Care Professionals (care + professional)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Care Professionals

  • health care professional
  • other health care professional


  • Selected Abstracts


    ARE PATIENTS' DECISIONS TO REFUSE TREATMENT BINDING ON HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS?

    BIOETHICS, Issue 3 2005
    Peter Murphy
    ABSTRACT When patients refuse to receive medical treatment, the consequences of honouring their decisions can be tragic. This is no less true of patients who autonomously decide to refuse treatment. I distinguish three possible implications of these autonomous decisions. According to the Permissibility Claim, such a decision implies that it is permissible for the patient who has made the autonomous decision to forego medical treatment. According to the Anti-Paternalism Claim, it follows that health-care professionals are not morally permitted to treat that patient. According to the Binding Claim it follows that these decisions are binding on health-care professionals. My focus is the last claim. After arguing that it is importantly different from each of the first two claims, I give two arguments to show that it is false. One argument against the Binding Claim draws a comparison with cases in which patients autonomously choose perilous positive treatments. The other argument appeals to considered judgments about cases in which disincentives are used to deter patients from refusing sound treatments. [source]


    Caring for the Heart Failure Patient: A Textbook for the Health Care Professional

    JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 5 2005
    Elizabeth Halcomb BN RN GradCertIntCare
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Epilepsy in our Experience: Accounts of Health Care Professionals

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    K. A. Jellinger
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Neurofibromatosis: A Handbook for Patients, Families, and Health Care Professionals

    PEDIATRIC DERMATOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
    KEVIN P. BOYD M.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Personal Practices Regarding Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Health Care Professionals in Rural Colorado: A Pilot Survey

    THE JOURNAL OF RURAL HEALTH, Issue 3 2009
    Sun Hee Rim MPH
    ABSTRACT:,Purpose: This study reports the baseline knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and personal practices of health care professionals regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the High Plains Research Network (HPRN) of rural Colorado prior to a community-based educational intervention. It also examines the association between health care staff members' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and personal practices for CRC screening and patient screening levels by practice. Methods: Surveys were mailed to health care professionals in the HPRN. Participating clinics (n = 21) distributed patient surveys on CRC screening to persons aged ,50 for a 2-week period in 2006. Results: The survey response rate was 81% for providers (n = 46) and 90% for nursing staff (n = 63). Only 54% of health care professionals knew CRC is a leading cause of cancer deaths. When surveyed on their attitudes toward colon cancer, 92%"strongly agreed" or "agreed" that colon cancer is preventable. About 99% (n = 107) of providers and nurses "strongly agreed" or "agreed" that testing could identify problems before colon cancer starts. Most health care professionals (61%) aged ,50 years had previously been tested and were up-to-date (52%) with screening. Provider knowledge was significantly associated with higher patient screening (P = .02), but provider attitudes and beliefs were not. Moreover, personal screening practices of health care professionals did not correlate with more patients screened. Conclusion: Background knowledge of CRC among HPRN health care professionals could be improved. The results of this pilot study may help focus effective approaches such as increasing provider knowledge to enhance CRC screening in the relevant population. [source]


    Gender in elderly suicide: analysis of coroners inquests of 200 cases of elderly suicide in Cheshire 1989,2001

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 12 2003
    Emad Salib
    Abstract Objectives The aim of this study is to review gender differences in elderly suicide in relation to specific social aspects of the suicidal process and health care contact before death. Such information may have practical value in identifying and targeting vulnerable elderly in whom suicide may be potentially preventable. Methods Data were extracted from the records of coroner's inquests into all reported suicide of persons aged 60 and over, in Cheshire over a period of 13 years 1989,2001. The Coroner's office covers the whole county of Cheshire (population 1,000,000). Results Men were less likely to have been known to psychiatric services (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.4 95% 0.2,0.6) and with less frequently reported history of previous attempted suicide compared to women (OR 0.5 95% Confidence Intervals [CI] 0.2,1). All deceased from ethnic minorities were men, none of whom had been known to psychiatric services. There was no significant difference between women and men in relation to, physical or psychiatric morbidity, GP contact prior to suicide, intimation of intent or living alone. Of suicide victims not known to services a surprisingly high proportion of 38% and 16% were found to have psychiatric morbidity in men and women respectively. Conclusion Suicide is an important problem in the elderly with gender playing an important part in their social behaviour but a high proportion of the deceased were not known to local services. Primary Care professionals have an important role to play in reducing elderly suicide as most contact with the health service in elderly suicide seem to be with GPs. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The relative efficacy of two levels of a primary care intervention for family members affected by the addiction problem of a close relative: a randomized trial

