Care Hospital (care + hospital)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Care Hospital

  • acute care hospital
  • tertiary care hospital

  • Selected Abstracts


    Niloufar Hadidi APRN
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Nosocomial bloodstream infections associated with Candida species in a Turkish University Hospital

    MYCOSES, Issue 2 2006
    Nur Yapar
    Summary In recent years, a progressive increase in the frequency of nosocomial candidaemia has been observed, especially among the critically ill or immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trend in incidence of candidaemia together with potential risk factors in an 850-bed Turkish Tertiary Care Hospital in a 4-year period. A total of 104 candidaemia episodes were identified in 104 patients. The overall incidence was 0.56 per 1000 hospital admissions and the increase in incidence of candidaemia from 2000 to 2003 was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.010). Candida albicans was the most common species (57.7%) and non- albicans species accounted for 42.3% of all episodes. The most common non- albicans Candida sp. isolated was C. tropicalis (20.2%) followed by C. parapsilosis (12.5%). The most frequent risk factors possibly associated with the candidaemia were previous antibiotic treatment (76.9%), presence of central venous catheter (71.2%) and total parenteral nutrition (55.8%). Our results show the fact that the incidence of candidaemia caused by non- albicans species is frequent and increasing significantly, although the most common isolated Candida species were C. albicans and further investigations are necessary to evaluate the mechanisms of increasing incidence of candidaemia caused by non- albicans species. [source]

    Prevalence of menopausal symptoms and quality of life after menopause in women from South India

    Laxminarayana BAIRY
    Objectives: This study was carried out to establish the age at onset of menopause and the prevalence of menopause and menopausal symptoms in South Indian women. Materials and methods: Three hundred and fifty-two postmenopausal women attending the outpatient clinics of obstetrics and gynaecology department of Dr TMA Pai Hospital, a tertiary care Hospital in South India, were included in the study. The Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire was used in the study. Data were presented as percentages for qualitative variable. Results: The mean age at menopause was 48.7 years. Most frequent menopausal symptoms were aching in muscle and joints, feeling tired, poor memory, lower backache and difficulty in sleeping. The vasomotor and sexual domains were less frequently complained when compared to physical and psychological domains. Conclusion: The age at onset of menopause in southern Karnataka (India) is 48.7 years which is four years more than the mean menopause age for Indian women. This could be attributed to better socioeconomic and health-care facility in this region. [source]

    Is the Presence of Mitral Annular Calcification Associated with Poor Left Atrial Function?

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2009
    Vignendra Ariyarajah M.D.
    Introduction: Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is characterized by calcium and lipid deposition in the annular fibrosa of the mitral valve. MAC is associated with cardiovascular events but little is known of its association with left atrial (LA) function. Methods: We prospectively obtained 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) and transthoracic echocardiograms (TTE) on patients scheduled for nonemergent echocardiographic assessment at a tertiary care hospital. MAC was graded as 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe. LA linear and volume measurements (stroke volume, LA passive emptying fraction, LA active emptying fraction and LA kinetic energy) were done specifically in addition to commonly measured TTE parameters. Results: From the 124 considered for the study, 72 patients remained (aged 68±18 years; 44% male) after excluding those with poor ECG tracings and/or poor TTE images. Eighteen patients had MAC; mild MAC = 14, moderate MAC = 3, severe MAC = 1. When patients with MAC were compared to those without MAC, no significant difference was noted, except for LA linear dimension index (2.1±0.4 vs. 1.9±0.3 cm/m2; P = 0.03). For those with mild and moderate MAC, a trend was noted toward lower LA function with increasing MAC severity. In addition, significant differences were noted between those with and without interatrial conduction delay, where those with such delay had significantly impaired LA stroke volume (9.8±3 vs. 19.93±4 ml; P < 0.0001), LA active emptying fraction (18.83±8 vs. 65.71±9%; P < 0.0001) and LA total/reservoir fraction (39.54±6 vs. 75.1±6%; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: MAC is associated with increase in LA linear dimension on TTE and may be equally represented with lower overall LA function. Further study in a much larger cohort is warranted to delineate these and other potential associations of MAC. [source]

