Care Process (care + process)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Emergence of Electronic Home Monitoring in Chronic Heart Failure: Rationale, Feasibility, and Early Results With the HomMed Sentry‘-Observer‘ System

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, Issue 3 2000
Mandeep R. Mehra MD
Electronic home monitoring for chronic heart failure is emerging as an available option to add to our armamentarium as a vital part of the multidisciplinary care process. This investigation describes the early clinical results of a multicenter study which suggests that important trends in medical resource utilization may be attained by the use of this modality. [source]


Metrics in the Science of Surge

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 11 2006
Jonathan A. Handler MD
Metrics are the driver to positive change toward better patient care. However, the research into the metrics of the science of surge is incomplete, research funding is inadequate, and we lack a criterion standard metric for identifying and quantifying surge capacity. Therefore, a consensus working group was formed through a "viral invitation" process. With a combination of online discussion through a group e-mail list and in-person discussion at a breakout session of the Academic Emergency Medicine 2006 Consensus Conference, "The Science of Surge," seven consensus statements were generated. These statements emphasize the importance of funded research in the area of surge capacity metrics; the utility of an emergency medicine research registry; the need to make the data available to clinicians, administrators, public health officials, and internal and external systems; the importance of real-time data, data standards, and electronic transmission; seamless integration of data capture into the care process; the value of having data available from a single point of access through which data mining, forecasting, and modeling can be performed; and the basic necessity of a criterion standard metric for quantifying surge capacity. Further consensus work is needed to select a criterion standard metric for quantifying surge capacity. These consensus statements cover the future research needs, the infrastructure needs, and the data that are needed for a state-of-the-art approach to surge and surge capacity. [source]


Application of activity-based costing (ABC) for a Peruvian NGO healthcare provider

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2001
Dr. Hugh Waters
Abstract This article describes the application of activity-based costing (ABC) to calculate the unit costs of the services for a health care provider in Peru. While traditional costing allocates overhead and indirect costs in proportion to production volume or to direct costs, ABC assigns costs through activities within an organization. ABC uses personnel interviews to determine principal activities and the distribution of individual's time among these activities. Indirect costs are linked to services through time allocation and other tracing methods, and the result is a more accurate estimate of unit costs. The study concludes that applying ABC in a developing country setting is feasible, yielding results that are directly applicable to pricing and management. ABC determines costs for individual clinics, departments and services according to the activities that originate these costs, showing where an organization spends its money. With this information, it is possible to identify services that are generating extra revenue and those operating at a loss, and to calculate cross subsidies across services. ABC also highlights areas in the health care process where efficiency improvements are possible. Conclusions about the ultimate impact of the methodology are not drawn here, since the study was not repeated and changes in utilization patterns and the addition of new clinics affected applicability of the results. A potential constraint to implementing ABC is the availability and organization of cost information. Applying ABC efficiently requires information to be readily available, by cost category and department, since the greatest benefits of ABC come from frequent, systematic application of the methodology in order to monitor efficiency and provide feedback for management. The article concludes with a discussion of the potential applications of ABC in the health sector in developing countries. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Current situation of German care homes

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OLDER PEOPLE NURSING, Issue 4 2008
Barbara Klein Dipl-Soz, Dr. Phil
Aim., The aim of this paper is to explore the situation of and current developments in the German care home sector. Background., Germany, like other Western countries, faces demographic change and subsequently tries to develop structures and processes to achieve a care system which can tackle the increasing number of people in need of care with a variety of quality services. Policy strives to set up structures and instruments to enhance the quality of service provision. Discussion., Figures show that the structures in the care sector are changing in favour to increased privatization of homes, a slight increase in size and improved building structures. In order to tackle the expected changes, a mix of low and high skilled qualification and new job profiles arise in the care sector. Other changes to be observed are the development of new living arrangements and the utilization of new technologies to support the care process. Conclusion., This contribution looks at the socio-demographic changes in care, the statutory developments and the structures of care homes as well as current discussions on future developments. [source]


Door-to-Balloon Time: Performance Improvement in the Multidisciplinary Treatment of Myocardial Infarction

JOURNAL FOR HEALTHCARE QUALITY, Issue 4 2010
J. Mark Peterman
Abstract: The treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction with primary percutaneous coronary intervention is a time-sensitive process, with outcomes correlated with the speed with which the healthcare team can make the diagnosis, start preliminary treatment, and successfully perform the intervention. This requires multidisciplinary teamwork involving Emergency Medical Services, Emergency Medicine and Nursing, the cardiac catheterization laboratory team, and interventional cardiology. The success of effectively delivering treatment is enhanced through focused analysis of key steps within the care process to identify systems problems and implement quality improvement initiatives. This article reviews the process whereby our institution achieved top decile performance in this multidisciplinary treatment. [source]


