Care Management (care + management)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Care Management

  • health care management
  • intensive care management

  • Selected Abstracts

    Quality in Health Care: Strategic Issues in Health Care Management

    Julie Dickinson
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Obstetric Emergency Simulation Training: Team Training for Crisis Care Management

    Professional Issues
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    EDITORIAL: Evidence-Based Medicine for Clinical Decision Making in Sexual Health Care Management: Role of The Journal of Sexual Medicine

    Irwin Goldstein MD Editor-in-Chief

    Improving Heart Failure Self-Management Support by Actively Engaging Out-of-Home Caregivers: Results of a Feasibility Study

    John D. Piette PhD
    The benefits of heart failure (HF) care management have been demonstrated, yet health systems are often unable to meet patients' needs for support between outpatient visits. Informal care provided by family or friends is a low-cost, and potentially effective, adjunct to care management services. The authors evaluated the feasibility of augmenting HF care management with weekly, automated assessment and behavior change calls to patients, feedback via the Internet to an out-of-home informal caregiver or CarePartner (CP), and faxes to the patient's health care team. The program included 52 HF patient-CP pairs participating for an average of 12 weeks. Patients completed 586 assessments (92% completion rate) and reported problems that might otherwise have gone unidentified. At follow-up, 75% had made changes in their self-care as a result of the intervention. The CP program may extend the impact of HF telemonitoring beyond what care management programs can realistically deliver. [source]

    Intensive care unit management of patients with status epilepticus

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2007
    Thomas P. Bleck
    Summary The intensive care unit management of status epilepticus focuses on patients who are refractory to initial treatment, who have an underlying condition that require critical care management, or who experience respiratory or cardiovascular complications of their therapies. The available data suggest that failure of a first-line anticonvulsant agent to terminate status should lead to the use of a definitive therapy in general anesthetic doses. Midazolam, propofol, and phenobarbital have been used most frequently; the place of newer agents (e.g., valproate, levetiracetam, or topiramate) remains to be determined. [source]

    Hydration of exercised Standardbred racehorses assessed noninvasively using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Summary Reasons for performing study: In human and animal clinical practice, multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) is increasingly used as a diagnostic tool to assess hydration of intra-and extracellular fluid compartments. Accurate determination of changes in hydration status within individuals over time has remained problematic due to the requirement for complete impedance-frequency relationships at the time points of interest. Objectives: To use MF-BIA in 13 Standardbred racehorses and 7 ,endurance' research horses to determine if MF-BIA could be used to track changes in total body water (TBW), intracellular fluid volume (ICFV) and extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) resulting from exercise. Methods: Jugular venous blood was sampled at rest and for 2,13 h following exercise. TBW, ECFV and plasma volume (PV) were measured at rest using indicator dilution techniques (D2O, thiocyanate and Evans Blue, respectively). TBW, ECFV, ICFV and PV were correlated to impedance measures and predictive equations used to determine hydration status from MF-BIA measures. Results: TBW loss continued throughout the recovery period, and was primarily borne by the ECF compartment at 90 min of recovery. Conclusions: MF-BIA predictions of compartmental hydration status were significantly correlated to measured/calculated decreases in these compartments. Potential relevance: Practical applications for MF-BIA in horses include monitoring of hydration status during transport and competition, assessment of body compostion, clinical health assessment and critical care management. [source]

    Systematic review of the effectiveness of integrated care pathways: what works, for whom, in which circumstances?

