Care Outcomes (care + outcome)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Care Outcomes

  • health care outcome

  • Selected Abstracts

    Exploring nursing outcomes for patients with advanced cancer following intervention by Macmillan specialist palliative care nurses

    Jessica Corner BSc PhD RGN OncCert
    Background.,Little information exists about the outcomes from nursing interventions, and few studies report new approaches to evaluating the complex web of effects that may result from specialist nursing care. Aims.,The aim of this study was to explore nursing outcomes for patients with advanced cancer that may be identified as resulting from the care of a Macmillan specialist palliative care nurse. Methods/instruments.,Seventy-six patients referred to 12 United Kingdom Macmillan specialist palliative care nursing services participated in a longitudinal study of their care over 28 days. Patients were interviewed and completed the European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Scale and the Palliative Care Outcomes Scale at referral, and 3, 7 and 28 days following referral to a Macmillan specialist palliative care nursing service. A nominated carer was interviewed at baseline and 28 days. Notes recorded by Macmillan specialist palliative care nurses in relation to each patient case were analysed. Findings.,Significant improvements in emotional (P = 0·03) and cognitive functioning (P = 0·03) were identified in changes in patients' European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Scale scores, and in Palliative Care Outcomes Scale patient anxiety scores (P = 0·003), from baseline to day 7. Analysis of case study data indicated that overall positive outcomes of care from Macmillan specialist palliative care nursing intervention were achieved in 42 (55%) cases. Study limitations.,Sample attrition due to patients' deteriorating condition limited the value of data from the quality of life measures. The method developed for evaluating nursing outcomes using data from patient and carer interviews and nursing records was limited by a lack of focus on outcomes of care in these data sources. Conclusions.,A method was developed for evaluating outcomes of nursing care in complex situations such as care of people who are dying. Positive outcomes of care for patients that were directly attributable to the care provided by Macmillan specialist palliative care nurses were found for the majority of patients. For a small number of patients, negative outcomes of care were identified. [source]

    Assessment and Interpretation of Comorbidity Burden in Older Adults with Cancer

    Siran M. Koroukian PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between comorbidities, functional limitations, geriatric syndromes, treatment patterns, and outcomes in a population-based cohort of older patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer and receiving home health care. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Data from the Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System, Medicare claims and enrollment files, and the home health care Outcome and Assessment Information Set. PARTICIPANTS: Ohio residents diagnosed with incident colorectal cancer in 1999 to 2001 and receiving home health care in the 30 days before or after cancer diagnosis (N=957). MEASUREMENTS: Outcome measures included receipt of cancer treatment and survival through 2005. RESULTS: Not having surgery was associated negatively with comorbidities but positively with functional limitations and geriatric syndromes. Receipt of chemotherapy was negatively associated with comorbidities and functional limitations. The presence of two or more geriatric syndromes was significantly associated with unfavorable survival outcomes when analyzing overall survival and disease-specific survival (DSS). Having limitations in two or more activities of daily living was associated with unfavorable overall survival but not with DSS. Comorbity was associated with favorable DSS at borderline level of statistical significance but not with overall survival. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight the importance of incorporating functional limitations and geriatric syndrome data in geriatric oncology outcomes studies. [source]

    Is multidisciplinary learning effective among those caring for people with diabetes?

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2002
    N. Munro
    Abstract The role of multi-professional learning for those providing clinical services to people with diabetes has yet to be defined. Several assumptions are generally made about education in the context of multi-professional settings. It is argued that different professions learning together could potentially improve professional relationships, collaborative working practices and ultimately standards of care. Greater respect and honesty may emerge from a team approach to learning with a commensurate reduction in professional antagonism. Personal and professional confidence is reportedly enhanced through close contact with other professionals during team-based learning exercises. We have examined current evidence to support multidisciplinary learning in the context of medical education generally as well as in diabetes education. Previous investigation of available literature by Cochrane reviewers, aimed at identifying studies of interprofessional education interventions, yielded a total of 1042 articles, none of which met the stated inclusion criteria. Searches involving more recent publications failed to reveal more robust evidence. Despite a large body of literature on the evaluation of interprofessional education, studies generally lacked the methodological rigour needed to understand the impact of interprofessional education on professional practice and/or health care outcomes. Nevertheless, planners continue to advocate, and endorse, joint training between different groups of workers (including nurses, doctors and those in professions allied to medicine) with the objective of producing an integrated workforce of multidisciplinary teams. Whilst the concept of multi-professional learning has strong appeal, it is necessary for those responsible for educating health care professionals to demonstrate its superiority over separate learning experiences. [source]

    Determining the impact of health library services on patient care: a review of the literature

