Care Models (care + models)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The advanced practice nurse,nephrologist care model: Effect on patient outcomes and hemodialysis unit team satisfaction

Lori Harwood
Abstract The tertiary care nurse practitioner/clinical nurse specialist (NP/CNS) is an advanced practice nurse with a relatively new role within the health-care system. It is stated that care provided by the NP/CNS is cost-effective and of high quality but little research exists to document these outcomes in an acute-care setting. The clinical coverage pattern by nephrologists and NP/CNS of a hemodialysis unit in a large academic center allowed such a study. Two NP/CNS plus a nephrologist followed two of three hemodialysis treatment shifts per day; only a nephrologist followed the third shift. The influence of this care pattern of patients was examined using a cross-sectional review of outcomes such as adequacy of delivered dialysis, anemia management, phosphate control, hospitalizations, etc. In addition, the level of satisfaction of the dialysis team and perceptions of care delivered with the care models was assessed. The care model staff-to-patient-number ratio was similar in both groups (1:27 for NP/CNS plus nephrologist; 1:29 for nephrologist alone). Patient demographics were similar in both groups but the NP/CNS,nephrologist group had patients with more comorbidities. No statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences existed between the groups in patient laboratory data, adherence to standards, medications, inter- and intradialytic blood pressure, achievement of target postdialysis weights, and hospitalizations or emergency room visits. Significantly more adjustments were made to target weights and medications and more investigations were ordered by the NP/CNS,nephrologist team. Team satisfaction and perceptions of care delivery were higher with the NP/CNS,nephrologist model. It is concluded that the NP/CNS,nephrologist care model may increase the efficiency of the care provided by nephrologists to chronic hemodialysis patients. The model may also be a solution to the problem of providing nephrologic care to an ever-growing hemodialysis population. [source]

Factors associated with constructive staff,family relationships in the care of older adults in the institutional setting

Emily Haesler BN PGradDipAdvNsg
Abstract Background, Modern healthcare philosophy espouses the virtues of holistic care and acknowledges that family involvement is appropriate and something to be encouraged due to the role it plays in physical and emotional healing. In the aged care sector, the involvement of families is a strong guarantee of a resident's well-being. The important role family plays in the support and care of the older adult in the residential aged care environment has been enshrined in the Australian Commonwealth Charter of Residents' Rights and Responsibilities and the Aged Care Standards of Practice. Despite wide acknowledgement of the importance of family involvement in the healthcare of the older adult, many barriers to the implementation of participatory family care have been identified in past research. For older adults in the healthcare environment to benefit from the involvement of their family members, healthcare professionals need an understanding of the issues surrounding family presence in the healthcare environment and the strategies to best support it. Objectives, The objectives of the systematic review were to present the best available evidence on the strategies, practices and organisational characteristics that promote constructive staff,family relationships in the care of older adults in the healthcare setting. Specifically this review sought to investigate how staff and family members perceive their relationships with each other; staff characteristics that promote constructive relationships with the family; and interventions that support staff,family relationships. Search strategy, A literature search was performed using the following databases for the years 1990,2005: Ageline, APAIS Health, Australian Family and Society Abstracts (FAMILY), CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Dare, Dissertation Abstracts, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Science Index. Personal communication from expert panel members was also used to identify studies for inclusion. A second search stage was conducted through review of reference lists of studies retrieved during the first search stage. The search was limited to published and unpublished material in English language. Selection criteria, The review was limited to studies involving residents and patients within acute, subacute, rehabilitation and residential settings, aged over 65 years, their family and healthcare staff. Papers addressing family members and healthcare staff perceptions of their relationships with each other were considered for this review. Studies in this review also included those relating to interventions to promote constructive staff,family relationships including organisational strategies, staff,family meetings, case conferencing, environmental approaches, etc. The review considered both quantitative and qualitative research and opinion papers for inclusion. Data collection and analysis, All retrieved papers were critically appraised for eligibility for inclusion and methodological quality independently by two reviewers, and the same reviewers collected details of eligible research. Appraisal forms and data extraction forms designed by the Joanna Briggs Institute as part of the QARI and NOTARI systematic review software packages were used for this review. Findings, Family members' perceptions of their relationships with staff showed that a strong focus was placed on opportunities for the family to be involved in the patient's care. Staff members also expressed a theoretical support for the collaborative process, however, this belief often did not translate to the staff members' clinical practice. In the studies included in the review staff were frequently found to rely on traditional medical models of care in their clinical practice and maintaining control over the environment, rather than fully collaborating with families. Four factors were found to be essential to interventions designed to support a collaborative partnership between family members and healthcare staff: communication, information, education and administrative support. Based on the evidence analysed in this systematic review, staff and family education on relationship development, power and control issues, communication skills and negotiating techniques is essential to promoting constructive staff,family relationships. Managerial support, such as addressing workloads and staffing issues; introducing care models focused on collaboration with families; and providing practical support for staff education, is essential to gaining sustained benefits from interventions designed to promote constructive family,staff relationships. [source]

Developing interdisciplinary maternity services policy in Canada.

