Care Patients (care + patient)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Care Patients

  • intensive care patient
  • older primary care patient
  • palliative care patient
  • primary care patient

  • Selected Abstracts

    Risk factors for incident mild cognitive impairment , results from the German Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe)

    T. Luck
    Luck T, Riedel-Heller SG, Luppa M, Wiese B, Wollny A, Wagner M, Bickel H, Weyerer S, Pentzek M, Haller F, Moesch E, Werle J, Eisele M, Maier W, van den Bussche H, Kaduszkiewicz H for the AgeCoDe Study Group. Risk factors for incident mild cognitive impairment , results from the German Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe). Objectives:, To provide age- and gender-specific incidence rates of MCI among elderly general practitioner (GP) patients (75+ years) and to identify risk factors for incident MCI. Method:, Data were derived from the longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe). Incidence was calculated according to the ,person-years-at-risk' method. Risk factors were analysed using multivariate logistic regression models. Results:, During the 3-year follow-up period, 350 (15.0%) of the 2331 patients whose data were included in the calculation of incidence developed MCI [person-years (PY) = 6198.20]. The overall incidence of MCI was 56.5 (95% confidence interval = 50.7,62.7) per 1000 PY. Older age, vascular diseases, the apoE ,4 allele and subjective memory complaints were identified as significant risk factors for future MCI. Conclusion:, Mild cognitive impairment is frequent in older GP patients. Subjective memory complaints predict incident MCI. Especially vascular risk factors provide the opportunity of preventive approaches. [source]

    Reducing Suicidal Ideation in Depressed Older Primary Care Patients

    Jürgen Unützer MD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of a primary care,based collaborative care program for depression on suicidal ideation in older adults. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Eighteen diverse primary care clinics. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand eight hundred one adults aged 60 and older with major depression or dysthymia. INTERVENTION: Participants randomized to collaborative care had access to a depression care manager who supported antidepressant medication management prescribed by their primary care physician and offered a course of Problem Solving Treatment in Primary Care for 12 months. Participants in the control arm received care as usual. MEASUREMENTS: Participants had independent assessments of depression and suicidal ideation at baseline and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Depression was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (SCID). Suicidal ideation was determined using the SCID and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist. RESULTS: At baseline, 139 (15.3%) intervention subjects and 119 (13.3%) controls reported thoughts of suicide. Intervention subjects had significantly lower rates of suicidal ideation than controls at 6 months (7.5% vs 12.1%) and 12 months (9.8% vs 15.5%) and even after intervention resources were no longer available at 18 months (8.0% vs 13.3%) and 24 months (10.1% vs 13.9%). There were no completed suicides in either group. Information on suicide attempts or hospitalization for suicidal ideation was not available. CONCLUSION: Primary care,based collaborative care programs for depression represent one strategy to reduce suicidal ideation and potentially the risk of suicide in older primary care patients. [source]

    Cognitive Impairment and Mortality in Older Primary Care Patients

    Timothy E. Stump MA
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of cognitive impairment on mortality in older primary care patients after controlling for confounding effects of demographic and comorbid chronic conditions. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Academic primary care group practice. PARTICIPANTS: Three thousand nine hundred and fifty-seven patients age 60 and older who completed the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) during routine office visits. MEASUREMENTS: Cognitive impairment measured at baseline using the SPMSQ, demographics, problem drinking, history of smoking, clinical data (including weight, cholesterol level, and serum albumin), and comorbid chronic conditions collected at baseline; survival time measured during the 5 to 7 years after baseline. RESULTS: Eight hundred and eighty-six patients (22.4%) died during the 5 to 7 years of follow-up. Cognitive impairment was categorized as having no impairment (84.3%), mild impairment (10.5%), and moderate-to-severe impairment (5.2%) based on SPMSQ score. Chi-square tests revealed that patients with moderate-to-severe impairment were significantly more likely to die compared with patients with mild impairment (40.8% vs 21.5%) and those with no impairment (40.8% vs 21.4%). No significant difference in crude mortality was found between patients with no impairment and those with mild impairment. After analyzing time to death using the Kaplan-Meier method, patients with moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment were at increased risk of death compared with those with no or mild impairment (Log-rank ,2 = 55.5; P < .0001). Even in multivariable analyses using Cox proportional hazards to control for confounding factors, compared with those with no impairment, moderately-to-severely impaired patients had an increased risk of death, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.70. Increased risk of death was also associated with older age (HR = 1.03 for each year), a history of smoking (HR = 1.48), having a serum albumin level <3.5 g/L (HR = 1.29), and weighing less than 90% of the ideal body weight (HR = 1.98). Outpatient diagnoses associated with increased mortality risk were diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, cancer, anemia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR range 1.36,1.67). Factors protective of mortality risk included female gender (HR = 0.67) and black race (HR = 0.73). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment is associated with an increased risk of mortality, even after controlling for confounding effects of demographic and clinical characteristics. Mild cognitive impairment is not associated with mortality risk, but a longer follow-up period may be necessary to identify this risk if it exists. [source]

