Care Pathway (care + pathway)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Care Pathway

  • integrate care pathway


  • Selected Abstracts


    The development and implementation of the Pathway for Improving the Care of the Dying in general medical wards

    INTERNAL MEDICINE JOURNAL, Issue 10 2009
    K. Jackson
    Abstract The majority of deaths in Australia occur in general hospital wards and most are neither sudden nor unexpected. The Pathway for Improving the Care of the Dying (PICD) is an adaptation of the Liverpool Care Pathway to the Australian healthcare setting (or ,to Australian conditions') and is designed to help ensure a ,good death' for patients dying outside the palliative care system. PICD consists of a series of prompts, guidelines, revised medical and nursing care plans and a number of medication algorithms. [source]


    Striving for a better operative outcome: 101 Pancreaticoduodenectomies

    HPB, Issue 6 2008
    A.W.C. Kow
    Abstract Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), once carried high morbidity and mortality, is now a routine operation performed for lesions arising from the pancreatico-duodenal complex. This study reviews the outcome of 101 pancreaticoduodenectomies performed after formalization of HepatoPancreatoBiliary (HPB) unit in the Department of Surgery. A prospective database comprising of patients who underwent PD was set up in 1999. Retrospective data for patients operated between 1996 and 1999 was included. One hundred and one cases accrued over 10 years from 1996 to 2006 were analysed using SPSS (Version 12.0). The mean age of our cohort of patients was 6112 years with male to female ratio of 2:1. The commonest clinical presentations were obstructive jaundice (64%) and abdominal pain (47%). Majority had malignant lesions (86%) with invasive adenocarcinoma of the head of pancreas being the predominant histopathology (41%). Median operative time was 315 (180,945) minutes. Two-third of our patients had pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) while the rest had pancreaticogastrostomy (PG). There were five patients with pancreatico-enteric anastomotic leak (5%), three of whom (3%) were from PJ anastomosis. Overall, in-hospital and 30-day mortality were both 3%. The median post-operative length of stay (LOS) was 15 days. Using logistic regressions, the post-operative morbidity predicts LOS following operation (p<0.005). The strategy in improving the morbidity and mortality rates of pancreaticoduodenectomies lies in the subspecialization of surgical services with regionalization of such complex surgeries to high volume centers. The key success lies in the dedication of staffs who continues to refine the clinical care pathway and standardize management protocol. [source]


    An integrated care pathway to save the critically ischaemic diabetic foot

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 6 2006
    K. El Sakka
    Summary This prospective study describes and evaluates the efficacy of an integrated care pathway for the management of the critically ischaemic diabetic foot patients by a multidisciplinary team. A weekly joint diabetes/vascular/podiatry ward round and outpatient clinic was established where patients were assessed within 7 days of referral by clinical examination, ankle-brachial-index-pressures, duplex angiogram and transcutaneous oxygen pressures. An angiogram angioplasty or alternatively a magnetic resonance angiography prior to surgical revascularisation was performed in patients deemed not suitable for angioplasty based on the above vascular assessment. Between January 2002 and June 2003(18 months), 128 diabetic patients with lower limb ischaemia were seen. Thirty-four (26.6%) patients received medical treatment alone, and 18 (14.1%) were deemed ,palliative' due to their significant co-morbidities. The remaining 76 (59.4%) patients underwent either angioplasty (n = 56), surgical reconstruction (n = 18), primary major amputation (n = 2) or secondary amputation after surgical revascularisation (n = 1). Minor toe amputations were required in 35 patients. The mortality in the intervention group was 14% (11/76). This integrated multidisciplinary approach offers a consistent and equitable service to diabetic patients with critically ischaemic feet and appears to have a beneficial major/minor amputation ratio. [source]


    Evaluation of management of Graves' disease in District General Hospital: achievement of consensus guidelines