    Davina Allen RGN BA(Hons) PhD
    Abstract Aim, Integrated care pathways (ICP) are management technologies which formalise multidisciplinary team-working and enable professionals to examine their roles and responsibilities. ICPs are now being implemented across international healthcare arena, but evidence to support their use is equivocal. The aim of this study was to identify the circumstances in which ICPs are effective, for whom and in what contexts. Methods, A systematic review of high-quality randomised controlled trials published between 1980 and 2008 (March) evaluating ICP use in child and adult populations in the full range of healthcare settings. Results 1For relatively predictable trajectories of care ICPs can be effective in supporting proactive care management and ensuring that patients receive relevant clinical interventions and/or assessments in a timely manner. This can lead to improvements in service quality and service efficiency without adverse consequences for patients. 2ICPs are an effective mechanism for promoting adherence to guidelines or treatment protocols thereby reducing variation in practice. 3ICPs can be effective in improving documentation of treatment goals, documentation of communication with patients, carers and health professionals. 4ICPs can be effective in improving physician agreement about treatment options. 5ICPs can be effective in supporting decision-making when they incorporate a decision-aide. 6The evidence considered in this review indicates that ICPs may be particularly effective in changing professional behaviours in the desired direction, where there is scope for improvement or where roles are new. 7Even in contexts in which health professionals are already experienced with a particular pathway, ICP use brings additional beneficial effects in directing professional practice in the desired direction. 8ICPs may be less effective in bringing about service quality and efficiency gains in variable patient trajectories. 9ICPs may be less effective in bringing about quality improvements in circumstances in which services are already based on best evidence and multidisciplinary working is well established. 10Depending on their purpose, the benefits of ICPs may be greater for certain patient subgroups than others. 11We do not know whether the costs of ICP development and implementation are justified by any of their reported benefits. 12ICPs may need supporting mechanisms to underpin their implementation and ensure their adoption in practice, particularly in circumstances in which ICP use is a significant change in organisational culture. 13ICP documentation can introduce scope for new kinds of error. Conclusions, ICPs are most effective in contexts where patient care trajectories are predictable. Their value in settings in which recovery pathways are more variable is less clear. ICPs are most effective in bringing about behavioural changes where there are identified deficiencies in services; their value in contexts where inter-professional working is well established is less certain. None of the studies reviewed included an economic evaluation and thus it is not known whether their benefits justify the costs of their implementation. [source]

    Subtle deficits of attention after surgery: quantifying indicators of sub syndrome delirium

    David Peter Lowery
    Abstract Objective To determine whether attentional impairments are reliable neuropsychological markers of sub syndrome delirium. Method A prospective cohort study with repeated assessment beginning pre-operatively and continuing through the first post-operative week. Computerized assessments of attention and the Mini-Mental State Examination were administered with one hundred patients admitted for elective orthopedic surgery, 70 years and over and free of dementia. Acute change of cognitive status was used to identify cases of sub syndrome delirium. Results There were significant differences of post-surgical performance between the ,no delirium' and ,sub-syndrome delirium' groups of reaction time, global cognition, accuracy and greater variability of reaction time (p,<,0.041). There were significant within subject main effects on reaction time (p,=,0.001), variability of reaction time (p,=,0.022) and MMSE (p,=,0.000) across the cohort; but no significant interaction effect of ,diagnosis' * ,time' on the computerized measures of attention (p,>,0.195). Conclusion The distinction between people with sub syndrome delirium and no delirium is difficult to quantify but computerized measures of attention might provide a sensitive indicator. Sub syndrome delirium is an observable marker of a clinical abnormality that should be exploited to improve care management for vulnerable patients. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The effects of memory, attention, and executive dysfunction on outcomes of depression in a primary care intervention trial: the PROSPECT study

    Hillary R. Bogner
    Abstract Objective To describe the influence of domains of cognition on remission and response of depression in an intervention trial among older primary care patients. Methods Twenty primary care practices were randomly assigned to Usual Care or to an Intervention consisting of a depression care manager offering algorithm-based care for depression. In all, 599 adults 60 years and older with a depression diagnosis were included in these analyses. Depression severity and remission of depression were assessed by the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was our global measure of cognitive function. Verbal memory was assessed with the memory subscale of the Dementia Rating Scale. Attention was measured with the digit span from the Weschler Adult Intelligence Test. Response inhibition, one of the executive functions, was assessed with the Stroop Color-Word test. Results The intervention was associated with improved remission and response rates regardless of cognitive impairment. Response inhibition as measured by the Stroop Color-Word test appeared to significantly modify the intervention versus usual care difference in remission and response at 4 months. Patients in the poorest performance quartile at baseline on the Stroop Color-Word test in the Intervention Condition were more likely to achieve remission of depression at 4 months than comparable patients in Usual Care [odds ratio (OR),=,17.76, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 3.06, 103.1]. Conclusions Depressed older adults in primary care with executive dysfunction have low remission and response rates when receiving usual care but benefit from depression care management. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Applying business management models in health care