    Reliability and Validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) Imbedded Within a General Health Risk Screening Questionnaire: Results of a Survey in 332 Primary Care Patients

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2000
    Jean-Bernard Daeppen
    Background: Self-administered, general health risk screening questionnaires that are administered while patients wait in the doctor's office may be a reasonable and timesaving approach to address the requirements of preventive medicine in a typical 10-min medical visit. The psychometric characteristics of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) incorporated within a health questionnaire (H-AUDIT) have not been examined. Methods: The reliability and validity of the self-administered AUDIT were compared between the H-AUDIT and the AUDIT used as a single scale (S-AUDIT) in 332 primary care patients. Results: No major demographic or alcohol use characteristics were found between the 166 subjects who completed the H-AUDIT and the 166 individuals who completed the S-AUDIT. The test-retest reliability of the 166 subjects who completed the H-AUDIT [estimated by Spearman correlation coefficient at a 6-week interval (0.88), internal consistency (total correlation coefficients for all items ranged from 0.38 to 0.69; Cronbach , index 0.85), and the sensitivity and specificity of the H-AUDIT were used to identify at-risk drinkers' areas under receiver operating characteristic (0.77) and alcohol-dependent subjects' areas under receiver operating characteristic (0.89)] was similar to the same measurements obtained with the 166 individuals who completed the S-AUDIT. Conclusions: The AUDIT incorporated in a health risk screening questionnaire is a reliable and valid self-administered instrument to identify at-risk drinkers and alcohol-dependent individuals in primary care settings. [source]

    Medicare Managed Care Patients More Likely to Use Hospice

    Article first published online: 31 DEC 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Minimising undernutrition in the older inpatient

    Dawn Vanderkroft BSc internshipNutr&Diet APD
    Abstract Background, Malnutrition among elderly hospitalised patients is widespread and has been shown to lead to adverse health outcomes. The effectiveness of interventions to minimise undernutrition in elderly inpatients is not well documented. Objectives, To identify the best available practices, in the hospital setting, that minimise undernutrition or the risk of undernutrition, in the acute care patient especially for the older patient. The review will assesses the effectiveness of a range of interventions designed to promote adequate nutritional intake in the acute care setting, with the aim of determining what practices minimise malnutrition in the elderly inpatients. Search strategy, English language articles from 1980 onwards were sought using Medline, Premedline, Cinahl, Austrom-Australasian Medical Index and AustHealth, Embase and Science Citations Index. Selection criteria, For inclusion the study had to include an intervention aiming to minimise undernutrition in hospitalised elderly patients aged 65 years or older. All study designs were included. Data collection and analysis, Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each study for inclusion into the review, critically appraised the study quality and extracted data using standardised tools. For each outcome measure results were tabulated by intervention type and discussed in a narrative summary. Results from randomised controlled trials were pooled in meta-analyses where appropriate. Main results, Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 4021 participants. The focus of 15 interventions was the supplying of oral supplements to the participants, six focused on enteral nutrition therapy, four interventions made changes to the foods provided as part of the hospital diet, one included the services of an additional staff member and three incorporated the implementation of evidence-based guidelines. Ten meta-analyses were conducted from which the main findings were: significant improvements in weight status and arm muscle circumferences with an oral supplement intervention, P < 0.05. Reviewers' conclusions, The findings of the review support the use of oral supplements to minimise undernutrition in elderly inpatients. The results also emphasise the need for more high-quality research using appropriate outcome measures in the area of minimisation of undernutrition, particularly interventions that make alterations to the hospital diet and address support for feeding patients at the ward level. [source]