    Patrick O'Connor
    The impact of health library information has been studied in a number of settings and populations. This review examines both the methods employed and the outcomes reported in a series of impact studies conducted in four countries since the late 1980's. It demonstrates that health library information can affect patient care outcomes in various ways and has high cognitive and clinical value in diagnosing and treating patients. But there remains no agreed technique or methodology for determining the level of this impact. In many cases evaluation of the health library's impact will be located within a central process of evaluation of the greater organization to which the library belongs. Consequently, local ad hoc evaluation is rarely reported outside an organization. The author considers the question of whether it is worthwhile doing an impact study and what form it might take. The author concludes by identifying seminal papers on the topic. [source]

    The clinical nurse leader: a catalyst for improving quality and patient safety

    Aim, The clinical nurse leader (CNL®) is a new nursing role introduced by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN). This paper describes its potential impact in practice. Background, Significant pressures are being placed on health care delivery systems to improve patient care outcomes and lower costs in an environment of diminishing resources. Method, A naturalistic approach is used to evaluate the impact the CNL has had on outcomes of care. Case studies describe the CNL implementation experiences at three different practice settings within the same geographic region. Results, Cost savings, including improvement on Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) core measures, are realized quickly in settings where the CNL role has been integrated into the care delivery model. Conclusions, With the growing calls for improved outcomes and more cost-effective care, the CNL role provides an opportunity for nursing to lead innovation by maximizing health care quality while minimizing costs. Implications for nursing management, Nursing is in a unique position to address problems that plague the nation's health system. The CNL represents an exciting and promising opportunity for nursing to take a leadership role, in collaboration with multiple practice partners, and implement quality improvement and patient safety initiatives across all health care settings. [source]

    General practitioners: Their contact with maternal and child health nurses in postnatal care

    C Mbwili-Muleya
    Objective: To assess the level of contact of general practitioners (GP) with maternal and child health nurses (MCHN) in postnatal care. Methodology: A postal survey of 1104 Victorian GP was used, with a response rate of 70%. To account for the clustered sampling frame, hierarchical data analysis techniques were used. Results: Half of the GP (351/710) had no contact with their local MCHN in the previous month; and one in 10 had four or more contacts. Eighty-eight per cent of GP described the contact as helpful. In 56% of cases the MCHN was reported as the usual initiator of the contact. The most common reason for contact concerned the baby's physical problems (42%). After adjusting for the number of women seen for the routine 6-week postnatal review and other GP characteristics, male GP were as likely as female GP to report MCHN contact (odds ratio (OR) = 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.67,1.62). General practitioners aged 31,40 years were more likely to report contact with MCHN than GP aged 51,60 (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.22,0.86) as were GP with the FRACGP qualification (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.21,2.45). Conclusions: This study provides baseline information on the level of GP contact with MCHN as they provide postnatal care. Although there were GP in Victoria who maintained a level of contact with MCHN, almost half reported no contact in the previous month. Most GP who reported contact with MCHN found it useful. This finding should encourage GP and MCHN coordination to improve continuity and postnatal care outcomes. [source]

    Setting performance standards for medical practice: a theoretical framework

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 5 2001
    L Southgate
    Background The assessment of performance in the real world of medical practice is now widely accepted as the goal of assessment at the postgraduate level. This is largely a validity issue, as it is recognised that tests of knowledge and in clinical simulations cannot on their own really measure how medical practitioners function in the broader health care system. However, the development of standards for performance-based assessment is not as well understood as in competency assessment, where simulations can more readily reflect narrower issues of knowledge and skills. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for the development of standards that reflect the more complex world in which experienced medical practitioners work. Methods The paper reflects the combined experiences of a group of education researchers and the results of literature searches that included identifying current health system data sources that might contribute information to the measurement of standards. Conclusion Standards that reflect the complexity of medical practice may best be developed through an ,expert systems' analysis of clinical conditions for which desired health care outcomes reflect the contribution of several health professionals within a complex, three-dimensional, contextual model. Examples of the model are provided, but further work is needed to test validity and measurability. [source]

    Chronic kidney disease care program improves quality of pre-end-stage renal disease care and reduces medical costs