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
    Alex Copello
    ABSTRACT Objectives A randomized trial to compare two levels of an intervention (full versus brief) for use by primary health-care professionals with family members affected by the problematic drug or alcohol use of a close relative. Design A prospective cluster randomized comparative trial of the two interventions. Setting A total of 136 primary care practices in two study areas within the West Midlands and the South West regions of England. Participants A total of 143 family members affected by the alcohol or drug problem of a relative were recruited into the study by primary health-care professionals. All recruited family members were seen on at least one occasion by the professional delivering the intervention and 129 (90 %) were followed-up at 12 weeks. Main outcome measures Two validated and standardized self-completion questionnaires measuring physical and psychological symptoms of stress (Symptom Rating Test) and behavioural coping (Coping Questionnaire) experienced by the family members. It was predicted that the full intervention would show increased reduction in both symptoms and coping when compared to the brief intervention. Results The primary analysis adjusted for clustering, baseline symptoms and stratifying variables (location and professional group) showed that there were no significant differences between the two trial arms. The symptom score at follow-up was 0.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): ,3.65, +4.06] higher in the full intervention arm than in the brief intervention arm, and the coping score at follow-up was 0.12 (95% CI: ,5.12, +5.36) higher in the full intervention arm than in the brief intervention arm. Conclusions A well-constructed self-help manual delivered by a primary care professional may be as effective for family members as several face-to-face sessions with the professional. [source]


    Empowerment in the self-management of diabetes: are we ready to test assumptions?

    EUROPEAN DIABETES NURSING, Issue 3 2007
    CPsychol, Csci Chartered Health Psychologist, KG Asimakopoulou BSc
    Abstract This paper describes the origins and definitions of the concept of diabetes empowerment. It summarises why ,compliance' was considered to be a problematic term in diabetes and why it was replaced by ,self-management' which, in turn, paved the way for introducing the concept of empowerment. Although empowerment is a popular and helpful concept and process, it comes with several important underlying assumptions about the health care professional (HCP),patient encounter, patient understanding, memory and willingness to become empowered, and finally the HCP's view on the validity of the concept. All these assumptions, it is argued, need further testing before the concept and process are fully and wholly embraced in diabetes care across Europe. Copyright © 2007 FEND [source]


    Effective management of adverse effects while on oral chemotherapy: implications for nursing practice

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER CARE, Issue 2010
    K. HARROLD rn, bsc ( hons ), chemotherapy, iv access clinical nurse specialist
    HARROLD K. (2010) European Journal of Cancer Care19, 12,20 Effective management of adverse effects while on oral chemotherapy: implications for nursing practice The publication of guidelines by the United Kingdom National Patient Safety Agency and the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death which looked into deaths within 30 days of systemic anticancer therapy and the more recent position statement from the United Kingdom Oncology Nursing Society have all highlighted the need for an improvement in the care and management of patients receiving oral chemotherapy. While it is essential that patients are aware of the rationale behind dose interruption and modification if they are to effectively deal with toxicities and complications that may arise, they also require access to a clear line of communication in order to facilitate early intervention. The value of pre treatment patient education and ongoing support for these patients has already been extensively documented and while a multidisciplinary team approach in this is vital, nurses are ideally placed to take a leading role in these two aspects of treatment management. This article aims to detail and review current best management practices for the most commonly reported toxicities associated with capecitabine, an oral chemotherapeutic agent used in the management of patients with colorectal cancer. Only if both the patient and the health care professional supporting them are aware of best management practices will the impact of toxicities be minimised and treatment outcomes optimised. [source]


    Prevalence of Tooth Loss and Dental Service Use in Older Mexican Americans

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 5 2001
    Whitney M. Randolph BS
    OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of tooth loss, to examine risk factors for having fewer teeth or no teeth, and to describe the use of dental services in an older Mexican-American population. DESIGN: Data from the baseline phase of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly survey conducted from 1993 to 1994, a cross-sectional survey of older Mexican Americans. SETTING: Five southwestern states: Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado. PARTICIPANTS: 3,050 noninstitutionalized Mexican Americans age 65 to 99. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of the sample was completely edentulous and 22% reported visiting or speaking with a dental care professional in the preceding year. Logistic regression analyses showed that being older or being female was significantly associated with tooth loss, adjusting for education, income, smoking status, and diabetes mellitus. Current smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.31,2.20) and diabetics (OR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.27,1.84) were more at risk for tooth loss, as were persons of lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of tooth loss and use of dental services in this population of older Mexican Americans is lower than what has been previously found among older people in the general population. [source]


    Classification and design of teledermatology practice: What dermatoses?

    JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY & VENEREOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
    Which technology to apply?
    Abstract Dermatologists are mostly confined to urban regions and rural population is deprived of specialist care. Teledermatology Practice (TDP) is a solution to overcome this global problem. Tools for TDP includes video conference, store and forward, hybrid, mobile, satellite communication, integration model, nurse-led teledermatology, teledermatology focusing on difficult-to-manage cases, teledermoscopy, and teledermatopathology with combined applications. This article reviews the feasibility studies focusing teledermatology tools and analyses the possible options in designing TDP. Categorizing dermatoses for TDP depends on the purpose and types of technology. The dermatoses presenting from a remote geographic regions requires any of the following approaches (i) only TDP, (b) initial TDP followed by face-to-face, (iii) initial face-to-face followed by TDP and (iv) only face-to-face examination. The technology should suit the dermatoses, meet the purpose, be cost-effective and provide better management with follow-up care. We recommend store and forward as a basic TDP model as most dermatoses are diagnosed and follow-up care is delivered. Leprosy, pigmented skin lesions, leg ulcers, HIV and endemic dermatoses require screening and triage services using mobile teledermatology. Counselling and education require videoconference. Rural dermatology's camps require satellite communication mounted on a vehicle. Objective assessment (vitiligo and leg ulcer) after treatment requires integration model at a tertiary centre. Difficult-to-manage cases require second opinion using hybrid/store and forward TDP. Lower rural centre are provided with mobile/ store and forward teledermatology services. Selected or major community centre should be equipped with hybrid teledermatology and linked to a tertiary centre. This process helps healthcare administration to plan a TDP to cover all dermatoses, utilizing the available health care professional (HCP) and technology with minimum budget investment. Conflicts of interest None declared. [source]


    Personalized Nutrition: Nutritional Genomics as a Potential Tool for Targeted Medical Nutrition Therapy

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 7 2007
    Sina Vakili BS
    An emerging goal of medical nutrition therapy is to tailor dietary advice to an individual's genetic profile. In the United States and elsewhere, "nutrigenetic" services are available over the Internet without the direct involvement of a health care professional. Among the genetic variants most commonly assessed by these companies are those found in genes that influence cardiovascular disease risk. However, the interpretation of DNA-based data is complex. The goal of this paper is to carefully examine nutritional genomics as a potential tool for targeted medical nutrition therapy. The approach is to use heart health susceptibility genes and their common genetic variants as the model. [source]


    Patient delay in oral cancer: a qualitative study of patients' experiences

    PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    S.E. Scott
    Abstract Up to 30% of patients delay seeking the advice of a healthcare professional after self-discovery of symptom(s) of oral cancer. Reasons for this patient delay are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to explore patients' initial experiences and reactions to developing symptoms of oral cancer, and to identify factors influencing their decision to consult a health care professional. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 consecutive patients who had received a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma, but had yet to start treatment. Participants were asked about their beliefs about their symptoms over the course of the disease and their decision to seek help. The tape-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using ,Framework analysis'. Oral symptoms were rarely attributed to cancer and were frequently interpreted as minor oral conditions. As a result of these beliefs, patients tended to postpone seeking help or fail to be concerned over their symptoms. Prior to seeking help, patients responded to symptoms by using self-medication, changing the way they ate and disclosing their discovery of symptoms to friends or family. Problems with access to healthcare professionals and patients' social responsibilities acted as barriers to prompt help-seeking. This study has documented that an individual's interpretation of oral cancer symptoms may be misguided and this can adversely affect subsequent help-seeking behaviour. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The role of medical simulation: an overview,

    THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ROBOTICS AND COMPUTER ASSISTED SURGERY, Issue 3 2006
    Kevin Kunkler
    Abstract Robotic surgery and medical simulation have much in common: both use a mechanized interface that provides visual "patient" reactions in response to the actions of the health care professional (although simulation also includes touch feedback); both use monitors to visualize the progression of the procedure; and both use computer software applications through which the health care professional interacts. Both technologies are experiencing rapid adoption and are viewed as modalities that allow physicians to perform increasingly complex minimally invasive procedures while enhancing patient safety. A review of the literature and industry developments concludes that medical simulators can be useful tools in determining a physician's understanding and use of best practices, management of patient complications, appropriate use of instruments and tools, and overall competence in performing procedures. Future use of these systems depends on their impact on patient safety, procedure completion time and cost efficiency. The sooner simulation training can be used to support developing technologies and procedures, the earlier, and typically the better, the results. Continued studies are needed to identify and ensure the ongoing applicability of these systems for both training and certification. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Development and responsiveness of a scale to measure clinicians' attitudes to people with mental illness (medical student version)

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2 2010
    A. Kassam
    Kassam A, Glozier N, Leese M, Henderson C, Thornicroft G. Development and responsiveness of a scale to measure clinicians' attitudes to people with mental illness (medical student version). Objective:, We report the rationale, reliability, validity and responsiveness studies of the Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes (MICA) Scale, a 16-item scale designed to measure attitudes of health care professionals towards people with mental illness. Method:, Items were generated through focus groups with service users, carers, medical students and trainee psychiatrists. Psychometric testing was completed in a number of student samples. The responsiveness of the scale was tested after a 1.5 h mental illness stigma related intervention with medical students. Results:, The MICA scale showed good internal consistency, , = 0.79. The test,retest reliability (concordance) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68,0.91). The standardised response mean for the scale was 0.4 (95% CI 0.02,0.8) after a mental illness related stigma intervention. Conclusion:, The MICA scale is a responsive, reliable and valid tool, which can be used in medical education and mental health promotion settings and studies. [source]


    Errors in patient perception of caloric deficit required for weight loss,observations from the Diet Plate Trial,

    DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Issue 5 2010
    G. A. Kline
    Persons with obesity may be poor estimators of caloric content of food. Health care professionals encourage patients to consult nutritional labels as one strategy to assess and restrict caloric intake. Among subjects enrolled in a weight loss clinical trial, the objective is to determine the accuracy of subjects' estimates of caloric deficit needed to achieve the desired weight loss. A 6-month controlled trial demonstrated efficacy of a portion control tool to induce weight loss in 130 obese people with type 2 diabetes. All subjects had previously received dietary teaching from a dietician and a nurse. At baseline, patients were asked how much weight they would like to lose and to quantitatively estimate the caloric deficit required to achieve this weight loss. The stated amount of weight loss desired ranged from 4.5 to 73 kg, with an average of 26.6 kg (n = 127 respondents). Only 30% of participants were willing to estimate the required caloric deficit to lose their target weight. Subjects' per kilograms estimate of caloric deficit required ranged from 0.7 to 2 000 000 calories/kg with a median of 86 calories/kg. Nearly half of subjects (47.4%) underestimated the total required caloric deficit to achieve their target weight loss by greater than 100 000 calories. Despite attendance at a diabetes education centre, this population of obese individuals had a poor understanding of the quantitative relationship between caloric deficit and weight loss. Educational initiatives focused upon quantitative caloric intake and its impact on weight change may be needed to assist obese patients in setting appropriate weight loss goals and achieving the appropriate daily caloric restriction required for success. [source]


    Understanding the impact of painful diabetic neuropathy

    DIABETES/METABOLISM: RESEARCH AND REVIEWS, Issue S1 2003
    Cristian Quattrini
    Abstract Painful neuropathy is a common and often distressing complication of diabetes. It has considerable impact on the social and psychological well-being of affected individuals. There are two distinct forms of painful neuropathy: an acute and self-limiting form that resolves within a year or a chronic form that can go on for years. There are now a number of drugs available for the treatment of neuropathic pain. However, some may fail to respond to these drugs or may have unacceptable adverse side effects. When this is the case, the patient's quality of life can be severely affected. Health care professionals need to assess the full impact of painful neuropathy. In this article we review a number of instruments that are used to assess the severity of painful neuropathy and its impact on the quality of life. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Diabetes trends in Europe