Decision-making about artificial feeding in end-of-life care: literature review

JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 1 2008
Els Bryon
Abstract Title.,Decision-making about artificial feeding in end-of-life care: literature review. Aim., This paper is a report of a review of nurses' roles and their perceptions of these roles in decision-making processes surrounding artificial food and fluid administration in adult patients. Background., Of all caregivers, nurses have the closest and most trusting relationship with severely ill patients and their families during the entire end-of-life care process. As a result, nurses become closely involved in complex ethical decision-making processes concerning artificial administration of food or fluids for these patients. Data sources., We searched seven electronic databases (1990,2007) and examined the reference lists of relevant papers. Review methods., This mixed methods review was conducted with guidance of the United Kingdom Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines on systematic reviews. Results., Although their direct impact is limited, nurses play a significant indirect role during decision-making processes. Because of their unique position, they often initiate decision-making processes, function as patient advocates and provide guidance, information and support to patients and families. Although nurses considered their role to be very valuable, they felt that their role was not always defined clearly or appreciated. Whether nurses experience decision-making processes positively depended on several contextual factors. Conclusion., Given their knowledge and practice skills, nurses are in a prime position to contribute valuably to decision-making processes. Nevertheless, they remain sidelined. For nurses to receive sufficient recognition, their decision-making tasks and responsibilities need to be clarified and made manifest to other participants. [source]


Using Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders Quality Indicators to Measure Quality of Hospital Care for Vulnerable Elders

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 11 2007
Vineet M. Arora MD
OBJECTIVES: To assess the quality of care for hospitalized vulnerable elders using measures based on Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) quality indicators (QIs). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Single academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects aged 65 and older hospitalized on the University of Chicago general medicine inpatient service who were defined as vulnerable using the Vulnerable Elder Survey-13 (VES-13), a validated tool based on age, self-reported health, and functional status. MEASUREMENTS: Inpatient interview and chart review using ACOVE-based process-of-care measures referring to 16 QIs in general hospital care and geriatric-prevalent conditions (e.g., pressure ulcers, dementia, and delirium); adherence rates calculated for type of care process (screening, diagnosis, and treatment) and type of provider (doctor, nurse). RESULTS: Six hundred of 845 (71%) older patients participated. Of these, 349 (58%) were deemed vulnerable based on VES-13 score. Three hundred twenty-eight (94%) charts were available for review. QIs for general medical care were met at a significantly higher rate than for pressure ulcer care (81.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=79.3,83.7% vs 75.8%, 95% CI=70.5,81.1%, P=.04) and for delirium and dementia care (81.5%, 95% CI=79.3,83.7 vs 31.4% 95% CI=27.5,35.2%, P<.01). According to standard nursing assessment forms, nurses were responsible for high rates of adherence to certain screening indicators (pain, nutrition, functional status, pressure ulcer risk; P<.001 when compared with physicians), although in patients with functional limitations, nurse admission assessments of functional limitations often did not agree with reports of limitations by patients on admission. CONCLUSION: Adherence to geriatric-specific QIs is lower than adherence to general hospital care QIs. Hospital care QIs that focus on screening may overestimate performance by detecting standard nursing or protocol-driven care. [source]


The Minimum Data Set Weight-Loss Quality Indicator: Does It Reflect Differences in Care Processes Related to Weight Loss?

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 10 2003
Sandra F. Simmons PhD
Objectives: To determine whether nursing homes (NHs) that score differently on prevalence of weight loss, according to a Minimum Data Set (MDS) quality indicator, also provide different processes of care related to weight loss. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Sixteen skilled nursing facilities: 11 NHs in the lower (25th percentile,low prevalence) quartile and five NHs in the upper (75th percentile,high prevalence) quartile on the MDS weight-loss quality indicator. Participants: Four hundred long-term residents. Measurements: Sixteen care processes related to weight loss were defined and operationalized into clinical indicators. Trained research staff conducted measurement of NH staff implementation of each care process during assessments on three consecutive 12-hour days (7 a.m. to 7 p.m.), which included direct observations during meals, resident interviews, and medical record abstraction using standardized protocols. Results: The prevalence of weight loss was significantly higher in the participants in the upper quartile NHs than in participants in the lower quartile NHs based on MDS and monthly weight data documented in the medical record. NHs with a higher prevalence of weight loss had a sig-nificantly larger proportion of residents with risk factors for weight loss, namely low oral food and fluid intake. There were few significant differences on care process measures between low- and high-weight-loss NHs. Staff in low-weight-loss NHs consistently provided verbal prompting and social interaction during meals to a greater proportion of residents, including those most at risk for weight loss. Conclusion: The MDS weight-loss quality indicator reflects differences in the prevalence of weight loss between NHs. NHs with a lower prevalence of weight loss have fewer residents at risk for weight loss and staff who provide verbal prompting and social interaction to more residents during meals, but the adequacy and quality of feeding assistance care needs improvement in all NHs. [source]


The effectiveness of a programme of enhancing resiliency by reducing family boundary ambiguity among children with epilepsy