    Coaching patients to self-care: a primary responsibility of nursing

    Julie Pryor BA
    Aim., To explore the process nurses use to guide and support patients to actively re-establish self-care. Background., The movement of hospitalized patients from less to more independence is primarily a nursing responsibility. Studies of nursing practice in inpatient rehabilitation settings have begun to shed some light on this, but as yet there is limited understanding of the actual skills nurses use to support patients to re-establish self-care. Method., This study used grounded theory. Microanalysis and constant comparative analysis of data collected during interviews with, and observation of, registered and enrolled nurses during everyday nursing practice in five inpatient rehabilitation units facilitated open, axial and selective coding. Relevant literature was woven into the final theory. Findings., To facilitate patient transition from the role of acute care patient to rehabilitation patient actively reclaiming self-care, nurses engaged in a three-phase process known as coaching patients to self-care. The three phases were: easing patients into rehabilitation, maximizing patient effort and providing graduated assistance. Conclusion., Coaching patients to self-care is a primary activity and technology of rehabilitation nursing. Relevance to clinical practice., Patients in a variety of settings would benefit from nurses incorporating coaching skills into their nurse,patient interactions. [source]

    Prescribing non-psychopharmacological agents: A new potential role for psychologists in primary care settings and specialty clinics

    Jay E. Earles
    At least 10 years have passed since the Department of Defense Psychopharmacology Demonstration Project graduated its first class of psychologists. All graduates of that program were credentialed to prescribe and the program received promising external reviews and audits. The profession has since moved well beyond the initial question, "Can and should psychologists prescribe?" posed over two decades ago. A number of professional schools and training institutions have implemented postdoctoral psychopharmacology training programs and over 20 states are actively pursuing legislative agendas. Given recent initiatives to provide health psychology services within the primary care arena, the authors introduce a new role in the scope of psychology's prescribing activities. They propose that psychopharmacological agents are not the only medications psychologists should be trained to prescribe and psychopharmacology training should include course work and supervision related to treatment within a primary care patient setting in addition to a traditional psychiatric one. The authors provide the rationale for primary care clinical health psychology training as the appropriate mechanism for psychopharmacology education and practice. Public health needs and epidemiological data provide the rationale for health psychologists additionally prescribing non-psychopharmacological agents. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 62: 1213,1220, 2006. [source]

    Airway fire due to diathermy during tracheostomy in an intensive care patient

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 5 2001
    S. A. Rogers
    We describe a case of airway fire in an 83-year-old, critically ill patient. The fire occurred during a surgical tracheostomy under general anaesthesia, following ignition of the tracheal tube by diathermy. After debridement of the burnt tissue and treatment with intravenous antibiotics and glucocorticoids, the patient's respiratory function worsened initially. The patient eventually recovered without long-term sequelae and was discharged from the intensive care unit. The circumstances of this and other similar incidents are reviewed, as are the suggested methods for preventing this frightening occurrence. [source]

    Research sensitivities to palliative care patients

    J. Addington-Hall phd
    Research sensitivities to palliative care patients This paper considers the methodological challenges of researching the health care experiences of palliative care patients and their families. Difficulties in defining a ,palliative care patient' are highlighted, and the question of whether there are specific ethical issues when researching palliative care explored. Methodological issues are discussed, including the negotiation of access via health professionals, the choice of appropriate data collection methods and tools, the consequences of high attrition rates and the use of retrospective surveys of bereaved relatives. Key areas for research are identified. These include patients' and families' experiences of research participation, the impact of being approached on those who decline, how the characteristics of those who participate differ from those who do not and the likely impact of this on findings. Research is also needed into patient and family motivations for participation, and whether and how these change as the disease progresses. To ensure that the voices of palliative care patients and their families are heard by both service providers and policy-makers, research in this area needs to address the methodological challenges raised in this paper, as well as continuing to explore users' views. [source]