    Michael G. Trisolini
    Abstract Most health care management training programmes and textbooks focus on only one or two models or conceptual frameworks, but the increasing complexity of health care organizations and their environments worldwide means that a broader perspective is needed. This paper reviews five management models developed for business organizations and analyses issues related to their application in health care. Three older, more ,traditional' models are first presented. These include the functional areas model, the tasks model and the roles model. Each is shown to provide a valuable perspective, but to have limitations if used in isolation. Two newer, more ,innovative' models are next discussed. These include total quality management (TQM) and reengineering. They have shown potential for enabling dramatic improvements in quality and cost, but have also been found to be more difficult to implement. A series of ,lessons learned' are presented to illustrate key success factors for applying them in health care organizations. In sum, each of the five models is shown to provide a useful perspective for health care management. Health care managers should gain experience and training with a broader set of business management models. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Systematic review of the effectiveness of primary care nursing

    Helen Keleher
    This paper reports on a systematic review that sought to answer the research question: What is the impact of the primary and community care nurse on patient health outcomes compared with usual doctor-led care in primary care settings? A range of pertinent text-words with medical subject headings were combined and electronic databases were searched. Because of the volume of published articles, the search was restricted to studies with high-level evidence. Overall, 31 relevant studies were identified and included in the review. We found modest international evidence that nurses in primary care settings can provide effective care and achieve positive health outcomes for patients similar to that provided by doctors. Nurses are effective in care management and achieve good patient compliance. Nurses are also effective in a more diverse range of roles including chronic disease management, illness prevention and health promotion. Nevertheless, there is insufficient evidence about primary care nurses' roles and impact on patient health outcomes. [source]

    Severe drug-induced skin reactions: clinical pattern, diagnostics and therapy

    Maja Mockenhaupt
    Summary The spectrum of severe drug-induced skin reactions includes not only Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) but also generalized bullous fixed drug eruption (GBFDE), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and hypersensitivity syndrome (HSS), also called drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). These reactions differ in clinical presentation as well as prognosis, causative agents and therapy. Therefore, the appropriate diagnostic measures should be undertaken rapidly, in order to prove the diagnosis. In addition to a thorough clinical examination, a skin biopsy should be taken and specific laboratory investigations should be done if AGEP or HSS/DRESS is suspected. Since these reactions are drug-induced, the causative agent should be rapidly identified and withdrawn. Besides adequate supportive therapy, systemic immunomodulatory treatments may be considered. Despite intensive care management, the prognosis in SJS and TEN is often poor and influenced by the amount of skin detachment as well as the age of the patients and the pre-existing underlying conditions. Severe sequelae may develop in survivors and affect especially mucosal sites. The prognosis of GBFDE is better but recurrent events may lead to more severe involvement. In HSS/DRESS sequelae have been also described as well as long lasting and recurrent courses, whereas AGEP usually heals without problems. [source]