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 9-10 2010
Pei-Fan Mu
Aim and objectives., The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a programme designed to reduce family boundary ambiguity in families who care for children with epilepsy. Background., When parents are caring for an epileptic child, they may experience unclear perceptions about whether the child is psychologically included in the family and develop unclear expectations regarding role performance in the family. Some studies have identified boundary ambiguity as a possible antecedent to relationship problems that are associated with negative outcomes in the areas of parental well-being and family functioning. There is a need to develop family nursing interventions that will reduce family boundary ambiguity when the family is caring for children with epilepsy. Design., A pretest, post-test, one group, quasi-experimental design was used in this study. Methods., This study was made up of three phases: first, the establishing of a parental needs checklist and the development of a parental education information handbook; second, the carrying out of a family assessment including the analysis of the meaning of their experiences and needs and the construction of an educational dialogue and finally, an outcomes evaluation after three months. Seventeen mothers participated in the study. Results., The study found that there were statistically significant improvements in family boundary ambiguity and maternal depression was reduced. Conclusions., This study illustrates nursing intervention that involves the integrating of phenomenological principles into the nursing care process. Specifically, Husserlian phenomenology is able to be helpful to nursing practice, especially the concepts of intentionality, intersubjectivity, empathy and bracketing. Relevance to clinical practice., This study supported the conceptual framework involved in the construction of the meaning of the situation, the enhancement of mastery over the situation and reconstruction of identity. These items are resiliency factors that provided a mechanism that helps to reduce boundary ambiguity when a family is caring for a child with epilepsy. [source]


Older patients with chronic heart failure within Swedish community health care: a record review of nursing assessments and interventions

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 1 2004
Anna Ehrenberg PhD
Background., Older patients with chronic heart failure constitute a large group within community home care that is at high risk for re-hospitalization. However, hospital readmission can be prevented if early signs of deterioration are recognized and proper interventions applied. Aims and objectives., The aim of the study was to audit nursing care for older chronic heart failure patients within the Swedish community health care system. Design., The study adopted a retrospective descriptive design. Methods., In a Swedish urban municipality nursing documentation from 161 records on patients diagnosed with chronic heart failure was collected retrospectively from community nursing home care units. Patient records were reviewed for characteristics of nursing care and assessed for comprehensiveness in recording. Results., The main results showed that medical care of patients with chronic heart failure was poorly recorded, making it possible only to follow fragments of the care process. The nursing notes showed poor adherence to current clinical guidelines. Only 12% of the records contained notes on patients' body weight and only 4% noted patients' knowledge about chronic heart failure. When interventions did occur, they largely consisted of drug administration. Conclusions., The findings revealed flaws in the recording of specific assessment and interventions as well as poor adherence to current international clinical guidelines. Relevance to clinical practice., Supportive guidelines available at the point of care are needed to enhance proper community-based home health care for older patients with chronic heart failure. [source]


Nursing documentation of postoperative pain management

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 6 2002
Ewa Idvall PhD
Summary ?,Previous studies have shown that nursing documentation is often deficient in its recording of pain assessment and treatment. In Sweden, documentation of the care process, including assessment, is a legal obligation. ?,The aim of this study was to describe nursing documentation of postoperative pain management and nurses' perceptions of the records in relation to current regulations and guidelines. ?,The sample included nursing records of postoperative care on the second postoperative day from 172 patients and 63 Registered Nurses from surgical wards in a central county hospital in Sweden. ?,The records were reviewed for content and comprehensiveness based on regulations and guidelines for postoperative pain management. Three different auditing instruments were used. The nurses were asked if the documentation concurred with current regulations and guidelines. ?,The result showed that pain assessment was based mainly on patients' self-report, but less than 10% of the records contained notes on systematic assessment with a pain assessment instrument. Pain location was documented in 50% of the records and pain character in 12%. About 73% of the nurses reported that the documentation concurred with current regulations and guidelines. ?,The findings indicate that significant flaws existed in nurses' recording of postoperative pain management, of which the nurses were not aware. [source]


Family involvement in perioperative nursing of adult patients undergoing emergency surgery

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 2 2001
Eija Paavilainen PhD
,,The purpose of this study was to describe how adult patients undergoing emergency surgery experience family centredness in perioperative nursing practice. The central aim was to generate knowledge to be used while developing the practice, education and management of perioperative nursing. ,,Data were collected using a questionnaire with emergency surgical patients in five regional hospitals in Southern Finland. The number of distributed questionnaires was 132. The response rate was 85% (n=112). ,,The results were mainly described as frequencies and percentages. The open-ended sections of the answers were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings from the open-ended questions were used for deepening and complementing the quantitative description of the results. ,,In the preoperative phase, ascertaining the family situation and informing the family member chosen by the patient were not achieved systematically. Family situation was also rarely examined in the intraoperative and postoperative phases, although it is central to coping after surgery, especially in home care. ,,The results support the view of earlier research about the importance of individuality of patients and their families during the perioperative care process and hence enhance the endeavour to develop nursing based on families' real needs. [source]


Does the organization of care processes affect outcomes in patients undergoing total joint replacement?

JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 1 2010
Kris Vanhaecht RN MSc PhD
Abstract Background, Surgeons realize that safe and efficient care processes for total joint replacement requires more than just well-performed operations. Orthopaedic teams are reorganizing care process to improve efficacy and shorten length of stay. Little is known on the impact of organizational changes on patient outcome. This paper studies the relation between the organization of care processes and patient outcomes in hip and knee. Clinical pathways are used as one of the methods to structure the care process. Although evidence is available on the effect of pathways in total joint replacement, their impact with the organization of the care process has not been studied previously. Methods, A cross-sectional multicentre study was performed on 39 care processes and 737 consecutive patients. Regression models were used to analyse the relation between the organization of the care process and risk-adjusted patient outcomes. The use of pathways and the organization of the care process, measured by the Care Process Self Evaluation Tool (CPSET), were measured at organizational level. Length of stay, pain, mobility and elapsed time to discharge were measured at patient level. Results, The use of pathways had a positive effect on four out of five subscales and the overall CPSET score. Using pathways decreased length of stay (P = 0.014), pain (P = 0.052) and elapsed time to discharge (P = 0.003). The CPSET subscale communication was related with three risk adjusted outcomes. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant effect by three different variables on the length of stay; (1) use of pathways; (2) coordination of care processes; and (3) communication with patients and family. Both the use of pathways and coordination of the care process were determinants for the elapsed time to discharge. A significant interaction effect was found between use of pathways and coordination of the care process. Conclusion, This large multicentre study revealed the relation between the use of pathways, organization of the care process and patient outcomes. This information is important for both clinicians and managers to understand and further improve the organization of orthopaedic care. Level of evidence, Level I prognostic study. [source]