    Pain interference impacts response to treatment for anxiety disorders

    Carrie Farmer Teh PhD
    Abstract Background: Anxiety disorders and pain are commonly comorbid, though little is known about the effect of pain on the course and treatment of anxiety. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial for anxiety treatment in primary care. Participants with panic disorder (PD) and/or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (N=191; 81% female, mean age 44) were randomized to either their primary-care physician's usual care or a 12-month course of telephone-based collaborative care. Anxiety severity, pain interference, health-related quality of life, health services use, and employment status were assessed at baseline, and at 2-, 4-, 8-, and 12-month follow-up. We defined response to anxiety treatment as a 40% or greater improvement from baseline on anxiety severity scales at 12-month follow-up. Results: The 39% who reported high pain interference at baseline had more severe anxiety (mean SIGH-A score: 21.8 versus 18.0, P<.001), greater limitations in activities of daily living, and more work days missed in the previous month (5.8 versus 4.0 days, P=.01) than those with low pain interference. At 12-month follow-up, high pain interference was associated with a lower likelihood of responding to anxiety treatment (OR=.28; 95% CI=.12,.63) and higher health services use (26.1% with ,1 hospitalization versus 12.0%, P<.001). Conclusions: Pain that interferes with daily activities is prevalent among primary care patients with PD/GAD and associated with more severe anxiety, worse daily functioning, higher health services use, and a lower likelihood of responding to treatment for PD/GAD. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Screening for depression and anxiety disorders in primary care patients

    Adomas Bunevicius B.S.
    Abstract Mood and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in primary health care. In this study we assessed performance of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for screening of depression and anxiety disorders in a population of primary care patients. A total of 503 primary care patients consecutively admitted to the primary care medical center in Kaunas, Lithuania, completed the study. We found that the HADS subscale of depression (HADS-D) at a cutoff score of 6 or more showed the best performance screening for a major depressive episode diagnosed by means of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 69%, positive predictive value of 80%, negative predictive value of 92%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.75. Performance of the HADS-D against MINI diagnosis of dysthymia was weak. The HADS subscale of anxiety (HADS-A) at a cutoff score of 9 or more showed the best performance screening for MINI diagnosis of overall anxiety disorders, with a sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 75%, positive predictive value of 53%, negative predictive value of 90%, and area under the ROC curve of 0.76. These results suggest that in primary care patients HADS is an adequate screening instrument for the MINI diagnoses of major depressive episode, but not for dysthymia at a cutoff score of 6, and for anxiety disorders at a cutoff score of 9. Depression and Anxiety 24:455,460, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The role of autonomy,connectedness in depression and anxiety

    Marrie H.J. Bekker Ph.D.
    Abstract The relationship between autonomy,connectedness, and depression and anxiety was investigated in 94 primary mental health care patients and 95 psychology students. All participants completed the Autonomy,Connectedness Scale,30 (ACS-30), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Symptom Checklist,90 (SCL-90). Results indicated that the primary mental health care group compared with the control group scored lower in Self-Awareness and Capacity for Managing New Situations, and higher in Sensitivity to Others. Women compared with men had higher levels of self-reported Sensitivity to Others. Regression analyses showed that both (low) Self-Awareness and (high) Sensitivity to Others predicted depression, as well as anxiety; also, (low) educational level had predictive value. These results indicate that low autonomy,connectedness might be a risk factor for depression and anxiety. Depression and Anxiety 23:274,280, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Panic disorder and suicidal ideation in primary care

    Daniel J. Pilowsky M.D., M.P.H.
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether panic disorder (PD) and suicidal ideation are associated in an inner-city primary care clinic and whether this association remains significant after controlling for commonly co-occurring psychiatric disorders. We surveyed 2,043 patients attending a primary care clinic using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) Patient Health Questionnaire, a screening instrument that yields provisional diagnoses of selected psychiatric disorders. We estimated the prevalence of current suicidal ideation and of common psychiatric disorders including panic disorder and major depression. A provisional diagnosis of current PD was received by 127 patients (6.2%). After adjusting for potential confounders (age, gender, major depressive disorder [MDD], generalized anxiety disorder, and substance use disorders), patients with PD were about twice as likely to present with current suicidal ideation, as compared to those without PD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06,3.18; P=.03). After adjusting for PD and the above-mentioned potential confounders, patients with MDD had a sevenfold increase in the odds of suicidal ideation, as compared to those without MDD (AOR=7.00; 95% CI: 4.42,11.08; P<.0001). Primary care patients with PD are at high risk for suicidal ideation, and patients with PD and co-occurring MDD are at especially high risk. PD patients in primary care thus should be assessed routinely for suicidal ideation and depression. Depression and Anxiety 23:11,16, 2006. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The functional impact of anxiety sensitivity in the chronically physically ill