    DIABETES/METABOLISM: RESEARCH AND REVIEWS, Issue S3 2002
    Philippe Passa
    Abstract Estimates and projections suggest an epidemic expansion of diabetes incidence and prevalence in Europe. To evaluate trends in type 1 and type 2 diabetes in seven European countries (Finland, Denmark, the UK, Germany, France, Spain, and Italy), a variety of information is available, including population-based studies on small or large cohorts of subjects representative of the general population in a particular country, European co-operative studies, and sales figures for insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents that allow extrapolation of the number of pharmacologically treated diabetic patients. The incidence of type 1 diabetes in young people is increasing in most European countries, as is its prevalence in all age groups. Type 2 diabetes is the major contributor to the epidemic rise in diabetes. From 1995 to 1999, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increased considerably, particularly in the UK, Germany, and France. Costs of ambulatory and in-hospital diabetic care (including antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and hypolipidemic agents) have increased even more rapidly than has the number of affected patients. Diabetes trends in Europe are alarming; health care professionals involved in diabetes care must be made aware of these detrimental trends, and health care delivery to patients with diabetes must be improved. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    School attendance in children with Type 1 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2005
    L. A. Glaab
    Abstract Aims To determine whether children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) miss more school than their non-DM siblings and peers and to identify factors associated with school absenteeism in children with DM. Methods School absenteeism data for the 2000,01 school year were obtained for 78 children with DM, 38 non-DM siblings and 118 269 age-matched peers in Toronto, Ontario. Questionnaires and hospital records were utilized to evaluate child-, family- and diabetes-related factors associated with school absenteeism in children with DM. Results Children with DM missed only slightly, albeit significantly more school than both their non-DM siblings (mean ±sd: 10.9 ± 8.9 vs. 8.1 ± 8.1 days, P < 0.001) and peers (median: 8.8 vs. 5.5 days, P = 0.0005). A multiple regression analysis indicated that school absenteeism in children with DM was associated with their parents' attitudes towards school attendance (P = 0.002), poorer metabolic control (P = 0.006), shorter disease duration (P = 0.006) and a lack of aggressive behaviour (P = 0.02). Conclusions With current management strategies, near normal school attendance is a reasonable goal for all children with DM and should be strongly encouraged by parents, educators and health care professionals. [source]


    Is multidisciplinary learning effective among those caring for people with diabetes?

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2002
    N. Munro
    Abstract The role of multi-professional learning for those providing clinical services to people with diabetes has yet to be defined. Several assumptions are generally made about education in the context of multi-professional settings. It is argued that different professions learning together could potentially improve professional relationships, collaborative working practices and ultimately standards of care. Greater respect and honesty may emerge from a team approach to learning with a commensurate reduction in professional antagonism. Personal and professional confidence is reportedly enhanced through close contact with other professionals during team-based learning exercises. We have examined current evidence to support multidisciplinary learning in the context of medical education generally as well as in diabetes education. Previous investigation of available literature by Cochrane reviewers, aimed at identifying studies of interprofessional education interventions, yielded a total of 1042 articles, none of which met the stated inclusion criteria. Searches involving more recent publications failed to reveal more robust evidence. Despite a large body of literature on the evaluation of interprofessional education, studies generally lacked the methodological rigour needed to understand the impact of interprofessional education on professional practice and/or health care outcomes. Nevertheless, planners continue to advocate, and endorse, joint training between different groups of workers (including nurses, doctors and those in professions allied to medicine) with the objective of producing an integrated workforce of multidisciplinary teams. Whilst the concept of multi-professional learning has strong appeal, it is necessary for those responsible for educating health care professionals to demonstrate its superiority over separate learning experiences. [source]


    Phobia of self-injecting and self-testing in insulin-treated diabetes patients: opportunities for screening