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 9 2005
    S. Dasgupta
    Summary The management of Graves' disease in a District General Hospital was audited. A local care pathway was designed, which was inclusive of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. This was then compared with consensus guidelines proposed by the Royal College of Physicians. Forty-six patients with Graves' disease attended the endocrine clinic. The diagnosis was based on clinical and biochemical features of autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, a raised thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAB) and a diffusely increased uptake in thyroid technetium scan. They were treated for 18 months with antithyroid medications, which was subsequently discontinued provided satisfactory euthyroid state was achieved. Patients were followed up to assess remission and relapse status. The audit suggested that care pathway was in keeping with the guidelines. A few excess TRAB tests were requested. The relapse rate was 42% in our series and one-third of them (33%) chose to continue medical therapy. [source]


    Parent's involvement in decisions when their child is admitted to hospital with suspected shunt malfunction: study protocol

    JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 10 2009
    Joanna Smith
    Abstract Title., Parent's involvement in decisions when their child is admitted to hospital with suspected shunt malfunction: study protocol. Aim., This paper outlines the protocol for a study aimed at exploring parent's involvement during professional,parent interactions and decisions about their child's care in the context of suspected shunt malfunction. Background., Hydrocephalus is a long-term condition treated primarily by the insertion of a shunt that diverts fluid from the brain to another body compartment. Shunts frequently malfunction, and parents of children with shunted hydrocephalus are responsible for recognizing and responding to shunt complications. Parents feel that interactions with professionals when they seek healthcare advice for their child do always not encourage active participation in care decisions. Methods., The study design is based on qualitative methodologies: a combination of conversation analysis applied to consultation recordings of professional,parent interactions when a child is admitted to hospital with suspected shunt malfunction, and semi-structured follow-up interviews with the same participants within 2 weeks of the consultation. Participants., This is a prospective study and participants will be purposefully selected. Parents of children who have been admitted to hospital with suspected shunt malfunction and healthcare professionals responsible for the initial assessment of the child will be invited to participate. Discussion., The study will identify how decisions about a child's care are negotiated between parents and healthcare professionals at key stages of the care pathway. In addition, examining interactions between healthcare professionals and parents may identify approaches that support or hinder parents in contributing to the decision-making processes when they seek advice from healthcare professionals. [source]


    Effects of nursing interventions within an integrated care pathway for patients with hip fracture

    JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 2 2007
    Lars-Eric Olsson
    Abstract Title. Effects of nursing interventions within an integrated care pathway for patients with hip fracture Aim., This paper reports a study to evaluate the contribution of nursing care within an integrated care pathway for patients with hip fracture. Background., There is growing interest in quality assurance in health care. Integrated care pathways are a method to achieve this goal, and are a multi-professional team approach where the requirement for nurses to work effectively within the team is important. However, the nurses' role and contribution within the team have not been well described. Method., A quasi-experimental, prospective study comparing an intervention group with a comparison group was carried out. One hundred and twelve independently living patients, aged 65 years or older and admitted to a Swedish hospital with a hip fracture, were consecutively selected. Pathological fracture and severe intellectual impairment (Pfeiffer's test <3 points) served as exclusion criteria. The intervention was designed to focus on patients' motivation and their prerequisites for rehabilitation and was based on the concept of transition. The main outcome measure was the number of patients restored to preoperative activities of daily living levels in 2003,2004. Findings., In the intervention group 21% were restored to activities of daily living to level A (independent) at discharge, whereas only 5% in the comparison group were restored to this level. No patients in the intervention group, admitted as independent, remained at activities of daily living level F (dependent), whereas 16% remained at level F in the comparison group (P = 0003). Conclusion., When admitting older patients with a hip fracture, it is important to acquire good knowledge about each patient and their prerequisites and to offer them accelerated rehabilitation in accordance with their individual ability. By monitoring process indicators during the transition, serious deviations from the care plan can be avoided. [source]