    Sonya B. Norman Ph.D.
    Abstract The symptoms and physical limitations resulting from chronic physical illness often diminish physical functioning. Comorbidity of chronic physical illness and an anxiety disorder is associated with greater impairment in functioning than chronic illness alone. One potential contributor to anxiety in the chronically ill is anxiety sensitivity (AS). The goal of this study was to explore the role of AS on functioning in the chronically ill. Participants were 267 primary care patients. Logistic regression showed that physical AS (but not social or psychological), controlling for age, gender, and negative affect, was associated with hypertension, heart disease, and high cholesterol (P<.01). Higher AS was associated with poorer vitality, mental functioning, and social functioning (P<.05). AS may be a correlate of poorer adjustment to chronic illness. Depression and Anxiety 21:154,160, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Why patients attend emergency departments for conditions potentially appropriate for primary care: Reasons given by patients and clinicians differ

    Malcolm Masso
    Abstract Objectives: To compare reasons identified by clinical staff for potential primary care attendances to the ED with those previously identified by patients. Methods: Survey of staff and primary care patients in five ED in New South Wales, Australia using questionnaire based on reasons identified in published studies. Results: Clinicians in the survey identify a broader spectrum of reasons for potential primary care cases presenting to the ED than the patients themselves report. Doctors reported on average 4.1 very important reasons and nurses 4.8 compared with patients 2.4 very important reasons. The main reasons identified by both doctors and nurses were similar and quite different to those identified by patients. Clinicians were more likely to emphasize cost and access issues rather than acuity and complexity issues. There was no difference within the clinician group between doctors and nurses nor by varying levels of experience. Furthermore doctors with significant experience in both primary care and emergency medicine did not differ from the overall clinicians' pattern. Conclusions: These data confirm that clinician perspectives on reasons for potential primary care patients' use of ED differ quite markedly from the perspectives of patients themselves. Those differences do not necessarily represent a punitive or blaming philosophy but will stem from the very different paradigms from which the two protagonists approach the interactions, reflecting the standard tension in a provider , consumer relationship. If policy is to be developed to improve system use and access, it must take both perspectives into account with respect to redesign, expectations and education. [source]

    Bridging Psychiatric and Anthropological Approaches: The Case of "Nerves" in the United States

    ETHOS, Issue 3 2009
    Britt Dahlberg
    Psychiatrists and anthropologists have taken distinct analytic approaches when confronted with differences between emic and etic models for distress: psychiatrists have translated folk models into diagnostic categories whereas anthropologists have emphasized culture-specific meanings of illness. The rift between psychiatric and anthropological research keeps "individual disease" and "culture" disconnected and thus hinders the study of interrelationships between mental health and culture. In this article we bridge psychiatric and anthropological approaches by using cultural models to explore the experience of nerves among 27 older primary care patients from Baltimore, Maryland. We suggest that cultural models of distress arise in response to personal experiences, and in turn, shape those experiences. Shifting research from a focus on comparing content of emic and etic concepts, to examining how these social realities and concepts are coconstructed, may resolve epistemological and ontological debates surrounding differences between emic and etic concepts, and improve understanding of the interrelationships between culture and health. ["nerves," cultural models, metaphor, psychiatry, embodiment] [source]

    Research sensitivities to palliative care patients

    J. Addington-Hall phd
    Research sensitivities to palliative care patients This paper considers the methodological challenges of researching the health care experiences of palliative care patients and their families. Difficulties in defining a ,palliative care patient' are highlighted, and the question of whether there are specific ethical issues when researching palliative care explored. Methodological issues are discussed, including the negotiation of access via health professionals, the choice of appropriate data collection methods and tools, the consequences of high attrition rates and the use of retrospective surveys of bereaved relatives. Key areas for research are identified. These include patients' and families' experiences of research participation, the impact of being approached on those who decline, how the characteristics of those who participate differ from those who do not and the likely impact of this on findings. Research is also needed into patient and family motivations for participation, and whether and how these change as the disease progresses. To ensure that the voices of palliative care patients and their families are heard by both service providers and policy-makers, research in this area needs to address the methodological challenges raised in this paper, as well as continuing to explore users' views. [source]

    The Distressed personality type: replicability and general health associations

    Benjamin P. Chapman
    Abstract The Distressed personality type, identified in a cardiac population, confers risk for worse cardiac outcomes. Whether such a class of persons is identifiable in general patient populations, as well as its health correlates, remains unknown. We investigated these questions in a sample of 482 older primary care patients. Mixture structural equation modelling revealed that a Distressed Type was identifiable in Five Factor Model (FFM) personality data and associated with higher levels of medically documented multimorbidity, and worse subjective health ratings, physician assessed physical functioning and interviewer rated psychosocial functioning. In models including paths from outcomes to both traits and types, traits and types were independently associated with health outcomes, pointing towards the value of considering both approaches in epidemiologic personology research. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Investing time in health: do socioeconomically disadvantaged patients spend more or less extra time on diabetes self-care?