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    ABSTRACT: Aim: Multidisciplinary care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) provides better care outcomes. This study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a CKD care program on pre-end-stage renal disease (ESRD) care. Methods: One hundred and forty incident haemodialysis patients were classified into the CKD Care Group (n = 71) and the Nephrologist Care Group (n = 69) according to participation in the CKD care program before dialysis initiation. The ,total observation period' was divided into ,6 months before dialysis' and ,at dialysis initiation'. Quality of pre-ESRD care, service utilization and medical costs were evaluated and compared between groups. Results: The mean estimated glomerular filtration rates at dialysis initiation were low in both groups; but the levels of haematocrit and serum albumin of the CKD Care Group were significantly higher. The percentages of patients initiating dialysis with created vascular access, without insertion of double-lumen catheter and without hospitalization were 57.7%, 50.7% and 40.8%, respectively, in the CKD Care Group, and 37.7%, 29.0% and 18.8% in the Nephrologist Care Group (P < 0.001). Participation in the CKD care program, though with higher costs during the 6 months before dialysis ($US1428 ± 2049 vs US$675 ± 962/patient, P < 0.001), was significantly associated with lower medical costs at dialysis initiation ($US942 ± 1941 vs $US2410 ± 2481/patient, P < 0.001) and for the total period of observation ($US2674 ± 2780 vs $US3872 ± 3270/patient, P = 0.009). The cost-saving effect came through the early preparation of vascular access and the lack of hospitalization at dialysis initiation. Conclusion: CKD care programs significantly improve quality of pre-ESRD care, decrease service utilization and save medical costs. [source]

    Constructing a patient education system: A performance technology project

    Edith E. Bell
    The purpose of the patient education system described here was to distribute patient education material to and within medical practices managed by a small medical practice management company. The belief was that patient education opportunities improved health care outcomes and increased patient participation in health care decisions and compliance with health care plans. This tool reinforced medical practices' commitment to having patients participate actively in their treatment, differentiated them from other practices, and contributed to the generation of new patients. [source]

    Databases for outcomes research: what has 10 years of experience taught us?

    Lynn Bosco MD
    Abstract This paper describes how the mission of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is being executed through the many programs that it has developed and implemented. The Evidence-based Practice Center program was developed to provide systematic reviews on common and expensive conditions and health technologies and to ensure that this information is used to improve health care outcomes and costs. The National Guidelines Clearinghouse provides an internet-based source of clinical practice guidelines that are produced by clinical specialty organizations for the primary purpose of improving health care delivery and outcomes. Relevant to this symposium on databases, AHRQ has supported the development of databases to track hospital utilization on a state-by-state basis. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) allows comparisons between states and within regions of individual states. New initiatives have been launched to evaluate interventions across systems rather than focusing on the individual patient (Translating Research into Practice,TRIP). The Centers for Education and Research on Therapeutics (CERTs) program was developed to conduct real world evaluations to better understand the benefits and risks of single and combined therapy. Both programs further the mission of the AHRQ to improve the outcomes and quality of health care, with additional focus on the cost-effectiveness, patient safety, and increasing access to care for all. Information on programs developed by the AHRQ is available in more detail at the Agency Web site Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Modest Impact of a Brief Curricular Intervention on Poor Documentation of Sexual History in University-Based Resident Internal Medicine Clinics

    Danielle F. Loeb MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Providers need an accurate sexual history for appropriate screening and counseling. While curricula on sexual history taking have been described, the impact of such interventions on resident physician performance of the sexual history remains unknown. Aims., Our aims were to assess the rates of documentation of sexual histories, the rates of documentation of specific components of the sexual history, and the impact of a teaching intervention on this documentation by Internal Medicine residents. Methods., The study design was a teaching intervention with a pre- and postintervention chart review. Participants included postgraduate years two (PGY-2) and three (PGY-3) Internal Medicine residents (N = 25) at two university-based outpatient continuity clinics. Residents received an educational intervention consisting of three 30-minute, case-based sessions in the fall of 2007. Main Outcome Measures., We reviewed charts from health-care maintenance visits pre- and postintervention. We analyzed within resident pre- and postrates of sexual history taking and the number of sexual history components documented using paired t -tests. Results., In total, we reviewed 369 pre- and 260 postintervention charts. The mean number of charts per resident was 14.8 (range 8,29) pre-intervention and 10.4 (range 3,25) postintervention. The mean documentation rate per resident for one or more components of sexual history pre- and postintervention were 22.5% (standard deviation [SD] = 18.1%) and 31.7% (SD = 20.4%), respectively, P < 0.01. The most frequently documented components of sexual history were current sexual activity, number of current sexual partners, and gender of current sexual partner. The least documented components were history of specific sexually transmitted infections, gender of sexual partners over lifetime, and sexual behaviors. Conclusion., An educational intervention modestly improved documentation of sexual histories by Internal Medicine residents. Future studies should examine the effects of more comprehensive educational interventions and the impact of such interventions on physician behavior or patient care outcomes. Loeb DF, Aagaard EM, Cali SR, and Lee RS. Modest impact of a brief curricular intervention on poor documentation of sexual history in university-based resident internal medicine clinics. J Sex Med 2010;7:3315,3321. [source]