    Monitoring the care of lung cancer patients: linking audit and care pathways

    JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 1 2001
    E. Kaltenthaler BSc
    Abstract Clinical audit plays an important role in monitoring the provision of care for patients whatever their condition. Care pathways define the steps and expected course of events in the care of patients with a specific clinical problem over a set time scale. This paper describes a study undertaken in a multisite cancer unit to develop a tool for monitoring the progress of lung cancer patients through a care pathway and auditing key standards within the pathway. Important issues associated with the development of this tool are highlighted. The process of developing this tool involved the following steps: a review of the literature dealing with the management of lung cancer patients; interviews with key personnel in primary, secondary, tertiary and palliative care; development of a paper-based series of forms representing key steps in the patient's care pathway; 3-month trial of the paper-based tool; analysis of completion rates and interviews with form users to evaluate effectiveness; and recommendations for creating an electronic record using the experience and lessons learned from the paper version. The paper forms developed through this multistage process were found to be acceptable to users and have the potential to provide accurate information at key points for audit throughout the patient's time within the health-care system for their lung cancer condition. The flexibility of this methodology allows it to be adapted readily to a variety of clinical situations and conditions. [source]


    Nutritional status of preoperative colorectal cancer patients

    JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 4 2010
    S. T. Burden
    Abstract Background:, The present study aimed to determine the extent of malnutrition in preoperative colorectal cancer patients. Malnutrition has been shown to affect post-operative outcome, so it would be beneficial to identify those who are malnourished or who are at risk of becoming so preoperatively. We examine whether weight loss is related to the length of stay or changes in fat free mass. Methods:, Patients were enrolled consecutively from outpatients 2,4 weeks prior to surgery. Assessments included body mass index, percentage weight loss, dynamometry, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, Subjective Global Assessment and bioelectrical impedance. Cancer staging and hospital length of stay were recorded. Results:, One hundred and thirty-two patients were eligible and 87 enrolled. Sixty-seven patients were weight losing and 20% had lost >10% of their usual body weight. Handgrip strength was lower in malnourished patients compared to those who had not lost weight (mean 19.4 and 27.3 kg, respectively, P = 0.013). Mean (SD) fat free mass in patients with a weight loss >10% was 39.7 (13.5) kg and, in those with <10% weight loss, was 51.9 (12.0) kg (P = 0.001). This difference was not demonstrated for fat. Conclusions:, Over half of these patients had lost weight prior to surgery and one in five were malnourished. Body composition measurements demonstrated that malnourished patients had significantly less fat free mass compared to patients who were not clinically malnourished. Nutritional screening would be beneficial in this group preoperatively to identify weight-losing patients at an early stage in the care pathway when they initially enter the secondary care system. [source]


    Clinical trial: a primary-care-based model for the delivery of anti-viral treatment to injecting drug users infected with hepatitis C

    ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 1 2009
    K. JACK
    Summary Background, Injecting drug use is the main risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Secondary-care-based strategies for the management of HCV do not effectively target this vulnerable population. Aims, To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of a primary-care-based model for the delivery of HCV services including anti-viral therapy to injecting drug users. Methods, A partnership between a clinical nurse specialist employed by, and working under the supervision of, a secondary-care-based hepatitis service and drug workers and general practitioners. Three hundred and fifty-three clients attending opiate substitution clinics in primary care were evaluated. Outcomes were: number of new diagnoses of HCV infection, number of clients assessed as suitable for anti-viral treatment, and number of patients treated. Results, 174 HCV antibody positive clients were identified. Of these, 124 were chronically infected with HCV of whom only six had been previously identified. Of 118 new chronically-infected individuals, 86 entered the care pathway, 43 were assessed as suitable for anti-viral treatment and 30 have so far been treated. Outcomes of anti-viral treatment are comparable with those obtained in secondary care settings. Conclusion, A primary-care-based model offers a new paradigm for the treatment of HCV in injecting drug users. [source]


    Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute limb compartment syndrome following trauma