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 6 2009
    Susan L. Ettner
    Abstract Background: Research on self-care for chronic disease has not examined time requirements. Translating Research into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD), a multi-site study of managed care patients with diabetes, is among the first to assess self-care time. Objective: To examine associations between socioeconomic position and extra time patients spend on foot care, shopping/cooking, and exercise due to diabetes. Data: Eleven thousand nine hundred and twenty-seven patient surveys from 2000 to 2001. Methods: Bayesian two-part models were used to estimate associations of self-reported extra time spent on self-care with race/ethnicity, education, and income, controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. Results: Proportions of patients spending no extra time on foot care, shopping/cooking, and exercise were, respectively, 37, 52, and 31%. Extra time spent on foot care and shopping/cooking was greater among racial/ethnic minorities, less-educated and lower-income patients. For example, African-Americans were about 10 percentage points more likely to report spending extra time on foot care than whites and extra time spent was about 3,min more per day. Discussion: Extra time spent on self-care was greater for socioeconomically disadvantaged patients than for advantaged patients, perhaps because their perceived opportunity cost of time is lower or they cannot afford substitutes. Our findings suggest that poorly controlled diabetes risk factors among disadvantaged populations may not be attributable to self-care practices. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Stochastic league tables: an application to diabetes interventions in the Netherlands

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 5 2005
    Raymond C. W. Hutubessy
    Abstract The aim of this paper is to discuss the use of stochastic league tables approach in cost-effectiveness analysis of diabetes interventions. It addresses the common grounds and differences with other methods of presenting uncertainty to decision-makers. This comparison uses the cost-effectiveness results of medical guidelines for Dutch diabetes type 2 patients in primary and secondary care. Stochastic league tables define the optimum expansion pathway as compared to baseline, starting with the least costly and most cost-effective intervention mix. Multi-intervention cost-effectiveness acceptability curves are used as a way to represent uncertainty information on the cost-effectiveness of single interventions as compared to a single alternative. The stochastic league table for diabetes interventions shows that in case of low budgets treatment of secondary care patients is the most likely optimum choice. Current care options of diabetes complications are shown to be inefficient compared to guidelines treatment. With more resources available one may implement all guidelines and improve efficiency. The stochastic league table approach and multi-intervention cost-effectiveness acceptability curves in uncertainty analysis lead to similar results. In addition, the stochastic league table approach provides policy makers with information on affordability by budget level. It fulfils more adequately the information requirements to choose between interventions, using the efficiency criterion. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Use of Outpatient Care in Veterans Health Administration and Medicare among Veterans Receiving Primary Care in Community-Based and Hospital Outpatient Clinics

    Chuan-Fen Liu
    Objective. To examine differences in use of Veterans Health Administration (VA) and Medicare outpatient services by VA primary care patients. Data Sources/Study Setting. VA administrative and Medicare claims data from 2001 to 2004. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study of outpatient service use by 8,964 community-based and 6,556 hospital-based VA primary care patients. Principal Findings. A significant proportion of VA patients used Medicare-reimbursed primary care (>30 percent) and specialty care (>60 percent), but not mental health care (3,4 percent). Community-based patients had 17 percent fewer VA primary care visits (p<.001), 9 percent more Medicare-reimbursed visits (p<.001), and 6 percent fewer total visits (p<.05) than hospital-based patients. Community-based patients had 22 percent fewer VA specialty care visits (p<.0001) and 21 percent more Medicare-reimbursed specialty care visits (p<.0001) than hospital-based patients, but no difference in total visits (p=.80). Conclusions. Medicare-eligible VA primary care patients followed over 4 consecutive years used significant primary care and specialty care outside of VA. Community-based patients offset decreased VA use with increased service use paid by Medicare, suggesting that increasing access to VA primary care via community clinics may fragment veteran care in unintended ways. Coordination of care between VA and non-VA providers and health care systems is essential to improve the quality and continuity of care. [source]

    Practice Characteristics and HMO Enrollee Satisfaction with Specialty Care: An Analysis of Patients with Glaucoma and Diabetic Retinopathy