    Perceptions of a service redesign by adults living with type 2 diabetes

    Joan R.S. McDowell
    Abstract Title.,Perceptions of a service redesign by adults living with type 2 diabetes. Aim., This article is a report of a study conducted to explore the perceptions of adults with type 2 diabetes towards the service redesign. Background., Diabetes is reaching epidemic proportions and the management of this chronic illness is changing in response to this challenge. In the United Kingdom, there is ongoing restructuring of healthcare services for people with chronic illnesses to ensure that their general health and clinical needs are met predominantly in primary care. Method., An explorative qualitative approach was used. Eight focus groups were conducted with 35 people with type 2 diabetes in one urban location between 2003 and 2004. Five focus groups were conducted with people who had recently experienced the restructured service and three groups with people who had up to 2 years' experience of the new service. Concurrent data collection and thematic analysis were conducted by three researchers and credibility and verification sought by feedback to participants. Findings., Five main themes were identified: impact of living with diabetes; understanding diabetes; drivers for organizational change; care in context and individual concerns. Participants identified issues for ongoing development of the service. Conclusion., People with type 2 diabetes appreciate their care management within the primary care setting where there has been investment in staff to deliver this care. Healthcare resources are required to support the development of staff and the necessary infrastructure to undertake management in primary care. Policy makers need to address the balance of resources between primary and secondary care. [source]

    Reductions in Costly Healthcare Service Utilization: Findings from the Care Advocate Program

    George R. Shannon PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a telephone care-management intervention for high-risk Medicare health maintenance organization (HMO) health plan enrollees can reduce costly medical service utilization. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial measuring healthcare services utilization over three 12-month periods (pre-, during, and postintervention). SETTING: Two social service organizations partnered with a Medicare HMO and four contracted medical groups in southern California. PARTICIPANTS: Eight hundred twenty-three patients aged 65 and older; eligibility was determined using an algorithm to target older adults with high use of insured healthcare services. INTERVENTION: After assessment, members in the intervention group were offered mutually agreed upon referrals to home- and community-based services (HCBS), medical groups, or Medicare HMO health plan and followed monthly for 1 year. MEASUREMENTS: Insured medical service utilization was measured across three 12-month periods. Acceptance and utilization of Care Advocate (CA) referrals were measured during the 12-month intervention period. RESULTS: CA intervention members were significantly more likely than controls to use primary care physician services (odds ratio (OR)=2.05, P<.001), and number of hospital admissions (OR=0.43, P<.01) and hospital days (OR=0.39, P<.05) were significantly more stable for CA group members than for controls. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that a modest intervention linking older adults to HCBS may have important cost-saving implications for HMOs serving community-dwelling older adults with high healthcare service utilization. Future studies, using a national sample, should verify the role of telephone care management in reducing the use of costly medical services. [source]

    Treatment of Depression Improves Physical Functioning in Older Adults

    Christopher M. Callahan MD
    Objectives: To determine the effect of collaborative care management for depression on physical functioning in older adults. Design: Multisite randomized clinical trial. Setting: Eighteen primary care clinics from eight healthcare organizations. Participants: One thousand eight hundred one patients aged 60 and older with major depressive disorder. Intervention: Patients were randomized to the Improving Mood: Promoting Access to Collaborative Treatment (IMPACT) intervention (n=906) or to a control group receiving usual care (n=895). Control patients had access to all health services available as part of usual care. Intervention patients had access for 12 months to a depression clinical specialist who coordinated depression care with their primary care physician. Measurements: The 12-item short form Physical Component Summary (PCS) score (range 0,100) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) (range 0,7). Results: The mean patient age was 71.2, 65% were women, and 77% were white. At baseline, the mean PCS was 40.2, and the mean number of IADL dependencies was 0.7; 45% of participants rated their health as fair or poor. Intervention patients experienced significantly better physical functioning at 1 year than usual-care patients as measured using between-group differences on the PCS of 1.71 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.96,2.46) and IADLs of ,0.15 (95% CI=,0.29 to ,0.01). Intervention patients were also less likely to rate their health as fair or poor (37.3% vs 52.4%, P<.001). Combining both study groups, patients whose depression improved were more likely to experience improvement in physical functioning. Conclusion: The IMPACT collaborative care model for late-life depression improves physical function more than usual care. [source]

    Kaiser Permanente Community Partners Project: Improving Geriatric Care Management Practices