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 3 2010
    Christopher J. Wall
    Abstract Background:, Acute compartment syndrome is a serious and not uncommon complication of limb trauma. The condition is a surgical emergency, and is associated with significant morbidity if not managed appropriately. There is variation in management of acute limb compartment syndrome in Australia. Methods:, Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute limb compartment syndrome following trauma were developed in accordance with Australian National Health and Medical Research Council recommendations. The guidelines were based on critically appraised literature evidence and the consensus opinion of a multidisciplinary team involved in trauma management who met in a nominal panel process. Results:, Recommendations were developed for key decision nodes in the patient care pathway, including methods of diagnosis in alert and unconscious patients, appropriate assessment of compartment pressure, timing and technique of fasciotomy, fasciotomy wound management, and prevention of compartment syndrome in patients with limb injuries. The recommendations were largely consensus based in the absence of well-designed clinical trial evidence. Conclusions:, Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute limb compartment syndrome following trauma have been developed that will support consistency in management and optimize patient health outcomes. [source]


    Preferences for aspects of a dermatology consultation

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    J. Coast
    Summary Background, General practitioners with special interests (GPSIs) are increasingly being used to provide dermatology services in the U.K. Little is known about U.K. dermatology patient attitudes to proposed variations in secondary care service delivery or the values they attach to aspects of the care they receive. Objectives, To quantify preferences for different attributes of care within dermatology secondary care services. Methods, Attributes of care that are important to dermatology patients were derived using in-depth qualitative interviews with 19 patients at different points in the care pathway. A discrete choice experiment using ,best,worst scaling' was sent by post to 119 patients referred to secondary care dermatology services and suitable for GPSI care who had agreed to participate in research. Results, Four attributes were derived from the qualitative work: waiting, expertise, thorough care and convenience. For the discrete choice experiment, 99 patients returned questionnaires, 93 of which contained sufficient data for analysis. All attributes were found to be quantitatively important. The attribute of greatest importance was expertise of the doctor, while waiting time was of least importance. Respondents were willing to wait longer than the current 3 months maximum to receive care that was thorough, 21 months to see a team led by an expert and 13 months to attend a consultation that is easy to get to. Conclusions, Although the need to reduce outpatient waiting times is a key policy driver behind the expansion of GPSI services, this does not appear to be the most important issue for patients. The thoroughness with which the consultation is provided and the expertise of the clinician seen are higher priorities. [source]


    The hospital costs of care for stroke in nine European countries

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue S1 2008
    David Epstein
    Abstract Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity, but the reasons for differences in costs of care within and between countries are not well understood. The HealthBASKET project used a vignette methodology to compare the mean costs and prices of hospital care across providers in nine European Union countries. Data on resource use, unit costs and prices of care for female stroke patients without co-morbidity were collected from a sample of 50 hospitals. Mean costs for each provider were analysed using multiple regression. Sensitivity analysis explored the effects on cost of using official exchange rates, purchasing power parity (PPP) and proportion of national income per capita. The mean cost of a hospital episode per patient for stroke at PPP was ,3813 (standard error 227) with an additional day in hospital typically associated with 6.9% (95% CI: 4,9%) higher costs and thrombolysis associated with 41% higher costs (10,73%). After adjusting for explanatory factors, about 76% of the variation in cost could be attributed to between-country differences, and the extent of this variation was sensitive to the method of currency conversion. There was considerable variation in the care pathways within and between countries, including differences in the availability of stroke units and access to rehabilitative services, but only the length of stay and use of thrombolytic therapy were significantly associated with higher cost. The vignette methodology appears feasible, but further research needs to consider access to healthcare over a longer follow up and to include both costs and outcomes. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The implementation of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischaemic stroke , a scientific position statement from the National Stroke Foundation and the Stroke Society of Australasia

    INTERNAL MEDICINE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2009
    Ad Hoc Committee representing the National Stroke Foundation, the Stroke Society of Australasia
    Abstract Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been licensed in Australia for thrombolysis in selected patients with acute ischaemic stroke since 2003. The use of tPA is low but is increasing across Australia and national audits indicate efficacy and safety outcomes equivalent to international benchmarks. Implementing tPA therapy in clinical practice is, however, challenging and requires a coordinated multidisciplinary approach to acute stroke care across prehospital, emergency department and inpatient care sectors. Stroke care units are an essential ingredient underpinning safe implementation of stroke thrombolysis. Support systems such as care pathways, therapy delivery protocols, and thrombolysis-experienced multidisciplinary care teams are also important enablers. Where delivery of stroke thrombolysis is being planned, health systems need to be re-configured to provide these important elements. This consensus statement provides a review of the evidence for, and implementation of, tPA in acute ischaemic stroke with specific reference to the Australian health-care system. [source]


    Systematic review of the effectiveness of integrated care pathways: what works, for whom, in which circumstances?