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 8 2001
    E. D. Mollema
    Abstract Aims To define clinically relevant cut-off points for severe fear of self-injecting (FSI) and self-testing (FST) (phobia) in insulin-treated patients with diabetes, and to estimate the magnitude of these phobias in our research population. Methods, FSI and FST were assessed in a cross-sectional survey using the Diabetes Fear of Injecting and Self-testing Questionnaire (D-FISQ). A sample of 24 insulin-treated adult diabetic patients was selected from the high-scorers on FSI and/or FST (, 95th percentile). FSI and FST were re-assessed, after which patients participated in a behavioural avoidance test (BAT), thereby determining the current level of avoidance of either self-injecting or self-testing. FSI and FST scores were linked to the outcome of the BATs. Cut-off scores for severe FSI/FST were determined and extrapolated to the total study population (n = 1275). Results, Seven patients participated in the self-injecting BAT: two patients refused to perform an extra injection. In the self-testing BAT (n = 17) four patients declined to perform the extra blood glucose self-test. Extrapolation of FSI and FST cut-off scores to the total research population showed that 0.2,1.3% of the population scored in the severe FSI range. In FST, 0.6,0.8% of the total study population obtained scores in the cut-off range. Conclusions, Severe FSI and FST, characterized by emotional distress and avoidance behaviour, seems to occur in a small group of insulin-treated patients with diabetes. The D-FISQ can be of use to health care professionals (physicians, nurse specialists) in quickly providing valuable information on levels of FSI and FST in diabetes patients. Diabet. Med. 18, 671,674 (2001) [source]


    Consequences of youth tobacco use: a review of prospective behavioural studies

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2006
    M. Mathers
    ABSTRACT Background Cigarette smoking represents a significant health problem and tobacco has been identified as causing more preventable diseases and premature deaths than any other drug. Although health consequences from smoking have been documented, there has been a surprising lack of research into behavioural consequences. Aims To review what is known of the long-term relationship between patterns of tobacco use prior to age 18 years and behavioural consequences in adulthood. Method A literature search of electronic abstraction services from 1980 to September 2005 was conducted. To be included in the review, studies had to have large, representative samples, be longitudinal studies with baseline age under 18 years and follow-up age 18 years or older and clarify effects due to attrition, leaving 16 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers evaluated each paper. Findings Adolescent tobacco use predicts a range of early adult social and health problems. Surprisingly few studies met the inclusion criteria. The limited evidence available suggests that adolescent tobacco smoking increases the likelihood of early adult tobacco use and the initiation of alcohol use or the development of alcohol-related problems. The link between adolescent tobacco use and subsequent cannabis use was not resolved convincingly from the studies summarized. The effects of tobacco use on later illicit drug use tended to fall away when adjusting for underlying risk factors. Existing studies of the effects of tobacco use on later mental health have many limitations. Nevertheless, a finding that youth tobacco use may predict subsequent mental health problems deserves further investigation. The possible effects of tobacco use on academic/social problems and sleep problems also warrant further investigation. Conclusion This review highlights links between youth tobacco use and subsequent behavioural and mental health problems. It provides health care professionals with evidence of the possible harmful effects of youth tobacco smoking on later social, emotional, and behavioural well-being. [source]


    Digital Imaging: A Promising Tool for Mushroom Identification

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 7 2003
    Connie B. Fischbein BA
    Mushroom poisoning is a diagnostic and treatment dilemma for health care professionals. Decisions regarding treatment following ingestions are usually made without a firm identification of the fungus and tend to be more aggressive than necessary. The identification of mushrooms is beyond the scope of health care professionals, and a mycologist is essential to make an accurate identification. Telemedicine and digital imaging is an emerging technology that can assist in mushroom identification and facilitate patient care. The efficacy of using digital images sent over the Internet was tested in a pilot project. This article describes three cases in which digital images and verbal descriptions assisted in mushroom identification. When the actual specimen was sent to a mycologist, a definitive identification was obtained and compared with the presumptive identification. Digital images alone do not permit definitive identification; however, they often contain sufficient information to help the clinician rule out the possibility of a severely toxic species. Data accumulated to date indicate that digital imaging can be an important tool in the diagnosis and treatment of mushroom ingestion, and possibly other biologicals such as plants, insects, and reptiles. [source]