Towards case-based performance measures: uncovering deficiencies in applied medical care

JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 4 2001
Simon Hoelzer MD
Abstract Measures are designed to evaluate the processes and outcomes of care associated with the delivery of clinical (and non-clinical) services. They allow for intra- and interorganizational comparison to be used continuously to improve patient health outcomes. The use of performance measures always means to abstract the complex reality (medical scenarios and procedures) in order to provide an understandable and comparable output. Measures can focus on global performance. The more detailed data are available the more specific judgements with respect to the appropriateness of clinical decision-making and implementation of evidence are feasible. Externally reported measures are intended both to inform and lead to action. By providing this information, deficiencies in patient care and unnecessary variations in the care process can be uncovered. Such variations have contributed to disparities in morbidity and mortality. The developments in information technology, especially world-wide interconnectivity, standards for electronic data exchange and facilities to store and manage large amounts of data, offer the opportunity to analyse health-relevant information in order to make the delivery of healthcare services more transparent for consumers and providers. Global performance measures, such as the overall life expectancy (mortality) in a country, can give a rough orientation of how well health systems perform but they do not offer general solutions nor spe-cific insights into care processes that have to be improved. In contrast to population-based measures, case-based performance measures use a defined group of patients depending on specific patient characteristics and features of disease. By means of these measures we are able to compare the number of patients that receive a necessary medical procedure against those patients who do not. The use of case-based measures is a bottom-up approach to improve the overall performance in the long run. They are not only a tool for global orientation but can offer a straightforward link to the areas of deficient care and the underlying procedures. Performance measures are relevant to providers as well as consumers, from their own individual perspective. Cased-based measures focus on the management of individual patient. This approach to performance measurement can inform physicians in a meaningful and constructive way by monitoring their individual performance and by pointing out possible areas of improvement. [source]


Idealized design of perinatal care

JOURNAL OF HEALTHCARE RISK MANAGEMENT, Issue S1 2006
Faith McLellan PhD
Idealized Design of Perinatal Care is an innovation project based on the principles of reliability science and the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's (IHI's) model for applying these principles to improve care.1 The project builds upon similar processes developed for other clinical arenas in three previous IHI Idealized Design projects. The Idealized Design model focuses on comprehensive redesign to enable a care system to perform substantially better in the future than the best it can do at present. The goal of Idealized Design of Perinatal Care is to achieve a new level of safer, more effective care and to minimize some of the risks identified in medical malpractice cases. The model described in this white paper, Idealized Design of Perinatal Care, represents the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's best current assessment of the components of the safest and most reliable system of perinatal care. The four key components of the model are: 1) the development of reliable clinical processes to manage labor and delivery; 2) the use of principles that improve safety (i.e., preventing, detecting, and mitigating errors); 3) the establishment of prepared and activated care teams that communicate effectively with each other and with mothers and families; and 4) a focus on mother and family as the locus of control during labor and delivery. Reviews of perinatal care have consistently pointed to failures of communication among the care team and documentation of care as common factors in adverse events that occur in labor and delivery. They are also prime factors leading to malpractice claims.2 Two perinatal care "bundles", a group of evidence-based interventions related to a disease or care process that, when executed together, result in better outcomes than when implemented individually , are being tested in this Idealized Design project: the Elective Induction Bundle and the Augmentation Bundle. Experience from the use of bundles in other clinical areas, such as care of the ventilated patient, has shown that reliably applying these evidence-based interventions can dramatically improve outcomes.3 The assumption of this innovation work is that the use of bundles in the delivery of perinatal care will have a similar effect. The authors acknowledge that other organizations have also been working on improving perinatal care through the use of simulation training and teamwork and communication training. IHI's model includes elements of these methods. The Idealized Design of Perinatal Care project has two phases. Sixteen perinatal units from hospitals around the US participated in Phase I, from February to August 2005. The goals of Phase I were identifying changes that would make the most impact on improving perinatal care, selecting elements for each of the bundles, learning how to apply IHI's reliability model to improve processes, and improving the culture within a perinatal unit. This white paper provides detail about the Idealized Design process and examines some of the initial work completed by teams. Phase II, which began in September 2005, expands on this work. This phase focuses particularly on managing second stage labor, including common interpretation of fetal heart monitoring, developing a reliable tool to identify harm, and ensuring that patient preferences are known and honored. [source]


Towards a comprehensive theory of nurse/patient empowerment: applying Kanter's empowerment theory to patient care