    Continuous Electrocardiographic Monitoring and Cardiac Arrest Outcomes in 8,932 Telemetry Ward Patients

    Michael J. Schull MD
    Abstract. Objective: To estimate the benefit of routine electrocardiographic (ECG) telemetry monitoring on in-hospital cardiac arrest survival. Methods: In a tertiary care hospital, all telemetry ward admissions and cardiac arrests occurring over a five-year period were reviewed. Ward location and survival to discharge were determined for all patients outside of critical care areas. Results: During the study period, 8,932 patients were admitted to the telemetry ward, and 20 suffered cardiac arrest (0.2%; 95% CI = 0.1 to 0.3). Telemetry monitors signaled the onset of cardiac arrest in only 56% (95% CI = 30 to 80) of monitored arrests. Three patients survived to discharge, and in two of these three patients the arrest onset was signaled by the monitor. This yields a monitor-signaled survival rate among telemetry ward patients of 0.02% (95% CI = 0 to 0.05). All survivors suffered significant arrhythmias prior to their cardiac arrests. Conclusions: Cardiac arrest is an uncommon event among telemetry ward patients, and monitor-signaled survivors are extremely rare. Routine telemetry offers little cardiac arrest survival benefit to most monitored patients, and a more selective policy for telemetry use might safely avoid ECG monitoring for many patients. [source]

    Association of angiotensin-I converting enzyme DD genotype with influenza pneumonia in the elderly

    Miyuki Onishi
    Background: Although angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) is known to associate with cough reflex and inflammatory conditions, and both may participate in influenza pneumonia in the elderly, no study has been carried out on the association between influenza pneumonia and the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene (ACE). Methods: The subjects were 934 elderly inpatients (mean ± SD age of 82 ± 8 years) in a long-term care hospital. The association between ACE I/D and the incidence of influenza-pneumonia events was assessed over a winter season. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for age, gender, already known clinical risk factors, and ACE-inhibitor use. Results: During the follow-up period, 330 patients developed influenza (Directigen FLU-A) and 89 developed influenza pneumonia (Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria with chest X-ray required), 16 fatal and 73 non-fatal. Compared to non-influenza subjects (n = 604) and influenza patients without pneumonia (n = 241), ACE DD genotype (vs ID + II) resulted in a significant risk for all pneumonia (relative risk 2.32 [95% CI: 1.30,4.14] and 2.76 [1.39,4.04]), non-fatal pneumonia (1.91 [1.01,3.63] and 2.57 [1.23,5.39]) and fatal pneumonia (6.27 [1.68,23.3] and 5.15 [1.29,20.5]). Conclusion:ACE I/D polymorphism is a strong and independent risk indicator of influenza pneumonia events in elderly inpatients. [source]

    Pediatric submandibular triangle masses: a fifteen-year experience,

    Neil G. Hockstein MD
    Abstract Background. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical results of pediatric submandibular triangle masses, with specific attention to neoplastic processes. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 105 patients aged 6 months to 21 years who underwent surgery in the submandibular triangle at a major pediatric tertiary care hospital from 1987 to 2001. Results. One hundred five patients who underwent surgery in the submandibular triangle were included in the study. Twenty patients had neoplastic processes, six of which were of primary salivary origin (two mucoepidermoid carcinomas and four pleomorphic adenomas). Twenty-four patients underwent excision of inflamed or infected lymph nodes, and 23 patients underwent excision of inflamed or infected submandibular glands. Thirty-eight patients were included who underwent surgery for sialorrhea or to gain access for another surgical procedure. Complications included tumor recurrence, transient and permanent marginal mandibular nerve weakness, ranula, postoperative fluid collection, and cellulitis. Duration of follow-up ranged from no follow-up to 11 years. Conclusion. Surgical excision of submandibular triangle masses is uncommon. We present our experience with these lesions, with a discussion of diagnosis, surgical indications, and surgical complications. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: 675,680, 2004 [source]