    Susan M. Enguidanos MPH
    This article describes a geriatric care management project that is testing whether geriatric care management plus a brief purchase of service (POS) intervention will lower medical costs, improve satisfaction with care, increase care plan adherence, and improve perceived quality of life. Kaiser Permanente members aged 65 and older who were eligible for geriatric care management and consented to participate in the study were randomized to one of four study groups: information and referral via mail, telephone care management, geriatric care management, or geriatric care management with POS capability. The POS intervention provides up to $2,000 of designated, paid services including in-home supportive services, transportation, respite, or medical equipment within the first 6 months of care management enrollment. Approximately 1,400 senior members were referred to the geriatric care management program, and 451 were randomly assigned to one of the four study groups. Those enrolled in the geriatric care management program were significantly more likely to be ethnic minorities and have lower income than the general Kaiser Permanente senior enrollment. Barriers encountered in implementing the POS intervention included establishing contractual agreements between Kaiser Permanente and private and community agencies, locating adequate and sufficient community agencies to provided needed services, monitoring service contracts, and delaying use of the POS benefit. [source]

    Optimizing Coding and Reimbursement to Improve Management of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias

    Howard Fillit MD
    The objectives of this study were to review the diagnostic, International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), diagnosis related groups (DRGs), and common procedural terminology (CPT) coding and reimbursement issues (including Medicare Part B reimbursement for physicians) encountered in caring for patients with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD); to review the implications of these policies for the long-term clinical management of the patient with ADRD; and to provide recommendations for promoting appropriate recognition and reimbursement for clinical services provided to ADRD patients. Relevant English-language articles identified from MEDLINE about ADRD prevalence estimates; disease morbidity and mortality; diagnostic coding practices for ADRD; and Medicare, Medicaid, and managed care organization data on diagnostic coding and reimbursement were reviewed. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is grossly undercoded. Few AD cases are recognized at an early stage. Only 13% of a group of patients receiving the AD therapy donepezil had AD as the primary diagnosis, and AD is rarely included as a primary or secondary DRG diagnosis when the condition precipitating admission to the hospital is caused by AD. In addition, AD is often not mentioned on death certificates, although it may be the proximate cause of death. There is only one ICD-9-CM code for AD,331.0,and no clinical modification codes, despite numerous complications that can be directly attributed to AD. Medicare carriers consider ICD-9 codes for senile dementia (290 series) to be mental health codes and pay them at a lower rate than medical codes. DRG coding is biased against recognition of ADRD as an acute, admitting diagnosis. The CPT code system is an impediment to quality of care for ADRD patients because the complex, time-intensive services ADRD patients require are not adequately, if at all, reimbursed. Also, physicians treating significant numbers of AD patients are at greater risk of audit if they submit a high frequency of complex codes. AD is grossly undercoded in acute hospital and outpatient care settings because of failure to diagnose, limitations of the coding system, and reimbursement issues. Such undercoding leads to a lack of recognition of the effect of AD and its complications on clinical care and impedes the development of better care management. We recommend continuing physician education on the importance of early diagnosis and care management of AD and its documentation through appropriate coding, expansion of the current ICD-9-CM codes for AD, more appropriate use of DRG coding for ADRD, recognition of the need for time-intensive services by ADRD patients that result in a higher frequency of use of complex CPT codes, and reimbursement for CPT codes that cover ADRD care management services. [source]

    Effectiveness of the Electronic Medical Record in Improving the Management of Hypertension