JOURNAL OF NURSING MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2010
FCAHS, HEATHER K. SPENCE LASCHINGER PhD
spence laschinger h.k., gilbert s., smith l.m. & leslie k. (2010) Journal of Nursing Management18, 4,13 Towards a comprehensive theory of nurse/patient empowerment: applying Kanter's empowerment theory to patient care Aim, The purpose of this theoretical paper is to propose an integrated model of nurse/patient empowerment that could be used as a guide for creating high-quality nursing practice work environments that ensure positive outcomes for both nurses and their patients. Background, There are few integrated theoretical approaches to nurse and patient empowerment in the literature, although nurse empowerment is assumed to positively affect patient outcomes. Evaluation, The constructs described in Kanter's (1993) work empowerment theory are conceptually consistent with the nursing care process and can be logically extended to nurses' interactions with their patients and the outcomes of nursing care. Key issues, We propose a model of nurse/patient empowerment derived from Kanter's theory that suggests that empowering working conditions increase feelings of psychological empowerment in nurses, resulting in greater use of patient empowerment strategies by nurses, and, ultimately, greater patient empowerment and better health outcomes. Conclusions, Empirical testing of the model is recommended prior to use of the model in clinical practice. Implications for Nursing Management, We argue that empowered nurses are more likely to empower their patients, which results in better patient and system outcomes. Strategies for managers to empower nurses and for nurses to empower patients are suggested. [source]


Values and evaluation in health care

JOURNAL OF NURSING MANAGEMENT, Issue 3 2001
A. Sarvimški PHD RN
The purpose of this paper is to broaden the view of evaluation in health care by ,problemizing' the concepts of quality and evaluation and relating them to a more general discussion of values. The discussion of the concept of quality shows that the concept of quality is often vague or contradictory and that the relationship between quality and costs is problematic. The discussion is broadened by studying quality and evaluation from the viewpoint of four categories of values: scientific values, aesthetic values, ethical values and economic values. The authors also show that values, in addition to constituting the basis for evaluation, actually guide the whole process of care. Values are explicit and implicit elements of the care culture and the individual's action system. The authors conclude that the four value categories could be used to study which values actually guide the care process in real situations. [source]


Testing the effectiveness of an educational intervention aimed at changing attitudes to self-harm

JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC & MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, Issue 1 2007
P. PATTERSON phd ba (hons) rmn rgn cert ed
Nurses' attitudes toward service users who repeatedly self-harm can be negative and may interfere with the user's willingness to engage with services. The effectiveness of an educational intervention aimed at improving nurses' attitudes in this area was tested in this study. The intervention consisted of attendance on an accredited course on self-harm over a period of 15 weeks and the outcome of interest was attitudes as measured by the Self Harm Antipathy Scale. When deployed in a before-and-after design with two non-randomly allocated groups, there was evidence of a 20% reduction in antipathy toward self-harm among course attenders maintained over a period of at least 18 months (compared with a 9% reduction in a comparison group). Three of the six Self Harm Antipathy Scale attitude dimensions showed significant short-term change with some further long-term effects. This is preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the chosen intervention in reducing overall antipathy toward self-harm clients and enhancing a sense of competence, a valuing of the care process and an awareness of the factors contributing to self-harm. [source]


The Impact of a Multidisciplinary, Integrated Approach on Improving the Health and Quality of Care for Individuals Dealing With Multiple Chronic Conditions

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 1 2006
Christina M. Krause PhD
This study examined the effects of using a multidisciplinary, integrated, whole,person, team advocate approach to educate and empower participants with multiple chronic illnesses and coordinate, monitor, and support their health care process. Individuals (N = 39) from Midwest hospitals participated and completed self,report instruments. Changes in participants' functioning were also measured with diagnostic measures completed by the team advocates. The results indicate that the participants' perceptions of physical functioning, physical well,being, control, self,efficacy, and life satisfaction increased. Additionally, health,related behavior changes were reported, and short,term costs were significantly lower than projected costs. Finally, the participants rated their health care services in the program as more effective than previous health care services. [source]


The evolving experience of illness for Chinese women with breast cancer: A qualitative study

PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
Wendy W.T. Lam
The study of illness meaning in cancer in western communities has usually focused on causal attributions. We report a phenomenological study of 17 Hong Kong Chinese women with breast cancer, interviewed on completion of initial treatment, and describe how the illness experience and hence, meaning evolves for women in the Hong Kong Chinese culture. Themes arising from the identification and treatment of the disease include the difficulty of living in uncertainty and of maintaining and regaining normalcy in a superstitious society. The initial uncertainty of disease detection and the diagnostic process are characterized by shock and disbelief mingled with fear of death. Treatment choice presents women with difficulties arising from more uncertainty over the pressure to make quick decisions and the dilemma of death or mutilation. Following treatment, re-evaluation, re-prioritizing and positive life-re-evaluation occur. Changes in appearance proved problematic for those women who tried to hide their disease to protect themselves against stigmatization and social exclusion. In many ways, these findings parallel studies on western populations, suggesting that a common disease,medical care process is a predominant influence in shaping breast cancer experience. Implications for care are drawn from these data. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Using Patient Care Quality Measures to Assess Educational Outcomes