    José J. Escarce
    Background. The specialist's role in caring for managed care patients is likely to grow. Thus, assessing the correlates of patient satisfaction with specialty care is essential. Objective. To examine the association between characteristics of eye care practices and satisfaction with eye care among working age patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or diabetic retinopathy (DR). Subjects/Study Setting. A total of 913 working age patients with OAG or DR enrolled in six commercial managed care health plans. The patients were treated in 144 different eye care practices. Study Design. We used a patient survey to obtain information on patient characteristics and satisfaction with eye care, measured by scores on satisfaction subscales of the 18-item Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. We used a survey of eye care practices to obtain information on practice characteristics, including provider specialties, practice organization, financial features, and utilization and quality management systems. We estimated logistic regression models to assess the association of patient and practice characteristics with high levels of patient satisfaction. Principal Findings. Treatment in a practice with a glaucoma specialist (for OAG patients) or a retina specialist (for DR patients) was associated with higher satisfaction, whereas treatment in a practice that obtained a high proportion of its revenues from capitation payments or in a group practice where providers obtained a high proportion of their incomes from bonuses was associated with lower satisfaction. Conclusions. Many eye care patients prefer to be treated by specialists with expertise in their conditions. Financial arrangement features of eye care practices also are associated with patient satisfaction with care. The most likely mechanisms underlying these associations are effects on provider behavior and satisfaction, which in turn influence patient satisfaction. Managed care plans and provider groups should aim to minimize the negative impact of managed care features on patient satisfaction. [source]

    Improving Care for Minorities: Can Quality Improvement Interventions Improve Care and Outcomes For Depressed Minorities?

    Controlled Trial, Results of a Randomized
    Objective. Ethnic minority patients often receive poorer quality care and have worse outcomes than white patients, yet practice-based approaches to reduce such disparities have not been identified. We determined whether practice-initiated quality improvement (QI) interventions for depressed primary care patients improve care across ethnic groups and reduce outcome disparities. Study Setting. The sample consists of 46 primary care practices in 6 U.S. managed care organizations; 181 clinicians; 398 Latinos, 93 African Americans, and 778 white patients with probable depressive disorder. Study Design. Matched practices were randomized to usual care or one of two QI programs that trained local experts to educate clinicians; nurses to educate, assess, and follow-up with patients; and psychotherapists to conduct Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Patients and physicians selected treatments. Interventions featured modest accommodations for minority patients (e.g., translations, cultural training for clinicians). Data Extraction Methods. Multilevel logistic regression analyses assessed intervention effects within and among ethnic groups. Principal Findings. At baseline, all ethnic groups (Latino, African American, white) had low to moderate rates of appropriate care and the interventions significantly improved appropriate care at six months (by 8,20 percentage points) within each ethnic group, with no significant difference in response by ethnic group. The interventions significantly decreased the likelihood that Latinos and African Americans would report probable depression at months 6 and 12; the white intervention sample did not differ from controls in reported probable depression at either follow-up. While the intervention significantly improved the rate of employment for whites and not for minorities, precision was low for comparing intervention response on this outcome. It is important to note that minorities remained less likely to have appropriate care and more likely to be depressed than white patients. Conclusions. Implementation of quality improvement interventions that have modest accommodations for minority patients can improve quality of care for whites and underserved minorities alike, while minorities may be especially likely to benefit clinically. Further research needs to clarify whether employment benefits are limited to whites and if so, whether this represents a difference in opportunities. Quality improvement programs appear to improve quality of care without increasing disparities, and may offer an approach to reduce health disparities. [source]

    Chronic medical problems and distressful thoughts of suicide in primary care patients: mitigating role of happiness

    Jameson K. Hirsch
    Abstract Objective Chronic medical problems might amplify suicide risk in later life. Feelings of happiness may reduce this risk. We tested the hypothesis that happiness attenuates the association between number of self-reported chronic diseases and suicidal distress. Methods A sample of 1,801 depressed, primary care patients, 60 years of age or older, entering a clinical trial, were assessed for the presence of positive emotion, suicidal distress and self-reported chronic medical problems. Results Chronic medical problems are associated with suicide ideation and, as hypothesized, happiness attenuates the relationship between self-reported diseases and suicidal distress. Conclusions Decreased risk for distressing thoughts of suicide in the context of medical illness is predicted by the presence of positive emotions. Our results suggest that treatments designed to help older primary care patients identify sources of joy and enhance happiness might decrease suicide risk. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Integrated specialty mental health care among older minorities improves access but not outcomes: results of the PRISMe study

