Care Protocol (care + protocol)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Diabetes Care Protocol: effects on patient-important outcomes.

A cluster randomized, non-inferiority trial in primary care
Diabet. Med. 27, 442,450 (2010) Abstract Aims, The Diabetes Care Protocol (DCP) combines task delegation, intensification of diabetes treatment and feedback. It reduces cardiovascular risk in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. This study determines the effects of DCP on patient-important outcomes. Methods, A cluster randomized, non-inferiority trial, by self-administered questionnaires in 55 Dutch primary care practices: 26 practices DCP (1699 patients), 26 usual care (1692 patients). T2DM patients treated by their general practitioner were included. Main outcome was the 1-year between-group difference in Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-18) total score. Secondary outcomes: DHP-18 subscales, general perceived health [Medical Outcomes Study 36-Items Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Euroqol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) and Euroqol visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS)], treatment satisfaction (Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire; DTSQ status) and psychosocial self-efficacy (Diabetes Empowerment Scale Short Form; DES-SF). Per protocol (PP) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were performed: non-inferiority margin , = ,2%. At baseline 2333 questionnaires were returned and 1437 1 year thereafter. Results, Comparing DCP with usual care, DHP-18 total score was non-inferior: PP ,0.88 (95% CI ,1.94 to 0.12), ITT ,0.439 (95% CI ,1.01 to 0.08), SF-36 ,health change' improved: PP 3.51 (95% CI 1.23 to 5.82), ITT 1.91 (95% CI 0.62 to 3.23), SF-36 ,social functioning' was inconclusive: PP ,1.57 (95% CI ,4.3 to 0.72), ITT ,1.031 (95% CI ,2.52 to ,0.25). Other DHP and SF-36 scores were inconsistent or non-inferior. DHP-18 ,disinhibited eating' was significantly worse in PP analyses. For EQ-5D/EQ-VAS, DTSQ and DES-SF, no significant between-group differences were found. Conclusion, DCP does not seem to influence health status negatively, therefore diabetes care providers should not shrink from intensified treatment. However, they should take possible detrimental effects on ,social functioning' and ,disinhibited eating' into account. [source]

State of the art and recommendationsKangaroo mother care: application in a high-tech environment

KH Nyqvist
Abstract Since Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) was developed in Colombia in the 1970s, two trends in clinical application emerged. In low income settings, the original KMC model is implemented. This consists of continuous (24 h/day, 7 days/week) and prolonged mother/parent,infant skin-to-skin contact; early discharge with the infant in the kangaroo position; (ideally) exclusive breastfeeding; and, adequate follow-up. In affluent settings, intermittent KMC with sessions of one or a few hours skin-to-skin contact for a limited period is common. As a result of the increasing evidence of the benefits of KMC for both infants and families in all intensive care settings, KMC in a high-tech environment was chosen as the topic for the first European Conference on KMC, and the clinical implementation of the KMC model in all types of settings was discussed at the 7th International Workshop on KMC. Kangaroo Mother Care protocols in high-tech Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) should specify criteria for initiation, kangaroo position, transfer to/from KMC, transport in kangaroo position, kangaroo nutrition, parents' role, modification of the NICU environment, performance of care in KMC, and KMC in case of infant instability. Conclusion:, Implementation of the original KMC method, with continuous skin-to-skin contact whenever possible, is recommended for application in high-tech environments, although scientific evaluation should continue. [source]

Managing the wandering behaviour of people living in a residential aged care facility

Brent Hodgkinson BSc MSc GradCertPubHealth GradCertHealthEcon
Abstract Background, Wandering behaviour is frequently seen in older people with cognitive impairment. The prevalence of patients exhibiting wandering behaviour has been estimated to be 11.6% on traditional units and 52.7% on Alzheimer's units. Wandering is one of the core behavioural characteristics that impact on familial carers and is likely to influence the decision to place a family member in an aged care environment. Considering the possible risks associated with wandering behaviour, the successful identification and management of wandering is essential. Wandering is also a problem for caregivers in the institutionalised setting, in terms of containment, usually being addressed by securing the environment. There has been some research conducted to assist in the understanding and management of wandering behaviour; however, the findings have been diverse resulting in a level of confusion about the best approaches to take. Objectives, This review aims to present the best available evidence on the management of wandering in older adults who reside in an aged care facility (both high and low care). Search strategy, An extensive search of keywords contained in the title and abstract, and relevant MeSH headings and descriptor terms was performed on the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AGELINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, APAIS Health, Current Contents, Dare, Dissertation Abstracts, Personal Communication, Social Science Index. Selection criteria, Papers were selected if they focused on the treatment of wandering in an institutional setting. Some studies were not specifically examining wanderers over the age of 65 years as per the protocol requirements, but were included as it was felt that their findings could be applied to this age group. Data collection and analysis, Study design and quality were tabulated and relative risks, odds ratios, mean differences and associated 95% confidence intervals were calculated from individual comparative studies containing count data where possible. All other data were presented in a narrative summary. Results, Searches identified one care protocol, two systematic reviews and 24 other studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria. The following recommendations are divided into four categories of interventions (environmental, technology and safety, physical/psychosocial, and caregiving support and education) with only Level 1, 2 or 3 evidence presented. Environmental modifications, Gridlines placed in front of doors or covering exit door doorknobs or panic bars may be effective at reducing exit-seeking behaviour (Level 3b). Technology and safety, Mobile locator devices may be effective at enabling quick location of wandering residents (Level 3c). Physical/psychosocial interventions, Implementation of a walking group or an exercise program may reduce the incidence of disruptive wandering behaviour (Level 3b). Use of air mat therapy may reduce wandering behaviour for at least 15 min post therapy (Level 2). Providing music sessions (and reading sessions) may keep residents from wandering during the period of the session (Level 3b). Caregiving support and education, There is no evidence to support any interventions. Conclusions, The majority of the available research for which the guidelines are based upon was derived from observational studies or expert opinion (Level of evidence 3 or 4). More rigorous research is required to demonstrate the efficacy of these recommendations. [source]