Evaluation of a consensus workshop
Abstract Context, Four maternity/obstetrical care organizations, representing women, midwives, obstetricians and family doctors conducted interdisciplinary policy research under auspices of four key stakeholder groups. These projects teams and key stakeholders subsequently collaborated to develop consensus on strategies for improved maternity services in Ontario. Objectives, The objective of this study is to evaluate a 2-day research synthesis and consensus building conference to answer policy questions in relation to new models of interdisciplinary maternity care organizations in different settings in Ontario. Methods, The evaluation consisted of a scan of individual project activities and findings as were presented to an invited audience of key stakeholders at the consensus conference. This involved: participant observation with key informant consultation; a survey of attendees; pattern processing and sense making of project materials, consensus statements derived at the conference in the light of participant observation and survey material as pertaining to a complex system. The development of a systems framework for maternity care policy in Ontario was based on secondary analysis of the material. Findings, Conference participants were united on the importance of investment in maternity care for Ontario and the impending workforce crisis if adaptation of the workforce did not take place. The conference participants proposed reforming the current system that was seen as too rigid and inflexible in relation to the constraints of legislation, provider scope of practice and remuneration issues. However, not one model of interdisciplinary maternity/obstetrical care was endorsed. Consistency and coherence of models (rather than central standardization) through self-organization based on local needs was strongly endorsed. An understanding of primary maternity care models as subsystems of networked providers in complex health organizations and a wider social system emerged. The patterns identified were incorporated into a complexity framework to assist sense making to inform policy. Discussion, Coherence around core values, holism and synthesis with responsiveness to local needs and key stakeholders were themes that emerged consistent with complex adaptive systems principles. Respecting historical provider relationships and local history provided a background for change recognizing that systems evolve in part from where they have been. The building of functioning relationships was central through education and improved communication with ongoing feedback loops (positive and negative). Information systems and a flexible improved central and local organization of maternity services was endorsed. Education and improved communication through ongoing feedback loops (positive and negative) were central to building functioning relationships. Also, coordinated central organization with a flexible and adaptive local organization of maternity services was endorsed by participants. Conclusions, This evaluation used an approach comprising scoping, pattern processing and sense making. While the projects produced considerable typical research evidence, the key policy questions could not be addressed by this alone, and a process of synthesis and consensus building with stakeholder engagement was applied. An adaptive system with local needs driving a relationship based network of interdisciplinary groupings or teams with both bottom up and central leadership. A complexity framework enhanced sense making for the system approaches and understandings that emerged. [source]

Treatment Strategies in Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Evidence-Based Review of Clinical Trial Results and Treatment Guidelines: Report on a Roundtable Discussion

With the availability of new data and the recent release of new European and US guidelines, contemporary care paradigms for the treatment of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS), including those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, are likely to undergo substantial changes. In recognition of this shifting landscape as well as the impact of new guidelines on care models for the treatment of patients with NSTE ACS, a roundtable was convened on October 25, 2007, to discuss the implications of these changes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the presentations and subsequent discussions from the roundtable, which examined the guidelines and evidence from a variety of perspectives, and to explore the best ways to incorporate new treatment paradigms into everyday clinical care. The multiple viewpoints expressed by the roundtable attendees illustrate the recognition that at this point, consensus has not been reached on the optimum algorithm for treatment of these patients. This article focuses on issues discussed during the roundtable from the perspective of the practicing cardiologist. [source]

Role of general practitioners in primary maternity care in South Australia and Victoria

Background:, Recent policy debates about the challenges facing maternity services in Australia provide an opportunity to reflect on current care practices. Aims:, To identify the provision of primary maternity care models in two Australian states: South Australia (SA) and Victoria. Methods:, All public and private hospitals with maternity facilities in SA and Victoria were mailed a survey requesting information about the organisation and provision of maternity care. Results:, All hospitals in SA (35) and 99% (75/76) in Victoria completed the survey. Among public hospitals, approximately 50% (14/30 in SA and 29/56 in Victoria) reported primary care arrangements where all antenatal care is provided by medical practitioners working in the community. The vast majority of hospitals offering this type of care were located outside metropolitan areas. Twenty per cent of public hospitals in SA (6/30) and 36% in Victoria (20/59) reported offering primary midwifery models, such as team, caseload and/or birth centre care. In SA, hospitals offering these models were located in both metropolitan and regional areas. In Victoria, 60% of hospitals offering women primary midwifery care were large hospitals with more than 1000 births per annum. Conclusions:, This study shows that community-based medical practitioners, general practitioners in particular, are major providers of maternity care despite the emergence of primary midwifery models of care. With 25% of the population living outside metropolitan areas in both states, providing access to choice and continuity of care for women living in regional and rural areas will be a challenge for maternity reform. [source]