    Interobserver agreement in neonatal seizure identification

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2009
    Aileen Malone
    Summary Objectives:, Accurate diagnosis of neonatal seizures is critically important and is often made clinically, without EEG (electroencephalography) monitoring. This observational study aimed to determine the accuracy and interobserver reliability of healthcare professionals in distinguishing clinically manifested seizures from other neonatal movements, when presented with clinical histories and digital video recordings only. Methods:, Twenty digital video recordings of paroxysmal movements in term and preterm infants were selected from a video-EEG database. The movements were categorized as seizure and nonseizure using EEG. Health care professionals (n = 137) from eight neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) were shown the video recordings with additional relevant clinical data, excluding EEG findings. The observers were asked to indicate which movements they considered to be seizure or nonseizure. A multirater Kappa statistic was used to assess agreement between observers and with the true diagnosis. Results:, Twenty video clips (11 seizure, 9 nonseizure) were evaluated by 91 doctors and 46 other professionals. The average number of correctly identified events was 10/20. Clonic seizures were correctly identified most frequently (range 36.5,95.6% of observers). Subtle seizures were poorly identified (range 20.4,49.6% of observers). The interobserver agreement (Kappa) for doctors and other health care professionals was poor at 0.21 and 0.29, respectively. Agreement with the correct diagnosis was also poor at 0.09 for doctors and ,0.02 for other healthcare professionals. Discussion:, It is often impossible to accurately differentiate between seizure-related and nonseizure movements in infants using clinical evaluation alone. In addition, doctors do not have a higher capacity for discriminating between neonatal paroxysmal events than other health care professionals. Until reliable continuous neurologic monitoring of newborn babies is available, it is likely that some babies with seizures will remain undetected and others with nonseizure movements will continue to be treated with potentially harmful anticonvulsants. [source]


    Herbal medicine and epilepsy: Proconvulsive effects and interactions with antiepileptic drugs

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 3 2008
    Noah Samuels
    Summary The use of complementary and alternative medicine is on the rise, including among patients with epilepsy. Herbal medicine, one of the most popular forms of CAM, is considered to be both safe and effective by most consumers. Yet many herbs may increase the risk for seizures, through intrinsic proconvulsant properties or contamination by heavy metals, as well as via effects on the cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoproteins, altering antiepileptic drug (AED) disposition. Herb,drug interactions may be difficult to predict, especially since the quality and quantity of active ingredients are often unknown. Since most patients do not inform their physicians that they are taking herbal medicines, health care professionals must initiate a dialogue in order to prevent complications with the combined regimen. At the same time, further research is required regarding the effect of herbs on seizure activity and interactions with AED treatment. [source]


    Ethical, Legal, and Social Dimensions of Epilepsy Genetics

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 10 2006
    Sara Shostak
    Summary:,Purpose: Emerging genetic information and the availability of genetic testing has the potential to increase understanding of the disease and improve clinical management of some types of epilepsy. However, genetic testing is also likely to raise significant ethical, legal, and social issues for people with epilepsy, their family members, and their health care providers. We review the genetic and social dimensions of epilepsy relevant to understanding the complex questions raised by epilepsy genetics. Methods: We reviewed two literatures: (a) research on the genetics of epilepsy, and (b) social science research on the social experience and social consequences of epilepsy. For each, we note key empiric findings and discuss their implications with regard to the consequences of emerging genetic information about epilepsy. We also briefly review available principles and guidelines from professional and advocacy groups that might help to direct efforts to ascertain and address the ethical, legal, and social dimensions of genetic testing for epilepsy. Results: Genetic information about epilepsy may pose significant challenges for people with epilepsy and their family members. Although some general resources are available for navigating this complex new terrain, no guidelines specific to epilepsy have yet been developed to assist people with epilepsy, their family members, or their health care providers. Conclusions: Research is needed on the ethical, legal, and social concerns raised by genetic research on epilepsy and the advent of genetic testing. This research should include the perspectives of people with epilepsy and their family members, as well as those of health care professionals, policymakers, and bioethicists. [source]


    Educational needs, metabolic control and self-reported quality of life

    EUROPEAN DIABETES NURSING, Issue 1 2005
    A study among people with type 2 diabetes treated in primary health care
    Abstract The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing. In order to reduce long-term complications and to promote a better life for these patients, health care professionals are important advocates in education and counselling. More knowledge is therefore needed to explore the association between educational needs and quality of life. In total, 211 people with type 2 diabetes (response rate 48%) were recruited from general practices in a geographically well-defined district in Bergen, Norway. All participants completed a questionnaire measuring demographical and clinical variables, quality of life (WHOQOL-Bref), satisfaction with education and counselling, and symptoms related to the disease. A blood sample was taken from each patient for determination of HbA1c. The participants reported receiving most information on diet, physical activity and treatment and less information on foot care and long-term complications. Satisfaction with education was significantly positively correlated with self-reported overall quality of life, and quality of life within domains for psychological health, social relationships and environment. More intensive treatment was significantly associated with lower quality of life within the physical health and social relationships domains. For 32% of the participants, HbA1c values did not satisfy the Norwegian guidelines (adjusted for age). The results from the present study emphasise a need for health education in diabetes primary health care especially in relation to foot care and long-term complications. The association between satisfaction with education and quality of life makes it important to develop educational and counselling methods for nurses in primary health care. Copyright © 2005 FEND. [source]