    James W. Kinn MD
    Clinical studies suggest that hypertension is often undiagnosed, undertreated, and poorly controlled. In 1997, the authors developed a comprehensive electronic medical record that interfaces with physicians during each outpatient visit and provides real-time feedback about patient care management, including the management of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this interactive electronic medical record results in better detection and control of hypertension. During a 12-month study period, consecutive outpatients (n=1076) were seen for routine follow-up; patient care documentation relied solely on the electronic medical record. Quality indicators for hypertension included: 1) documentation of the diagnosis of hypertension; 2) use of blood pressure-lowering drugs; and 3) successful blood pressure lowering to ,140/90 mm Hg. The authors compared the hypertension management of these patients to a control group of similar patients (n=723) with medical records consisting solely of traditional "pen and paper" charts. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, including the prevalence of hypertension (73 % vs. 70%; p=NS). However, the electronic medical record resulted in higher documentation rates of hypertension (90% vs. 77%; p<0.001), greater use of antihypertensive therapy (94% vs. 90%; p<0.01), and more successful blood pressure lowering to ,140/90 mm Hg (54% vs. 28%; p<0.001). In conclusion, the electronic medical record with real-time feedback improves the physician's ability to detect, treat, and control hypertension. [source]

    Values in the National Health Service: implications for nurse managers

    Alistair Hewison RGN
    Aim, The values of an organization are key factors which influence the way it is managed. The purpose of this paper is to examine the values of the National Health Service and consider the implications they have for nurse managers. Background, Three reports have been published recently which place values at the heart of the debate concerning the nature and purpose of the NHS. The development of these values is discussed and the clashes that arise between them are identified. Conclusion, It is argued that this situation presents an opportunity to strengthen the position of nurses in management and thus ensure health care management retains a patient focus. [source]

    Using systemic reflective practice to treat couples and families with alcohol problems

    B. FLYNN rgn rmn dip cpn dip acc ma
    Accessible summary ,,Alcohol services in the UK generally treat clients from an individual medical and psychiatric perspective. Carers, partners, children and other family members are infrequently actively involved in the clients' care process. ,,A reflective family-based approach was introduced in an attempt to improve treatment engagement with drinkers with relatives. Favourable findings from several self-reporting research and evaluation studies are provided and analysed. ,,The use of this intervention was found to be effective in facilitating change in drinking and relationships. Family members when involved in the care management proved to be influential in the behaviour change process. ,,Family group reflecting interventions should be used more extensively and involvement of partners and family members in care programmes should be promoted. Implications for the extended use of the intervention both in addiction settings and wider health and social care practice are discussed. Abstract In the UK, an adult with a drinking problem is generally treated from an individual perspective with minimal involvement of carers and relatives. In response to this gap in service provision, a systemic reflecting intervention was introduced to assist couples and families experiencing alcohol-related difficulties. The article documents the background and development of this initiative. Findings from evaluation and clinical outcome studies are reviewed and demonstrate how the use of the approach proved to be effective in facilitating positive change both in drinking and family behaviour. In conclusion, the paper explores the implications of how systemic reflective practice with family groups may be extended and be usefully used in wider addiction, diverse mental and general health-care settings. [source]

    Neuroblastoma: What the nurse practitioner should know

    Kate A. Mazur RN, PNP (Pediatric Oncology Nurse Practitioner)
    Purpose: To provide a comprehensive review of the background, diagnosis, and primary care management of neuroblastoma (NBL) and to describe the pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, and diagnostic tests for the patient with NBL. Data sources: Extensive review of the worldwide scientific literature on the condition, including primary care articles and studies performed. Conclusions: NBL is one of the most common tumors of childhood and clinical presentation depends on the site of the primary tumor as well as the presence and location of any metastasis. Treatment includes a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, as well as the newer immunotherapy. Implications for practice: NBL is often identified in the primary care setting, and it is important to be able to recognize the presentation and correctly manage the disease. The clinical presentation of NBL, the vital facts needed to ensure that this diagnosis will not be overlooked, and follow-up in a primary care setting will be reviewed. [source]

    A primary care provider's guide to preventive and acute care management of adults and children with sickle cell disease

