Developing countries are faced with an escalating epidemic of non-communicable diseases. There is an urgent need to build capacity in terms of health care resources to combat this epidemic. In this article we describe a project co-funded by the World Diabetes Foundation, the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine Colombo Sri Lanka, the Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Trust of Sri Lanka, and the charitable Sri Lanka Education Fund held in Trust at Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Trust, UK. This project has sought to improve capacity in a developing country through fostering research and educational partnerships. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons. [source]


    Practical and Policy Implications of Using Different Rural-Urban Classification Systems: A Case Study of Inpatient Service Utilization Among Veterans Administration Users

    THE JOURNAL OF RURAL HEALTH, Issue 3 2009
    Ethan M. Berke MD
    ABSTRACT:,Context: Several classification systems exist for defining rural areas, which may lead to different interpretations of rural health services data. Purpose: To compare rural classification systems on their implications for estimating Veterans Administration (VA) utilization. Methods: Using 7 classification systems, we counted VA health care enrollees who lived in each category, and number admitted to VA hospitals or non-VA hospitals under Medicare. For dual VA-Medicare enrollees over age 65, we compared VA and private sector hospitalizations on numbers of admissions and bed-days of care. We compared VA enrollees' relative proportions across rural to urban categories for each classification system and evaluated discordance between systems at the veterans-integrated service networks (VISN) level. Findings: Enrollment and inpatient utilization counts for rural veterans vary considerably from one classification system to another, though the systems generally agree that admission rates, length of stay, and reliance on the VA for care are lower for rural veterans. Among older dual VA and Medicare enrollees, rural residents rely on non-VA facilities more, though this effect also varies widely depending on the classification scheme. VISNs vary greatly in the proportions of patients who are rural residents, and in the degree to which classification systems are discordant in designating patients as rural. Conclusions: Decisions about allocating VA health care resources to target "rural" patients may be affected greatly by the rural classification system chosen, and the impact of this choice will affect some hospital networks much more than others. [source]


    National Health Service Corps Staffing and the Growth of the Local Rural Non-NHSC Primary Care Physician Workforce

    THE JOURNAL OF RURAL HEALTH, Issue 4 2006
    Donald E. Pathman MD
    ABSTRACT:,Context: Beyond providing temporary staffing, National Health Service Corps (NHSC) clinicians are believed by some observers to contribute to the long-term growth of the non-NHSC physician workforce of the communities where they serve; others worry that NHSC clinicians compete with and impede the supply of other local physicians. Purpose: To assess long-term changes in the non-NHSC primary care physician workforce of rural underserved counties that have received NHSC staffing support relative to workforce changes in underserved counties without NHSC support. Methods: Using data from the American Medical Association and NHSC, we compared changes from 1981 to 2001 in non-NHSC primary care physician to population ratios in 2 subsets of rural whole-county health professional shortage areas: (1) 141 counties staffed by NHSC physicians, nurse practitioners, and/or physician assistants during the early 1980s and for many of the years since and (2) all 142 rural health professional shortage area counties that had no NHSC clinicians from 1979 through 2001. Findings: From 1981 to 2001, counties staffed by NHSC clinicians experienced a mean increase of 1.4 non-NHSC primary care physicians per 10,000 population, compared to a smaller, 0.57 mean increase in counties without NHSC clinicians. The finding of greater non-NHSC primary care physician to population mean ratio increase in NHSC-supported counties remained significant after adjusting for baseline county demographics and health care resources (P < .001). The estimated number of "extra" non-NHSC physicians in NHSC-supported counties in 2001 attributable to the NHSC was 294 additional physicians for the 141 supported counties, or 2 extra physicians, on average, for each NHSC-supported county. Over the 20 years, more NHSC-supported counties saw their non-NHSC primary care workforces grow to more than 1 physician per 3,500 persons, but no more NHSC-supported than nonsupported counties lost their health professional shortage area designations.Conclusions: These data suggest that the NHSC contributed positively to the non-NHSC primary care physician workforce in the rural underserved counties where its clinicians worked during the 1980s and 1990s. [source]


    Cytokine and anti-cytokine therapy in asthma: ready for the clinic?

    CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    D. Desai
    Summary Asthma is a common disease with an increasing prevalence worldwide. Up to 10% of these patients have asthma that is refractory to current therapy. This group have a disproportionate use of health care resources attributed to asthma, have significant morbidity and mortality and therefore represent an unmet clinical need. Asthma is a complex heterogeneous condition that is characterized by typical symptoms and disordered airway physiology set against a background of airway inflammation and remodelling. The inflammatory process underlying asthma is co-ordinated by a cytokine network. Modulating this network with biological therapy presents a new paradigm for asthma treatment. Clinical trials undertaken to date have underscored the complexity of the inflammatory profile and its relationship to the clinical features of the disease and have raised the importance of safety considerations related to these novel therapies. T helper type 2 cytokine blockade remains the most promising strategy, with anti-interleukin-5 reducing asthma exacerbations. Although anti-cytokine therapy is not yet ready for the clinic, the long-awaited possibility of new treatments for severe asthma is moving ever closer. [source]


    Need for hospice and palliative care services in patients with end-stage heart failure treated with intermittent infusion of inotropes

    CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    Angel López-Candales M.D. FACC
    Abstract Background: Hospice and palliative care programs to relieve suffering and optimize management of terminally ill patients have grown rapidly in the United States. However, there are no data on the need for these services among patients with end-stage heart failure receiving intermittent infusion of intravenous inotropes. Hypothesis: The need for hospice and palliative care programs among patients in end-stage heart failure who receive intermittent infusion of inotropes is investigated. Methods: The study included all stable patients with refractory heart failure symptoms treated with inotropes in our outpatient unit. A total of 73 patients (65 ± 12years; left ventricular ejection fraction 22 ± 9%; New York Heart Association class 3.6 ± 0.4) were seen during a 49-month period. Of these, 3 5 patients (48%) met hospice or palliative care evaluation criteria upon referral but were offered, and accepted, the alternative of parenteral inotropes. In all, 1,737 individual outpatient treatment sessions were given, with a mean of 24 ± 19 sessions per patient (range 5 to 118 sessions), representing a minimum of 9,948 h of inotrope therapy. Results: A total of 18 (25%) patients died, 6 (8%) patients were withdrawn from the program (3 by their primary physicians and 3 because of significant travel limitations); 4 (5%) patients required continuous intravenous home therapy; and 44 (61%) patients were discharged with significant improvement in their heart failure symptoms. Only 7 of the 18 patients who died had received hospice or palliative care intervention, mainly for the sake of comfort and to ease the transition among family members. The rest of the patients were comfortable and had accepted the natural evolution of their disease; they were not interested in or did not require hospice or palliative care intervention. Of the patients discharged from the outpatient cardiac infusion unit, the interval free of heart failure symptoms after the final infusion treatment ranged from 201 to 489 days, with no need for hospitalization or emergency room visits. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that intermittent infusion of intravenous inotropes can be safely administered and can improve symptoms in a significant number of patients, probably by slowing the natural progression of heart failure. Although the full clinical impact of inotrope therapy in an outpatient setting has not been fully defined, other nonhemodynamic-related benefits should be sought and investigated. Our results suggest that intermittent infusion of intravenous inotropes is one of the prominent variables that requires particular attention. In our experience, the institution of intermittent infusions of intravenous inotropes can, in fact, modify end-stage heart failure symptoms that, in most patients, are currently perceived to lead to a terminal event. Thus, appropriate use of intermittent infusion of intravenous inotropes may not only improve functional class and symptoms in a significant number of patients identified as terminal by their poor response to conventional therapy, but it may also facilitate better utilization of hospice and palliative care resources among patients with end-stage heart failure. Furthermore, the need for hospice and palliative care in patients with heart failure should be revisited in view of adjuvant treatment options such as intermittent infusion of intravenous inotropes. [source]