    The use of oseltamivir during an influenza B outbreak in a chronic care hospital

    Holly Seale
    Background, Residents of nursing homes and long-term care facilities are at a higher risk of outbreaks of influenza and of serious complications of influenza than those in the community. In late July 2005, a 90-bed chronic care psycho-geriatric hospital in Sydney, Australia, reported cases of influenza-like illness (ILI) occurring amongst its residents. Methods, An investigation to confirm the outbreak, and its cause, was undertaken. Influenza vaccination levels amongst residents, and the effects of antiviral drugs used for prevention and treatment, were assessed. Oseltamivir was only given to the residents, in the form of both treatment and prophylaxis. Results, A total of 22 out of 89 residents met the clinical case definition of ILI with onset on or after 27 July 2005. This represents an attack rate of 25%. Oseltamivir was commenced on day 9 of the outbreak. Influenza B was identified in six residents as the causative agent of the outbreak. No deaths or acute hospitalization were recorded for this outbreak and there were no further reported cases after the introduction of oseltamivir. Vaccine effectiveness was 75% and the strain of influenza B isolated was well matched to that year's vaccine. Conclusions, There are few data on the use of oseltamivir in influenza B outbreaks. Early antiviral intervention appeared to curtail this outbreak of influenza B in a chronic care facility. We found high vaccine effectiveness in this frail, institutionalized population, highlighting the importance of influenza vaccination for residents of chronic care facilities. [source]

    Bone turnover 18 months after a single intravenous dose of zoledronic acid

    V. Z. C. Borba
    Summary Zoledronic acid inhibits bone resorption for up to 12 months. It is not known whether the duration of this antiresorptive effect extends beyond this period of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in bone turnover at 12 months (T12) and 18 months (T18) after a single injection of 4 mg of zoledronic acid. It is a prospective, longitudinal study, with a follow-up for 18 months. We studied male and female patients (60.5 ± 11.0 years old), with low bone mineral density (BMD) coming from the outpatient clinic in a metabolic bone unit of a tertiary care hospital. All patients received a single intravenous dose of 4 mg of zoledronic acid, bone turnover markers [serum carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP)] and BMD [lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH)] were measured at baseline, and after 12 months (T12) and 18 months (T18). Median serum CTX-I and BSAP levels were suppressed at T12 in comparison with baseline values: 0.183 to 0.039 ng/ml for CTX-I (p = 0.0002) and 16.95 to 13.96 U/l for BSAP (p = 0.005). At T18, both CTX-I and BSAP continued to be suppressed below baseline at 0.108 ng/ml and 12.23 U/l (p = 0.009 and p = 0.02, vs. T0). Significant increases in BMD at T18 as compared with T12 were observed in patients (median increase 6.1% for LS and 2.0% for TH). Zoledronic acid inhibits bone turnover effectively for 12 months, with evidence for continued suppression and gains in BMD even after 18 months. [source]

    Cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever: observations made during a recent outbreak in south India

    Arun C. Inamadar MD
    Background, Chikungunya fever is an Aedes mosquito-borne Arbo viral illness with significant morbidity. Methods, In a recent outbreak of the disease in south India, the dermatologic manifestations of 145 patients attending a tertiary care hospital were recorded. Results, All age groups were affected, including newborns. Some of the cutaneous features were observed during the acute stage of the illness, and others during convalescence or thereafter. Pigmentary changes were found to be the most common cutaneous finding (42%), followed by maculopapular eruption (33%) and intertriginous aphthous-like ulcers (21.37%). Lesions with significant morbidity were generalized vesiculobullous eruptions (2.75%), found only in infants, lymphedema, and intertriginous aphthous-like ulcers. Exacerbation of existing dermatoses, such as psoriasis, and unmasking of undiagnosed Hansen's disease were observed. A perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate was a consistent histopathologic finding in all types of skin lesions. All patients responded well to symptomatic, conservative treatment. Conclusions, The cutaneous findings hitherto not reported may be the result of the African genotype of the virus detected during this outbreak in India. [source]