    Ardie Pack-Mabien RNC, CRNP (Clinical Nurse Practitioner & Nurse Manager)
    Abstract Purpose: To familiarize primary care providers (PCPs) with the pathophysiological processes, diagnostic evaluation, and medical management of sickle hemoglobinopathies and their complications. Current standards of care, clinical research advances, and new treatment options will also be addressed to assist PCPs in the management of sickle cell disease (SCD). Data sources: A selective search and review of the current literature on SCD and the authors' experience. Conclusions: Management of individuals with SCD is very complex, requiring a multidisciplinary approach that includes the patient or parent, PCP, specialist, nurse, and social worker. More patients living with SCD are relying on PCPs in nonspecialty practices for comprehensive disease management. Implications for practice: Newborn screening detects new cases of SCD annually. The median life expectancy has more than doubled for individuals with sickle cell anemia. Healthcare providers are now in an era of increased routine screening, assessment, and management of chronic complications from this illness not previously seen in the care of adults with SCD. [source]

    The Acute, Nontraumatic Scrotum: Assessment, Diagnosis, and Management

    FAANP, Frank L. Cole PhD
    Purpose This article reviews the acute, nontraumatic scrotal conditions of testicular torsion, torsion of an epididymal or testicular appendage, and epididymitis in order to assist the nurse practitioner (NP) with arriving at a diagnosis. Primary and emergency care management are presented. Data Sources Selected published literature in refereed journals and the authors' clinical experiences. Conclusions Signs and symptoms of testicular pathologies can overlap, making diagnosis problematic. However, key features can raise the NP's index of suspicion for a particular diagnosis and can assist in selecting the most appropriate management strategy. Implications for Practice Although these conditions are rarely fatal, they may carry a risk of morbidity in the form of testicular necrosis, infarction, or atrophy with concomitant infertility. Any patient with scrotal or testicular pain should be presumed to have testicular torsion until proven otherwise, as this condition carries a high degree of morbidity. The information gained through a thorough history and physical examination can assist in arriving at the proper diagnosis. [source]

    From intracranial pressure to intracranial pressure wave-guided intensive care management of a patient with an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    P. K. Eide
    We report on a 65-year-old female with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that was followed clinically, radiologically and electrophysiologically before and after converting from intracranial pressure (ICP)-guided to ICP wave-guided intensive care management. Intracranial pressure-guided management is aimed at keeping mean ICP < 15,20 mmHg, while ICP wave-guided management is aimed at keeping mean ICP wave amplitude < 5 mmHg. The aims of management were obtained by adjusting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) draining volume from her external ventricular drain. No improvement was seen clinically or in cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans during the ICP-guided management. Clinical, MRI and neurophysiologic (electroencephalography and auditory evoked responses) improvements were obvious within 2 days after converting from ICP- to ICP wave-guided management. This case report describes how we used various ICP parameters to guide intensive care management of an aneurysmal SAH patient. [source]

    Application of intensive care medicine principles in the management of the acute liver failure patient

    David J. Kramer
    Key Points 1Acute liver failure is a paradigm for multiple system organ failure that develops as a consequence of sepsis. 2In the United States, systemic inflammatory response, sepsis, and septic shock are common reasons for intensive care unit admission. Intensive care management of these patients serves as a template for the management of patients with acute liver failure. 3Acute liver failure is attended by high mortality. Although intensive care results in improved survival, the key treatment is liver transplantation. Intensive care unit intervention may open a "window of opportunity" and enable successful liver transplantation in patients who are too ill at presentation. 4Intracranial hypertension complicates the course for many patients with acute liver failure. Initially, intracranial hypertension results from hyperemia, which is cerebral edema that reduces cerebral blood flow and eventuates in herniation. The precepts of neurocritical care,monitoring cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral blood flow, and cortical activity,with rapid response to hemodynamic abnormalities, maintenance of normoxia, euglycemia, control of seizures, therapeutic hypothermia, osmotic therapy, and judicious hyperventilation are key to reducing mortality attributable to neurologic failure. Liver Transpl 14:S85,S89, 2008. 2008 AASLD. [source]

    Deep brain stimulation hardware complications: The role of electrode impedance and current measurements