Australian issues in the provision of after-hours primary medical care services in rural communities

Kathryn Zeitz
Abstract Objective:,In 2003 the Rural Doctors Workforce Agency in South Australia (SA) facilitated the ,SA Rural Hospital After Hours Triage Education and Training Program'. It was designed to improve communication between rural general practitioners (GPs) and nurses undertaking after-hours triage, provide training in triage for rural nurses and develop local collaborative after-hours primary medical care models that can be applied in other settings. Design:,The program consisted of a series of three workshops. The first workshop provided an opportunity for GPs and nurses to discuss local issues relating to after-hours primary medical care service delivery. This was followed by a one-day workshop on triage for nurses. A follow-up refresher workshop was conducted approximately six months later. Setting:,Twenty-three rural communities in SA. Participants:,Rural GPs and nurses working in rural communities. Results:,This paper reports on the issues highlighted by clinicians in providing after-hours primary medical care in rural and remote communities. These included community expectations, systems of care, scope of practice, private practice/public hospital interface, and medico legal issues. Conclusion:,The issues facing after-hours health services in rural communities are not new. There are many opportunities for improvement of systems. A formal program including workshops and training has provided a useful forum to commence service improvements. [source]

Service delivery in older patients with bipolar disorder: a review and development of a medical care model

Amy M Kilbourne
Objectives:, Medical comorbidities, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD), occur disproportionately in older patients with bipolar disorder. We describe the development, implementation, and feasibility/tolerability results of a manual-based medical care model (BCM) designed to improve medical outcomes in older patients with bipolar disorder. Methods:, The BCM consisted of (i) self-management sessions focused on bipolar disorder symptom control, healthy habits, and provider engagement, (ii) telephone care management to coordinate care and reinforce self-management goals, and (iii) guideline dissemination focused on medical issues in bipolar disorder. Older patients with bipolar disorder and a CVD-related risk factor (n = 58) were consented, enrolled, and randomized to receive BCM or usual care. Results:, Baseline assessment (mean age = 55, 9% female, 9% African American) revealed a vulnerable population: 21% were substance users, 31% relied on public transportation, and 22% reported problems accessing medical care. Evaluation of BCM feasibility revealed high overall patient satisfaction with the intervention, high fidelity (e.g., majority of self-management sessions and follow-up contacts completed), and good tolerability (dropout rate <5%). Use of telephone contacts may have mitigated barriers to medical care (e.g., transportation). Conclusions:, The BCM is a feasible model for older, medically ill patients with bipolar disorder, and could be an alternative to more costly treatment models that involve co-location and/or additional hiring of medical providers in mental health clinics. Future research directions pertinent to the development of the BCM and other medical care models for older patients with bipolar disorder include assessment of their long-term effects on physical health and their cost-effectiveness across different treatment settings. [source]

Randomised controlled trial of two antenatal care models in rural Zimbabwe

F Majoko
Objective, To compare a five-visit antenatal care (ANC) model with specified goals with the standard model in a rural area in Zimbabwe. Design, Cluster randomised controlled trial with the clinic as the randomisation unit. Setting, Primary care setting in a developing country where care was provided by nurse-midwives. Population, Women booking for ANC in the clinics were eligible. Main outcome measures, Number of antenatal visits, antepartum and intrapartum referrals, utilization of health centre for delivery and perinatal outcomes. Methods, Twenty-three rural health centres were stratified prior to random allocation to the new (n= 11) or standard (n= 12) model of care. Results, We recruited 13 517 women (new, n= 6897 and standard, n= 6620) in the study, and 78% (10 572) of their pregnancy records were retrieved. There was no difference in median maternal age, parity and gestational age at booking between women in the standard model and those in the new model. The median number of visits was four for both models. The proportion of women with five or less visits was 77% in the new and 69% in the standard model (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.08,2.2). The likelihood of haemoglobin testing was higher in the new model (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.0,5.7) but unchanged for syphilis testing. There were fewer intrapartum transfers (5.4 versus 7.9% [OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.44,0.98]) in the new model but no difference in antepartum or postpartum transfers. There was no difference in rates of preterm delivery or low birthweight. The perinatal mortality was 25/1000 in standard model and 28/1000 in new model. Conclusion, In Gutu district, a focused five-visit schedule did not change the number of contacts but was more effective as expressed by increased adherence to procedures and better use of institutional health care. [source]