Care Problems (care + problem)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Care Problems

  • health care problem

  • Selected Abstracts

    Incontinence: prevalence, management, staff knowledge and professional practice environment in rehabilitation units

    Geraldine McCarthy MSc
    Background., Bladder and bowel incontinence is a major health care problem, which adversely affects the lives of many individuals living at home or in health service facilities. Current approaches to continence care emphasize comfort, safety and reduction of risk, rather than detailed individualized assessment and management. The literature illustrates a gap between evidence and actual practice and emphasizes the context of care as being a key element for successful implementation of evidence based practice. Aims., To identify prevalence of bowel and bladder incontinence and its management, investigate continence knowledge and describe the professional practice environment within a rehabilitation unit for older people. Method., An integrated evaluation of continence prevalence, staff knowledge and the work environment was adopted. Results., Findings revealed a high incidence of incontinence (60% urinary, 3% faecal, 37% mixed) a lack of specific continence assessment and specific rationale for treatment decisions or continuation of care. The focus was on continence containment rather than on proactive management. Staff demonstrated a reasonable knowledge of incontinence causation and treatment as measured by the staff knowledge audit. The evaluation of the work environment indicated a low to moderate perception of control over practice (2.39), autonomy in practice (2.87), nurse doctor relationship (2.67) and organizational support (2.67). [source]

    Health Care in Rural Texas

    William DeSoto
    The purpose of this article is to assess the quality of health and health care services available to rural Texans. Specifically, we seek to answer two related questions. First, do people living in rural areas of Texas generally suffer from poorer health than people living in urban Texas? One undoubtedly would think so, given frequent references to the low quality of personal services in general for rural America. Moreover, the persistence of the congressional Rural Health Care Caucus over the past two decades points to a rural health care crisis. Second, to what extent are these differences in health conditions explained by differences in access to health care enjoyed by people living in the two different regions? Access certainly appears to be the problem alluded to above. Rural people apparently lack physician care. In addition to providing answers to these questions, we also examine the difference in the health conditions and access to care enjoyed by minority and non-minority rural Texans. Is this a part of the rural health care problem given the high incidence of non-whites in rural Texas? If so this may be minority rather than rural neglect. We briefly conclude the article with some recommendations for improving the problems we identify. [source]

    Chemopreventive Effect of Celecoxib in Oral Precancers and Cancers,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 10 2006
    Lining Feng PhD
    Abstract Objectives: Oral cancer has become an important health care problem in many countries. Because this disease develops slowly, early detection and intervention can greatly affect ultimate outcome. Celecoxib is a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor with significantly less toxicity. This study investigated the possibility of using it for chemoprevention of oral cancer at the early stages. Study Design: Randomized animal study. Methods: Dysplastic lesions were induced in the buccal pouches of 47 hamsters by a 5 week painting of 9,10-dimethl-1,2-benzanthrancene (DMBA). Basal diets or diets containing 500 or 1,500 ppm of Celecoxib were orally given for 7 weeks. The T50 (50% incidence; i.e., the time to appearance of tumors in 50% of the hamsters) was observed, and volume of tumors was measured on day 1, 9, 19, 28, 35, and 48 with the Celecoxib treatment. Results: The T50 was 9, 19, and 28 days with the treatment in the control group, in the 500 ppm group, and in the 1,500 ppm group, respectively. It indicated that the Celecoxib treatment could delay progression of early lesion. The tumor measurement showed that this treatment was also effective in delaying tumor growth in both treatment groups. There was a difference in the treatment efficacy between the 500 ppm and 1,500 ppm of Celecoxib, indicating a dose-dependent efficacy. Conclusions: Celecoxib is effective in delaying onset of early lesions induced by DMBA and in slowing growth of the tumors in hamster cheek pouches during the postinitiation stage. Its treatment efficacy appears to be dose dependent. [source]

    Beta-lactam antibiotics: from antibiosis to resistance and bacteriology

    APMIS, Issue 1 2010
    Kong K-F, Schneper L, Mathee K. Beta-lactam antibiotics: from antibiosis to resistance and bacteriology. APMIS 2010; 118: 1,36. This review focuses on the era of antibiosis that led to a better understanding of bacterial morphology, in particular the cell wall component peptidoglycan. This is an effort to take readers on a tour de force from the concept of antibiosis, to the serendipity of antibiotics, evolution of beta-lactam development, and the molecular biology of antibiotic resistance. These areas of research have culminated in a deeper understanding of microbiology, particularly in the area of bacterial cell wall synthesis and recycling. In spite of this knowledge, which has enabled design of new even more effective therapeutics to combat bacterial infection and has provided new research tools, antibiotic resistance remains a worldwide health care problem. [source]

    Ageing and unused capacity in Europe: is there an early retirement trap?

    ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 59 2009
    Viola Angelini
    Summary We address the issue of how early retirement may interact with limited use of financial markets in producing financial hardship later in life, when some risks (such as long-term care) are not insured. We argue that the presence of financially attractive early retirement schemes in a world of imperfect financial and insurance markets can lead to an ,early retirement trap'. Indeed, Europe witnesses many (early) retired individuals in financial distress. In our analysis we use data on 10 European countries, which differ in their pension and welfare systems, in prevailing retirement age and in households' access to financial markets. We find evidence that an early retirement trap exists, particularly in some Southern and Central European countries: people who retired early in life are more likely to be in financial hardship in the long run. Our analysis implies that governments should stop making early retirement attractive, let retirees go back to work, improve access to financial markets and make sure long-term care problems are adequately insured. , Viola Angelini, Agar Brugiavini and Guglielmo Weber [source]

    Effectiveness of planning hospital discharge and follow-up in primary care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: research protocol