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 5 2008
    MPAS, Sierra Farris PAC
    Abstract Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease patients. Successful DBS outcomes depend on appropriate patient selection, surgical placement of the lead, intact hardware systems, optimal programming, and medical management. Despite its importance, there is little guidance in reference to hardware monitoring, hardware troubleshooting, and patient management. Technical manuals produced by the hardware manufacturer (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) are not presented in an applied clinical format, making impedance and current measurements difficult to interpret when the results are not straightforward. We present four patients with evolving DBS hardware complications that occurred during long-term follow-up, that shaped our clinical protocol for long-term care management and hardware troubleshooting. 2007 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Contemporary encephalitis lethargica presenting with agitated catatonia, stereotypy, and dystonia-parkinsonism

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 15 2007
    Russell C. Dale PhD
    Abstract Encephalitis lethargica (EL) syndrome was classically described by Von Economo and has somnolent-ophthalmoplegic, hyperkinetic, and amyostatic-akinetic forms. We describe 2 recent cases of EL characterized by an acute encephalitis with mixed movement disorders (dystonia-Parkinsonism plus stereotypy) and psychiatric disorders (agitated catatonia, coprolalia, and echo phenomena). Both patients suffered concurrent hyperkinetic and Parkinsonian features resulting in therapeutic challenges. Bradykinetic features responded to dopamine replacement therapy and both patients also had adverse affects to dopamine antagonists (oculogyric crises plus neuroleptic malignant syndrome). Investigation was unremarkable other than the presence of CSF lymphocytosis and oligoclonal bands. Despite prolonged in-patient stays and intensive care management, both patients have made complete recoveries. We believe these cases support the hypothesis that this syndrome is an inflammatory encephalitis that specifically effects dopamine neurotransmission. 2007 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    The effects of traditional and computer-aided instruction on promoting independent skin care in adults with paraplegia

    Associate Professor, Joseph M. Pellerito Jr MS, OTR Interim Chairperson
    Abstract This study aimed to explore the viability of using computer-aided instruction (CAI) as an educational tool for promoting independent skin care in adults with paraplegia. There is a need to identify effective intervention strategies that provide health education for skin care management and the prevention of pressure ulcers for individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI). There continues to be tremendous financial and personal costs associated with the treatment of pressure ulcers and the prevalence of skin breakdown among the SCI population, despite traditional educational methods. The methodology used in this study evaluated to what degree CAI assisted individuals with paraplegia to acquire knowledge and demonstrate skills necessary for optimal skin care. Results were obtained using a multiple baseline across subjects approach including an ABC (for two subjects) and an AC (for one subject) single case experimental design. Results indicated that CAI was more effective than traditional educational methods in increasing the initiation and performance of pressure-relieving techniques. Limitations in this study include the possibility of carryover effects, relatively short time periods for baseline and treatment conditions, and extraneous variables that were difficult to control such as the participants' level of motivation and cooperation. Further study using a larger group design with a control group is recommended to explore the effects CAI has on promoting optimal skin care among adults with paraplegia. Copyright 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Primary care management of bacterial skin infections

    PRESCRIBER, Issue 16 2006
    Una Ni Riain MRCPath
    Bacterial skin infections are commonly seen in primary care and can usually be successfully managed with topical or systemic anti-biotics. Our Drug Review discusses their recommended treatment, followed by sources of further information and the Datafile. Copyright 2006 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

    Recurrent torsades de pointes in association with a very low calorie diet

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 8 2009
    E-J. T. Crawford
    Summary The use of very low calorie diets under medical supervision is becoming increasingly popular in the UK, as the incidence of obesity continues to rise. We report the case of torsades de pointes developing during such a diet. Torsades de pointes has been reported in association with very low calorie diets in the past but to our knowledge, this is the first report since the introduction of newer, nutritionally complete versions of the diet. We review the intensive care management of recurrent torsades de pointes resistant to standard therapy and its relationship to dieting and obesity. [source]