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EVIDENCE BASED HEALTHCARE, Issue 2 2009
    Davina Allen RGN BA(Hons) PhD
    Abstract Aim, Integrated care pathways (ICP) are management technologies which formalise multidisciplinary team-working and enable professionals to examine their roles and responsibilities. ICPs are now being implemented across international healthcare arena, but evidence to support their use is equivocal. The aim of this study was to identify the circumstances in which ICPs are effective, for whom and in what contexts. Methods, A systematic review of high-quality randomised controlled trials published between 1980 and 2008 (March) evaluating ICP use in child and adult populations in the full range of healthcare settings. Results 1For relatively predictable trajectories of care ICPs can be effective in supporting proactive care management and ensuring that patients receive relevant clinical interventions and/or assessments in a timely manner. This can lead to improvements in service quality and service efficiency without adverse consequences for patients. 2ICPs are an effective mechanism for promoting adherence to guidelines or treatment protocols thereby reducing variation in practice. 3ICPs can be effective in improving documentation of treatment goals, documentation of communication with patients, carers and health professionals. 4ICPs can be effective in improving physician agreement about treatment options. 5ICPs can be effective in supporting decision-making when they incorporate a decision-aide. 6The evidence considered in this review indicates that ICPs may be particularly effective in changing professional behaviours in the desired direction, where there is scope for improvement or where roles are new. 7Even in contexts in which health professionals are already experienced with a particular pathway, ICP use brings additional beneficial effects in directing professional practice in the desired direction. 8ICPs may be less effective in bringing about service quality and efficiency gains in variable patient trajectories. 9ICPs may be less effective in bringing about quality improvements in circumstances in which services are already based on best evidence and multidisciplinary working is well established. 10Depending on their purpose, the benefits of ICPs may be greater for certain patient subgroups than others. 11We do not know whether the costs of ICP development and implementation are justified by any of their reported benefits. 12ICPs may need supporting mechanisms to underpin their implementation and ensure their adoption in practice, particularly in circumstances in which ICP use is a significant change in organisational culture. 13ICP documentation can introduce scope for new kinds of error. Conclusions, ICPs are most effective in contexts where patient care trajectories are predictable. Their value in settings in which recovery pathways are more variable is less clear. ICPs are most effective in bringing about behavioural changes where there are identified deficiencies in services; their value in contexts where inter-professional working is well established is less certain. None of the studies reviewed included an economic evaluation and thus it is not known whether their benefits justify the costs of their implementation. [source]


    Inhospital management of COPD exacerbations: a systematic review of the literature with regard to adherence to international guidelines

    JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 6 2009
    Cathy Lodewijckx RN MSc PhD Cand
    Abstract Rationale, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are a leading cause of hospitalization. Suboptimal inhospital management is expected to lead to more frequent exacerbations and recurrent hospital admission, and is associated with increased mortality. Aims, To explore inhospital management of COPD and to compare the results with recommendations from international guidelines. Methods, A literature search was carried out for relevant articles published 2000,2009 in the databases Medline, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Invert. In addition, the reference lists of the selected articles were examined. Main inclusion criteria were as follows: COPD, exacerbation, hospitalization, description of inpatient management, and clinical trials. Assessment and treatment strategies in different studies were analysed and compared with American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. Outcomes were analysed. Results, Seven eligible studies were selected. Non-pharmacological treatment was infrequently explored. When compared with international guidelines, diagnostic assessment and therapy were suboptimal, especially non-pharmacological treatment. Respiratory physicians were more likely to perform recommended interventions than non-respiratory physicians. Conclusions, Adherence to international guidelines is low for inhospital management of COPD exacerbations, especially in terms of non-pharmacological treatment. Further investigation is recommended to explore strategies like care pathways that improve performance of recommended interventions. [source]