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 5 2007
Susan R. Swing PhD
ObjectivesTo report the results of a project designed to develop and implement a prototype methodology for identifying candidate patient care quality measures for potential use in assessing the outcomes and effectiveness of graduate medical education in emergency medicine. MethodsA workgroup composed of experts in emergency medicine residency education and patient care quality measurement was convened. Workgroup members performed a modified Delphi process that included iterative review of potential measures; individual expert rating of the measures on four dimensions, including measures quality of care and educational effectiveness; development of consensus on measures to be retained; external stakeholder rating of measures followed by a final workgroup review; and a post hoc stratification of measures. The workgroup completed a structured exercise to examine the linkage of patient care process and outcome measures to educational effectiveness. ResultsThe workgroup selected 62 measures for inclusion in its final set, including 43 measures for 21 clinical conditions, eight medication measures, seven measures for procedures, and four measures for department efficiency. Twenty-six measures met the more stringent criteria applied post hoc to further stratify and prioritize measures for development. Nineteen of these measures received high ratings from 75% of the workgroup and external stakeholder raters on importance for care in the ED, measures quality of care, and measures educational effectiveness; the majority of the raters considered these indicators feasible to measure. The workgroup utilized a simple framework for exploring the relationship of residency program educational activities, competencies from the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education general competency domains, patient care quality measures, and external factors that could intervene to affect care quality. ConclusionsNumerous patient care quality measures have potential for use in assessing the educational effectiveness and performance of graduate medical education programs in emergency medicine. The measures identified in this report can be used as a starter set for further development, implementation, and study. Implementation of the measures, especially for high-stakes use, will require resolution of significant measurement issues. [source]


Promoting peaceful death in the intensive care unit in Thailand

INTERNATIONAL NURSING REVIEW, Issue 1 2009
W. Kongsuwan rn
Background:, Having a peaceful death is a common wish among Thai people. Thai culture and religious beliefs offer practical ways to enhance having a peaceful death. Dying in an intensive care unit (ICU) is unnatural and oftentimes painful for the patient and their loved ones. Promoting a peaceful death is one of the least understood yet critical roles of nurses who practise in ICUs. Purpose:, To explore the ways that ICU nurses in Thailand could promote peaceful death and to attempt a definition of the concept of ,peaceful death'. Method:, Data were generated from ICU nurses' descriptions of peaceful death. These were given during in-depth telephone interviews, tape-recorded and analysed using the grounded theory method of analysis. Findings:, ICU nurses promote peaceful death through a three-dimensional process: awareness of dying; creating a caring environment; and promoting end-of-life care. Conclusions:, The study provided opportunities for nurses to understand and influence the practice of promoting peaceful death in ICUs in Thailand. Further research is needed to enhance the practices and processes necessary for promoting peaceful death among ICU patients. It is anticipated that this will advance policy changes in nursing care processes in Thailand. [source]


Non-psychiatric hospitalization of people with mental illness: systematic review

JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 8 2009
Cindy Diamond Zolnierek
Abstract Title.,Non-psychiatric hospitalization of people with mental illness: systematicreview. Aim., This paper is a report of a literature review of the evidence regarding outcomes experienced by severely mentally ill individuals hospitalized in general medical-surgical settings for non-psychiatric conditions. Background., Severely mentally ill individuals experience chronic medical illnesses at a rate greater than the general population. When hospitalized in non-psychiatric settings, they tend to be experienced as ,difficult' by nurses and to have longer lengths of stay. Data sources., The CINAHL and PUBMED databases were searched from 1 to 9 March 2008 to identify studies published between 1998 and 2008 investigating outcomes among people with mental illness hospitalized for non-psychiatric illness in general hospitals. Methods., Included studies were those published in English in peer reviewed journals and investigating patient outcomes. The studies were reviewed for relevance and inclusion criteria; the methodological quality of studies was not evaluated. Results., Twelve studies met inclusion criteria. All studies examining length of stay, costs of care or resource utilization showed increased measures for patients with psychiatric comorbidity. Interventions described included psychiatric liaison psychiatry and nursing, which failed to demonstrate improvement in outcomes. Conclusion., Nurses play a pivotal role in improving the inpatient care of this vulnerable population, but they struggle in their attempts to do so. Research to determine the best approaches to promote nurses' knowledge, positive attitudes and self-confidence in caring for patients with psychiatric comorbidity is needed. Investigation of the patient perspective on the inpatient experience might also provide insight for designing effective care processes. [source]


Is Dementia Special Care Really Special?

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 2 2008
A New Look at an Old Question
OBJECTIVES: To quantify differences in care provided to nursing home (NH) residents with dementia living on and off dementia special care units (SCUs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using propensity score adjustment for resident and NH characteristics. SETTING: Free-standing NHs in nonrural U.S. counties that had an SCU in 2004 (N=1,896). PARTICIPANTS: Long-stay (,90 days) NH residents with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or dementia and at least moderate cognitive impairment (N=69,131). MEASUREMENTS: Resident-level NH care processes such as physical restraints, bed rails, feeding tubes, psychotropic medications, and incontinence care. RESULTS: There was no difference in the use of physical restraints (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.79,1.11), but SCU residents were less likely to have had bed rails (AOR=0.55, 95% CI=0.46,0.64) and to have been tube fed (AOR=0.36, 95% CI=0.30,0.43). SCU residents were more likely to be on toileting plans (AOR=1.23, 95% CI=1.08,1.39) and less likely to use pads or briefs in the absence of a toileting plan (AOR=0.73, 95% CI=0.61,0.88). SCU residents were more likely to have received psychotropic medications (AOR=1.23, 95% CI=1.05,1.44), primarily antipsychotics (SCU=44.9% vs non-SCU=30.0%). CONCLUSION: SCU residents received different care than comparable non-SCU residents. Most strikingly, SCU residents had greater use of antipsychotic medications. [source]