    Patricia A. Areán
    Abstract Objective In this secondary data analysis of Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for the Elderly (PRIMSe) study, we hypothesized that older minorities who receive mental health services integrated in primary care settings would have greater service use and better mental health outcomes than older minorities referred to community services. Method We identified 2,022 (48% minorities) primary care patients 65 years and older, who met study inclusion criteria and had either alcohol misuse, depression, and/or anxiety. They were randomized to receive treatment for these disorders in the primary care clinic or to a brokerage case management model that linked patients to community-based services. Service use and clinical outcomes were collected at baseline, three months and six months post randomization on all participants. Results Access to and participation in mental health /substance abuse services was greater in the integrated model than in referral; there were no treatment by ethnicity effects. There were no treatment effects for any of the clinical outcomes; Whites and older minorities in both integrated and referral groups failed to show clinically significant improvement in symptoms and physical functioning at 6 months. Conclusions While providing services in primary care results in better access to and use of these services, accessing these services is not enough for assuring adequate clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The role of patient personality in the identification of depression in older primary care patients

    Laura W. McCray
    Abstract Background Our aim was to evaluate whether personality factors significantly contribute to the identification of depression in older primary care patients, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Methods We examined the association between personality factors and the identification of depression among 318 older adults who participated in the Spectrum study. Results High neuroticism (unadjusted Odds Ratio (OR) 2.36, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.42, 3.93]) and low extraversion (adjusted OR 2.24, CI [1.26, 4.00]) were associated with physician identification of depression. Persons with high conscientiousness were less likely to be identified as depressed by the doctor (adjusted OR 0.45, CI [0.22, 0.91]). Conclusion Personality factors influence the identification of depression among older persons in primary care over and above the relationship of depressive symptoms with physician identification. Knowledge of personality may influence the diagnosis and treatment of depression in primary care. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Differences in depression symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases: evidence from the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15)

    Daniel Weintraub
    Abstract Objective Depression occurs frequently in patients with both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but there has been little comparison of depression symptoms in the two populations. Method The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) was administered as a depression screening instrument to 232,AD patients and 266,PD specialty care patients with at most mild dementia. Logistic regression models were used to determine disease-specific associations with individual GDS-15 items, and factor analysis was used to assess GDS-15 factor structure in the two populations. Results Controlling for total GDS-15 score and other covariates, AD patients reported more dissatisfaction with life (p,=,0.03) and memory problems (p,<,0.001), while PD patients reported more fearfulness (p,=,0.01), helplessness (p,<,0.01), a preference to stay at home (p,=,0.02), and diminished energy (p,<,0.01). Three factors were generated in PD (explaining 55% of the total variance) and five in AD (explaining 59% of the total variance), and the two main factors generated in both populations related primarily to unhappiness and negative thoughts. Conclusions The factor structure of the GDS-15 is similar in AD and PD patients with at most mild stage dementia, but between-group differences on 6 of the GDS-15 items suggests the non-specificity of certain items in the two populations. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The effects of memory, attention, and executive dysfunction on outcomes of depression in a primary care intervention trial: the PROSPECT study

    Hillary R. Bogner
    Abstract Objective To describe the influence of domains of cognition on remission and response of depression in an intervention trial among older primary care patients. Methods Twenty primary care practices were randomly assigned to Usual Care or to an Intervention consisting of a depression care manager offering algorithm-based care for depression. In all, 599 adults 60 years and older with a depression diagnosis were included in these analyses. Depression severity and remission of depression were assessed by the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was our global measure of cognitive function. Verbal memory was assessed with the memory subscale of the Dementia Rating Scale. Attention was measured with the digit span from the Weschler Adult Intelligence Test. Response inhibition, one of the executive functions, was assessed with the Stroop Color-Word test. Results The intervention was associated with improved remission and response rates regardless of cognitive impairment. Response inhibition as measured by the Stroop Color-Word test appeared to significantly modify the intervention versus usual care difference in remission and response at 4 months. Patients in the poorest performance quartile at baseline on the Stroop Color-Word test in the Intervention Condition were more likely to achieve remission of depression at 4 months than comparable patients in Usual Care [odds ratio (OR),=,17.76, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 3.06, 103.1]. Conclusions Depressed older adults in primary care with executive dysfunction have low remission and response rates when receiving usual care but benefit from depression care management. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Somatic symptoms among older depressed primary care patients

    Bart Sheehan
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]