    Monitoring the care of lung cancer patients: linking audit and care pathways

    JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 1 2001
    E. Kaltenthaler BSc
    Abstract Clinical audit plays an important role in monitoring the provision of care for patients whatever their condition. Care pathways define the steps and expected course of events in the care of patients with a specific clinical problem over a set time scale. This paper describes a study undertaken in a multisite cancer unit to develop a tool for monitoring the progress of lung cancer patients through a care pathway and auditing key standards within the pathway. Important issues associated with the development of this tool are highlighted. The process of developing this tool involved the following steps: a review of the literature dealing with the management of lung cancer patients; interviews with key personnel in primary, secondary, tertiary and palliative care; development of a paper-based series of forms representing key steps in the patient's care pathway; 3-month trial of the paper-based tool; analysis of completion rates and interviews with form users to evaluate effectiveness; and recommendations for creating an electronic record using the experience and lessons learned from the paper version. The paper forms developed through this multistage process were found to be acceptable to users and have the potential to provide accurate information at key points for audit throughout the patient's time within the health-care system for their lung cancer condition. The flexibility of this methodology allows it to be adapted readily to a variety of clinical situations and conditions. [source]


    Palliative management of cancer of the oesophagus , opportunities for dietetic intervention

    JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 5 2003
    A. Holdoway
    Introduction: Cancer of the oesophagus develops insidiously and when patients present with symptoms such as dysphagia to solids/semi-solids and in some cases liquids, the disease is often advanced and patients are frequently poorly nourished and cachectic (Angorn, 1981; Larrea, 1992). In our own unit we were aware that patients were only referred to the dietitian once an oesophageal stent was inserted or radiotherapy commenced, thereby possibly missing opportunities to treat or prevent malnutrition earlier. We therefore evaluated the nutritional status and care pathways of patients diagnosed with cancer of the oesophagus in whom palliative treatment was the only option, with the aim of assessing the extent of malnutrition and identifying opportunities for earlier dietetic intervention to prevent or slow the development of malnutrition. Method: Data were collated on all patients referred to the hospital's dysphagia clinic and diagnosed with inoperable cancer of the oesophagus. Height, weight, body mass index, degree of dysphagia, period of dysphagia, percentage weight loss (data collected as standard practice in the dysphagia clinic) and time to stent insertion/radiotherapy and survival time was collected from the medical notes. Results: Data were available on 58 patients, 33 male, 25 female, mean age 75 years (range 49,92 years). The mean length of survival was 10.2 months (0,24 months). At diagnosis, 47% experienced dysphagia with solids, 33% with semi-solids and 16% experienced a degree of dysphagia with liquids. The period of dysphagia was 1 month to 2 years. Eighty-three per cent of patients had lost weight at diagnosis. Mean percentage weight loss per individual was 13% (range 0,45%). Thirty-five per cent had a BMI <20 kg/m2. Median time from diagnosis to radiotherapy (n = 8) was 2 months with range, 1,6 months. Median time from diagnosis to the placement of the oesophageal stent (n = 12) was 1 month with range, 0,7 months. Discussion: These data illustrate that malnutrition remains a significant problem in this patient group. These results demonstrate that dysphagia and malnutrition, as indicated by weight loss, is developing in the community before diagnosis. Opportunities for earlier dietetic intervention exist between diagnosis and date at which other treatments commence, i.e. stent insertion. Further opportunities exist to educate community health professionals on treating and preventing malnutrition when dysphagia presents. Survival times support the need for dietetic follow-up. In our unit the results of this audit helped to improve care pathways for patients with cancer of the oesophagus. In response to the above findings, a nutritional screening tool is now completed by a nurse specialist at the first clinic attended. This has enabled appropriate and timely advice to be given on modified texture and fortification of food to optimize nutritional intake at diagnosis. [source]