Collaborative Clinical Quality Improvement for Pressure Ulcers in Nursing Homes

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 10 2007
(See editorial comments by Dr. George Taler on pp 167, 1675)
The National Nursing Home Improvement Collaborative aimed to reduce pressure ulcer (PU) incidence and prevalence. Guided by subject matter and process experts, 29 quality improvement organizations and six multistate long-term care corporations recruited 52 nursing homes in 39 states to implement recommended practices using quality improvement methods. Facilities monitored monthly PU incidence and prevalence, healing, and adoption of key care processes. In residents at 35 regularly reporting facilities, the total number of new nosocomial Stage III to IV PUs declined 69%. The facility median incidence of Stage III to IV lesions declined from 0.3 per 100 occupied beds per month to 0.0 (P<.001) and the incidence of Stage II to IV lesions declined from 3.2 to 2.3 per 100 occupied beds per month (P=.03). Prevalence of Stage III to IV lesions trended down (from 1.3 to 1.1 residents affected per 100 occupied beds (P=.12). The incidence and prevalence of Stage II lesions and the healing time of Stage II to IV lesions remained unchanged. Improvement teams reported that Stage II lesions usually healed quickly and that new PUs corresponded with hospital transfer, admission, scars, obesity, and immobility and with noncompliant, younger, or newly declining residents. The publicly reported quality measure, prevalence of Stage I to IV lesions, did not improve. Participants documented disseminating methods and tools to more than 5,359 contacts in other facilities. Results suggest that facilities can reduce incidence of Stage III to IV lesions, that the incidence of Stage II lesions may not correlate with the incidence of Stage III to IV lesions, and that the publicly reported quality measure is insensitive to substantial improvement. The project demonstrated multiple opportunities in collaborative quality improvement, including improving the measurement of quality and identifying research priorities, as well as improving care. [source]


Introduction to the Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders-3 Quality Indicator Measurement Set

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 2007
Neil S. Wenger MD
OBJECTIVES: To update and increase the comprehensiveness of the Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) set of process-of-care quality indicators (QIs) for the medical care provided to vulnerable elders and to keep up with the constantly changing medical literature, the QIs were revised and expanded. DESIGN: The ACOVE Clinical Committee expanded the number of measured conditions to 26 in the revised (ACOVE-3) set. For each condition, a content expert created potential QIs and, based on systematic reviews, developed a peer-reviewed monograph detailing each QI and its supporting evidence. Using these literature reviews, multidisciplinary panels of clinical experts participated in two rounds of anonymous ratings and a face-to-face group discussion to evaluate whether the QIs were valid measures of quality of care using a process that is an explicit combination of scientific evidence and professional consensus. The Clinical Committee evaluated the coherence of the complete set of QIs that the expert panels rated as valid. RESULTS: ACOVE-3 contains 392 QIs covering 14 different types of care processes (e.g., taking a medical history, performing a physical examination) and all four domains of care: screening and prevention (31% of QIs), diagnosis (20%), treatment (35%), and follow-up and continuity (14%). All QIs also apply to community-dwelling patients aged 75 and older. CONCLUSION: ACOVE-3 contains a set of QIs to comprehensively measure the care provided to vulnerable older persons at the level of the health system, health plan, or medical group. These QIs can be applied to identify areas of care in need of improvement and can form the basis of interventions to improve care. [source]


A Multifaceted Intervention to Implement Guidelines Improved Treatment of Nursing Home,Acquired Pneumonia in a State Veterans Home

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 11 2006
Evelyn Hutt MD
OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of a multifaceted strategy to translate evidence-based guidelines for treating nursing home,acquired pneumonia (NHAP) into practice using a small intervention trial. DESIGN: Pre-posttest with untreated control group. SETTING: Two Colorado State Veterans Homes (SVHs) during two influenza seasons. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-six residents with two or more signs of lower respiratory tract infection. INTERVENTION: Multifaceted, including a formative phase to modify the intervention, institutional-level change emphasizing immunization, and availability of appropriate antibiotics; interactive educational sessions for nurses; and academic detailing. MEASUREMENTS: Subjects' SVH medical records were reviewed for guideline compliance retrospectively for the influenza season before the intervention and prospectively during the intervention. Bivariate comparisons-of-care processes between the intervention and control facility before and after the intervention were made using the Fischer exact test. RESULTS: At the intervention facility, compliance with five of the guidelines improved: influenza vaccination, timely physician response to illness onset, x-ray for patients not being hospitalized, use of appropriate antibiotics, and timely antibiotic initiation for unstable patients. Chest x-ray and appropriate and timely antibiotics were significantly better at the intervention than at the control facility during the intervention year but not during the control year. CONCLUSION: Multifaceted, evidence-based, NHAP guideline implementation improved care processes in a SVH. Guideline implementation should be studied in a national sample of nursing homes to determine whether it improves quality of life and functional outcomes of this debilitating illness for long-term care residents. [source]


Does the organization of care processes affect outcomes in patients undergoing total joint replacement?

JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 1 2010
Kris Vanhaecht RN MSc PhD
Abstract Background, Surgeons realize that safe and efficient care processes for total joint replacement requires more than just well-performed operations. Orthopaedic teams are reorganizing care process to improve efficacy and shorten length of stay. Little is known on the impact of organizational changes on patient outcome. This paper studies the relation between the organization of care processes and patient outcomes in hip and knee. Clinical pathways are used as one of the methods to structure the care process. Although evidence is available on the effect of pathways in total joint replacement, their impact with the organization of the care process has not been studied previously. Methods, A cross-sectional multicentre study was performed on 39 care processes and 737 consecutive patients. Regression models were used to analyse the relation between the organization of the care process and risk-adjusted patient outcomes. The use of pathways and the organization of the care process, measured by the Care Process Self Evaluation Tool (CPSET), were measured at organizational level. Length of stay, pain, mobility and elapsed time to discharge were measured at patient level. Results, The use of pathways had a positive effect on four out of five subscales and the overall CPSET score. Using pathways decreased length of stay (P = 0.014), pain (P = 0.052) and elapsed time to discharge (P = 0.003). The CPSET subscale communication was related with three risk adjusted outcomes. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant effect by three different variables on the length of stay; (1) use of pathways; (2) coordination of care processes; and (3) communication with patients and family. Both the use of pathways and coordination of the care process were determinants for the elapsed time to discharge. A significant interaction effect was found between use of pathways and coordination of the care process. Conclusion, This large multicentre study revealed the relation between the use of pathways, organization of the care process and patient outcomes. This information is important for both clinicians and managers to understand and further improve the organization of orthopaedic care. Level of evidence, Level I prognostic study. [source]


Do pathways lead to better organized care processes?

JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 5 2009
Kris Vanhaecht RN MSc PhD
Abstract Aim, Clinical pathways are used worldwide to (re)organize care processes. They are used by multidisciplinary teams in their search towards excellence. The goal of this study is (1) to assess differences in the perception of health professionals in their evaluation of care processes; (2) to assess whether care processes supported by clinical pathways perform better than those not supported by clinical pathways; and (3) to assess the sensitivity and specificity of clinical pathways in predicting well-organized care processes. Methods, A cross-sectional, multi-centre study was performed comprising 309 healthcare workers, 103 care processes and 49 hospitals. The Care Process Self Evaluation Tool (CPSET) was used to score care processes according to their organization. Processes were also scored according to the level of pathway implementation. Results, (1) Significant differences between healthcare professionals were found on two of five CPSET subscales. No significant differences were found among the overall CPSET scores. (2) Care processes supported by pathways had the highest CPSET scores. Nonetheless, continuous follow-up is necessary. (3) Clinical pathways have significant impact on the coordination of care (odds ratio: 8.92), follow-up (odds ratio: 6.65) and overall CPSET score (odds ratio: 4.26). Clinical pathways have a positive impact on the organization of care processes. Not all pathways have high CPSET scores, and care processes without pathways can also be well organized. Continuous evaluation is essential. This is the first study to analyse how healthcare teams perceive the organization of care processes with respect to clinical pathways. Our findings are important for other quality improvement methods. [source]


Towards case-based performance measures: uncovering deficiencies in applied medical care

JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 4 2001
Simon Hoelzer MD
Abstract Measures are designed to evaluate the processes and outcomes of care associated with the delivery of clinical (and non-clinical) services. They allow for intra- and interorganizational comparison to be used continuously to improve patient health outcomes. The use of performance measures always means to abstract the complex reality (medical scenarios and procedures) in order to provide an understandable and comparable output. Measures can focus on global performance. The more detailed data are available the more specific judgements with respect to the appropriateness of clinical decision-making and implementation of evidence are feasible. Externally reported measures are intended both to inform and lead to action. By providing this information, deficiencies in patient care and unnecessary variations in the care process can be uncovered. Such variations have contributed to disparities in morbidity and mortality. The developments in information technology, especially world-wide interconnectivity, standards for electronic data exchange and facilities to store and manage large amounts of data, offer the opportunity to analyse health-relevant information in order to make the delivery of healthcare services more transparent for consumers and providers. Global performance measures, such as the overall life expectancy (mortality) in a country, can give a rough orientation of how well health systems perform but they do not offer general solutions nor spe-cific insights into care processes that have to be improved. In contrast to population-based measures, case-based performance measures use a defined group of patients depending on specific patient characteristics and features of disease. By means of these measures we are able to compare the number of patients that receive a necessary medical procedure against those patients who do not. The use of case-based measures is a bottom-up approach to improve the overall performance in the long run. They are not only a tool for global orientation but can offer a straightforward link to the areas of deficient care and the underlying procedures. Performance measures are relevant to providers as well as consumers, from their own individual perspective. Cased-based measures focus on the management of individual patient. This approach to performance measurement can inform physicians in a meaningful and constructive way by monitoring their individual performance and by pointing out possible areas of improvement. [source]