    A pilot study comparing a type 1 nurse-led diabetes clinic with a conventional doctor-led diabetes clinic

    EUROPEAN DIABETES NURSING, Issue 1 2004
    J Charlton Diabetes Nurse Specialist
    Abstract A prospective comparative pilot study was designed to assess and compare care delivered by a diabetes specialist nurse (DSN) and standard doctor-led care for patients with type 1 diabetes. The philosophy was to provide an individualised, patient-centred, lifestyle-based approach. In all, 60 patients with type 1 diabetes were randomised to either the nurse-led clinic (NLC) or a conventional clinic. NLC patients received medical input during their annual screening appointment. In the nurse-led system patients prioritised relevant issues with the aid of a ,Waiting Area Menu'. The menu consisted of pertinent topics relevant to living with diabetes. Care interventions were then agreed and targets discussed. To date the results of DSN intervention include: 60% of patients changing to a more appropriate insulin regimen; 36% changing equipment following update from the DSN; 20% needing initiation of cardiovascular medication; and 26% being referred to other health care professionals. The mean HbA1c changed by -0.25% in the NLC group and by -0.06% in the control group (ns). During the pilot there were several barriers which we had not anticipated. These included staffing resources, and organisational and time management issues. However, feedback from patient questionnaires demonstrated that the majority of patients preferred the NLC. Copyright © 2004 FEND. [source]


    Undulating toe movements in brain death,

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 11 2004
    G. Saposnik
    For many years, death implied immobility. Nevertheless, there are anecdotal reports of spontaneous or reflex movements (SRMs) in patients with Brain death (BD). The presence of some movements can preclude the diagnosis of BD, and consequently, the possibility of organ donation for transplantation. McNair and Meador [(1992), Mov Dord7: 345,347] described the presence of undulating toe flexion movements (UTF) in BD patients. UTF consists in a sequential brief plantar flexion of the toes. Our aim was to determine the frequency, characteristics and predisposing factors of UTF movements in a prospective multicenter cohort study of patients with BD. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of BD were assessed to evaluate the presence of UTF using a standardized protocol. All patients had a routine laboratory evaluation, CT scan of the head, and EEG. Demographic, clinical, hemodynamic and blood gas concentration factors were analyzed. amongst 107 BD patients who fulfilled the AAN requirements, 47 patients (44%) had abnormal movements. UTF was observed in 25 (23%) being the most common movement (53%). Early evaluation (OR 4.3, CI95% 1.5,11.9) was a predictor of UTF in a multivariate regression model. The somato-sensory evoked potential (SSEPs) as well as brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) did not elicit a cortical response in studied patients with UTF. This spinal reflex is probably integrated in the L5 and S1 segments of the spinal cord. Abnormal movements are common in BD, being present in more than 40% of individuals. UTF was the most common spinal reflex. In our sample, early evaluation was a predictor of UTF. Health care professionals, especially those involved in organ procurement for transplantation, must be aware of this sign. The presence of this motor phenomenon does not preclude the diagnosis of BD. [source]


    Barriers to Satisfactory Migraine Outcomes.

    HEADACHE, Issue 7 2009
    What Have We Learned, Where Do We Stand?
    Barriers to optimal migraine care have traditionally been divided into a number of categories: under-recognition and underconsultation by migraine sufferers; underdiagnosis and undertreatment by health care professionals; lack of follow-up and treatment optimization. These "traditional" barriers have been recognized and addressed for at least 15 years. Epidemiologic studies suggest that consultation, diagnosis, and treatment rates for migraine have improved although many migraine sufferers still do not get optimal treatment. Herein, we revisit the problem, review areas of progress, and expand the discussion of barriers to migraine care. We hypothesize that the subjective nature of pain and difficulty in communicating it contributes to clinical and societal barriers to care. We then revisit some of the traditional barriers to care, contrasting rates of recognition, diagnosis, and treatment over the past 15 years. We follow by addressing new barriers to migraine care that have emerged as a function of the knowledge gained in this process. [source]