    Rival research programmes and their influence on nursing practice

    JOURNAL OF NURSING MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2004
    David Newbold BSc
    In most forms of industry, there is an explicit link between research and development and subsequent technological processes. New discoveries can alter the direction or trajectory of technological progress. In this respect, health care is no different to any other form of industry. There are several theories of science which attempt to explain this link and predict its behaviour. According to Lakatos (1978), rival research programmes may co-exist, whilst Brouwer (1990) suggests they may vie with each other to alter the direction of technological progress. Presently, there are at least two research programmes which are competing to capture the activities of nurses. These are: the Health Care as Industrial Process programme, generating guideline driven nursing, and use of care pathways to maximize throughput plus labour substitution to minimize costs; and the Health Care as Therapeutic Interaction programme, focused on the management and delivery of the fundamental aspects of nursing care, and the use of emotional labour and psychological care to enable patients to cope and make sense of their situation. Ideally, the direction of practice should reflect both of these valid research programmes, with nurses as the staff best placed to integrate medical technology with humanity. Arguably, it is the Industrial Process programme which is currently dominant, at the price of decreased quality of care, and loss of the health benefits of therapeutic interaction. Greater effort is needed, in terms of research to reduce the apparent ,invisibility' of emotional labour, and education of nurses to boost therapeutic interaction skills. In order to re-direct the trajectory, managers should acknowledge and accommodate aspects of therapeutic interaction in service re-engineering, and use quality assurance tools which may accurately detect and monitor therapeutic interaction by nurses. [source]


    The management of ectodermal dysplasia and severe hypodontia.

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 9 2006
    International conference statements
    summary, An international conference on ectodermal dysplasias and hypodontia, held in London in 2004, featured a session devoted to the management of the ectodermal dysplasias and severe hypodontia. This paper presents a set of statements prepared by an international specialist panel, including representatives of patient support groups, who presented and subsequently debated a series of papers on this subject. The following topics were explored: potential roles of patient support groups; core care standards, including the roles and composition of medical and dental multidisciplinary teams for treating these conditions; the format of a baseline data set for patients with an ED; and priorities for research in ectodermal dysplasias, with particular regard to laboratory and clinical studies, and research methodology. The statements are intended to form an international framework for developing patient care pathways, and collaborative research in this field. [source]


    Outcome of active disease in ankylosing spondylitis: A prospective study

    MUSCULOSKELETAL CARE, Issue 1 2010
    Grad Dip Phys, J. Martindale PhD
    Abstract Background:,People with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) typically experience episodic exacerbations, but the extent to which they subsequently experience a sustained reduction in disease markers below recognized thresholds for active disease is unclear. Objective:,To investigate changes in, and associations between, disease markers over 18 months in people with active AS. Methods:,Within a cohort of 89 participants with AS, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) scores of 4 or higher were used to identify those with active disease. Standard assessment tools were used to monitor participants prospectively at four consecutive six-monthly intervals. Participants received standard treatments but none received anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF,) medication during the study. Results:,The median age of the cohort was 50 years (inter-quartile range [IQR] 38.5,55.5), the median age of disease onset was 25 years (IQR 18,33) and the median disease duration was 18 years (IQR 13,27). Forty-seven (53%) participants had a BASDAI score of 4 or higher on the first assessment, of whom 45 (51%) scored 4 or higher on all subsequent assessments. Furthermore, 38 (43%) and 16 (18%) participants scored BASDAI 5 or 6, respectively, or higher, throughout. BASDAI scores correlated strongly with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) scores. Compared with 19 (21%) participants whose BASDAI scores were consistently below 4 throughout, participants with persistently high BASDAI scores showed higher scores for anxiety and depression, and some evidence of functional deterioration during the study period. Conclusions:,In this cohort, disease markers in most people with active AS were sustained above the standard threshold for active disease. This has important implications for planning care pathways and for optimal utilization of anti-TNF, treatment. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Enhancing diabetes care pathways for older people with type 2 diabetes: a special case of care home residents

    PRACTICAL DIABETES INTERNATIONAL (INCORPORATING CARDIABETES), Issue 3 2007
    18 March 200, A poster submitted by AJ Sinclair, Lisbon, Portugal, adapted for publication in Practical Diabetes International, on behalf of UK delegates attending the European MasterClass in Diabetes
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]