    Eva Abad-Corpa
    abad-corpa e., carrillo-alcaraz a., royo-morales t., pérez-garcía m.c., rodríguez-mondejar j.j., sáez-soto a. & iniesta-sánchez j. (2010) Effectiveness of planning hospital discharge and follow-up in primary care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: research protocol. Journal of Advanced Nursing,66(6), 1365,1370. Abstract Title.,Effectiveness of planning hospital discharge and follow-up in primary care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: research protocol. Aim., To evaluate the effectiveness of a protocolized intervention for hospital discharge and follow-up planning for primary care patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Background., Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality internationally. These patients suffer from high rates of exacerbation and hospital readmission due to active problems at the time of hospital discharge. Methods., A quasi-experimental design will be adopted, with a control group and pseudo-randomized by services (protocol approved in 2006). Patients with pulmonary disease admitted to two tertiary-level public hospitals in Spain and their local healthcare centres will be recruited. The outcome variables will be readmission rate and patient satisfaction with nursing care provided. 48 hours after admission, both groups will be evaluated by specialist coordinating nurses, using validated scales. At the hospital, a coordinating nurse will visit each patient in the experimental group every 24 hours to identify the main caregiver, provide information about the disease, and explain treatment. In addition, the visits will be used to identify care problems and needs, and to facilitate communication between professionals. 24 hours after discharge, the coordinating nurses will inform the primary care nurses about patient discharge and nursing care planning. The two nurses will make the first home visit together. There will be follow-up phone calls at 2, 6, 12 and 24 weeks after discharge. Discussion., The characteristics of patients with this pulmonary disease make it necessary to include them in hospital discharge planning programmes using coordinating nurses. [source]

    Self-perception levels of mothers dealing with infant care problems for babies 0,12 months old

    nar Bayhan
    Abstract Background:, Babies need the presence of an adult, especially their mothers, from the moment they are born in order to have their needs fulfilled. The significance of the care, particularly during the newborn and the babyhood period, increases gradually as the children grow older. The adequate and efficient fulfillment of needs during the newborn and babyhood period are fundamental in terms of child development. On the other hand, many mothers don't know what to do about problematic situations related to infant care that they might encounter when they have a newborn baby. Methods:, The self-perception of 864 mothers, in various educational level groups, with 432 male and 432 female babies, was analyzed in regards to dealing with problems that arise related to infant care. A questionnaire, developed by Pridham and Chang (1991), was filled out during interviews with the mothers. The analyses of the data obtained as the result of the study were evaluated with the Kruskal,Wallis test while the statistically significant findings were dually compared using the Mann,Whitney test. Results:, At the conclusion of the study it was determined that the gender of the baby did not effect the mother's self-perception during problem solving, whereas their educational levels created remarkable differences amongst their responses. [source]

    Oral health of Adelaide nursing home residents: longitudinal study

    JM Chalmers
    Objective: The Adelaide Dental Study of Nursing Homes aimed to quantify oral disease experience, incidence and increments in Adelaide nursing home residents. Methods: Questionnaires and dental inspections were completed at baseline and at 1-year for residents from randomly selected Adelaide nursing homes. Results: The residents were very functionally dependent, cognitively impaired and behaviourally difficult older adults with complex oral problems and dental treatment needs. The prevalence of edentulism (total tooth loss) (63%) decreased and more residents were retaining natural teeth. Existing residents had a mean of 10.8 teeth present and new residents had a mean of 12.7 teeth present. Residents' previous experiences of caries (decay) were high , existing residents had a mean of 1.2 decayed teeth and new residents had a mean of 0.8 decayed teeth. Residents' caries increments (new decay) over the 1-year period were high (coronal = 2.5 surfaces; root = 1.0 surfaces), especially in those who had lost weight and who could eat fewer food types. These levels of caries were many times greater than had been reported for community-dwelling older adults. Large accumulations of plaque, calculus and debris (food) were evident on residents' natural teeth and dentures, especially those with dementia. Up to 25% of residents owned dentures that were not worn. Residents with dementia gave their carers complex and challenging oral hygiene care problems. Existing and new residents had similar general health and oral health characteristics, with the exceptions that new residents had significantly more filled tooth surfaces, and fewer decayed retained roots. Conclusion: New residents were being admitted to the nursing homes with a compromised oral health status or developed severe oral diseases and conditions within several months of their admittance. Residents' oral diseases, especially coronal and root caries, rapidly progressed during their stay in residential care. [source]

    Primary care services provided to adolescents in detention: a cross-sectional study using ICPC-2

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 7 2010
    DM Haller
    Abstract Aim:, The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems for which primary care services are provided to adolescents in a juvenile detention facility in Europe. Methods:, We reviewed the medical files of all detainees in a juvenile detention centre in Switzerland in 2007. The health problems for which primary care services were provided were coded using the International Classification for Primary Care, version 2. Analysis was descriptive, stratified by gender. Results:, A total of 314 adolescents (18% female) aged 11,19 years were included. Most (89%) had a health assessment and 195 (62%) had consultations with a primary care physician; 80% of the latter had a physical health problem, and 60% had a mental health problem. The most commonly managed problems were skin (49.7%), respiratory (23.6%), behavioural (22.6%) and gynaecological problems (females: 23.9%); 13% females (no males) had sexually transmitted infections (STI), and 8.7% were pregnant. Substance abuse was common (tobacco: 64.6%, alcohol: 26.2%, cannabis: 31.3%). Conclusion:, In addition to health problems known to be more prevalent among young offenders, such as mental health problems and STI, these adolescent detainees required care for a range of common primary care problems. These data should inform the development of comprehensive primary care services in all juvenile detention facilities in Europe. [source]