Implant-Supported Fixed Prostheses for the Rehabilitation of Periodontally Compromised Dentitions: A 3-Year Prospective Clinical Study

Odont(hc), Seung-Won Yi DDS
ABSTRACT Background: The application of a strict hygiene maintenance care protocol following rehabilitation of periodontally compromised dentitions by means of tooth-supported fixed partial dentures has demonstrated excellent long-term treatment outcome. Purpose: A clinical and radiographic study was performed to document and evaluate the short- and medium-term result of occlusal rehabilitation by means of implant-supported fixed prostheses (ISFPs) in patients treated for advanced peri-odontal disease. Materials and Methods: Forty-three consecutive patients were included. All patients were referred because of advanced periodontal disease. Before the implant therapy was initiated, periodontal treatment was performed and the outcome evaluated during at least a 6-month period. An individual maintenance care program was designed for each patient. All 125 implants were placed using a two-stage surgical approach. Following installation of the ISFPs, all patients underwent a baseline examination including evaluation of oral hygiene, periodontal or peri-implant conditions, and radiographs. These examinations were repeated annually during the 3-year observation period. Results: No single implant was lost during the 3-year follow-up period. The percentages of plaque-harboring surfaces and bleeding units on probing were found to be low (< 10%), and no soft-tissue complications were recorded. The mean marginal bone resorption during the observation period amounted to 0.21 mm. In a few patients, apposition of marginal bone was observed. Bone loss amounting to 0.5 mm or less was found around 81% of the implants (101/125 implants). The amount of bone loss around the remaining 24 implants (19%) varied between 0.5 and 2.0 mm. Conclusions: The present clinical trial demonstrates that, at least during a 3-year period, the ISFP is an acceptable and predictable treatment option for rehabilitation in patients who have lost their teeth because of periodontal disease. This observation seems to be valid in edentulous and partially dentate jaws. A prerequisite to reach such a favorable treatment outcome is possibly the combination of the strict maintenance care program and the careful design of the ISFPs. [source]

Are clinical practical guidelines (CPGs) useful for health services and health workforce planning?

A critique of diabetes CPGs
Diabet. Med. 27, 570,577 (2010) Abstract Aims, Chronic disease management is increasingly informed by clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). However, their implementation requires not only knowledge of guideline content by clinicians and practice processes that support implementation, but also a health workforce with the capacity to deliver care consistent with CPGs. This has a health services planning as well as a health workforce dimension. However, it is not known whether CPGs are described in a way that can inform health services and health workforce planning and potentially drive better quality care. This study aimed to ascertain whether CPGs are useful for health service and health workforce planning. Methods, This question was explored taking diabetes mellitus as a case study. A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and Scopus was carried out to identify all CPGs relating to the management of diabetes mellitus in the primary healthcare setting. The search was limited to guidelines published in the English language between 2003 and 2009. The quality of guidelines was assessed against a subset of criteria set by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) collaboration. Results, Seventy-five diabetes-related CPGs were identified, of which 27 met the inclusion criteria. In terms of quality, many guidelines adopted evidence-based recommendations for diabetes care (59%) and most were endorsed by national authorities (70%). With regards to coverage of 17 identified subpopulations, guidelines were generally selective in the populations they covered. Whilst many provided adequate coverage of common complications and comorbidities, approaches to management for those with reduced capacity for effective diabetes self-care were largely absent, except for indigenous populations. Conclusions, Clinical practice guidelines are potentially useful for health services and health workforce planning, but would be more valuable for this purpose if they contained more detail about care protocols and specific skills and competencies, especially for subpopulations who would be expected to have reduced capacity for effective self-care. If service planning ignores these subgroups that tend to require more resource-intensive management, underprovision of services is likely. [source]

A protocol is not enough to implement an enhanced recovery programme for colorectal resection,

J. Maessen
Background: Single-centre studies have suggested that enhanced recovery can be achieved with multimodal perioperative care protocols. This international observational study evaluated the implementation of an enhanced recovery programme in five European centres and examined the determinants affecting recovery and length of hospital stay. Methods: Four hundred and twenty-five consecutive patients undergoing elective open colorectal resection above the peritoneal reflection between January 2001 and January 2004 were enrolled in a protocol that defined multiple perioperative care elements. One centre had been developing multimodal perioperative care for 10 years, whereas the other four had previously undertaken traditional care. Results: The case mix was similar between centres. Protocol compliance before and during the surgical procedure was high, but it was low in the immediate postoperative phase. Patients fulfilled predetermined recovery criteria a median of 3 days after operation but were actually discharged a median of 5 days after surgery. Delay in discharge and the development of major complications prolonged length of stay. Previous experience with fast-track surgery was associated with a shorter hospital stay. Conclusion: Functional recovery in 3 days after colorectal resection could be achieved in daily practice. A protocol is not enough to enable discharge of patients on the day of functional recovery; more experience and better organization of care may be required. Copyright 2006 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]