    ,I think PCA is great, but . . .',Surgical nurses' perceptions of patient-controlled analgesia

    Sue King RGON MA(Appl)
    This qualitative study investigated surgical nurses' perceptions of patient-controlled analgesia as a strategy for managing acute pain in a tertiary care hospital. Patient-controlled analgesia is commonly used and nurses play an essential role in caring for patients prescribed it. The study was divided into two parts. First, audiotaped semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 nurses. The interviews were followed by a postal questionnaire to 336 nurses with 171 returned. Thematic analysis was the chosen methodology. The audiotaped transcripts and questionnaires surfaced five themes, with the dominant one being ,I think PCA is great, but . . .'. The paper outlines and explores these themes and addresses the implications arising from the research for both clinical practice and education. [source]

    Recovery of Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults After Hospitalization for Acute Medical Illness

    Cynthia M. Boyd MD
    OBJECTIVES: To compare functional outcomes in the year after discharge for older adults discharged from the hospital after an acute medical illness with a new or additional disability in their basic self-care activities of daily living (ADL) (compared with preadmission baseline 2 weeks before admission) with those of older adults discharged with baseline ADL function and identify predictors of failure to recover to baseline function 1 year after discharge. DESIGN: Observational. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital, community teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Older (aged ,70) patients nonelectively admitted to general medical services (1993,1998). MEASUREMENTS: Number of ADL disabilities at preadmission baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after discharge. Outcomes were death, sustained decline in ADL function, and recovery to baseline ADL function at each time point. RESULTS: By 12 months after discharge, of those discharged with new or additional ADL disability, 41.3% died, 28.6% were alive but had not recovered to baseline function, and 30.1% were at baseline function. Of those discharged at baseline function, 17.8% died, 15.2% were alive but with worse than baseline function, and 67% were at their baseline function (P<.001). Of those discharged with new or additional ADL disability, the presence or absence of recovery by 1 month was associated with long-term outcomes. Age, cardiovascular disease, dementia, cancer, low albumin, and greater number of dependencies in instrumental ADLs independently predicted failure to recover. CONCLUSION: For older adults discharged with new or additional disability in ADL after hospitalization for medical illness, prognosis for functional recovery is poor. Rehabilitation interventions of longer duration and timing than current reimbursement allows, caregiver support, and palliative care should be evaluated. [source]

    An Educational Intervention to Improve Antimicrobial Use in a Hospital-Based Long-Term Care Facility

    (See Editorial Comments by Dr. Lona Mody on pp 130, 1302)
    OBJECTIVES: To improve antimicrobial use in patients receiving long-term care (LTC). DESIGN: Prospective, quasi-experimental before,after assessment of the effects of physician education and guideline implementation. SETTING: Public LTC and acute care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty salaried internists who provided most of the medical care to LTC patients. INTERVENTION: National guidelines, hospital resistance data, and physician feedback were incorporated into a series of four teaching sessions presented over 18 months and into booklets detailing institutional guidelines on the optimal management of common LTC infection syndromes. MEASUREMENTS: One hundred randomly selected LTC patients treated with antimicrobials were reviewed before these interventions were implemented and 100 after, and measures of the quality of care were compared. The effect of the interventions on antimicrobial days and starts were also assessed using interrupted time series analysis. RESULTS: Charted clinical abnormalities met guideline diagnostic criteria (62% vs 38%, P=.006), and initial therapy agreed with guideline recommendations (39% vs 11%, P<.001), more often in the post- than in the preintervention cohort. Mean census-adjusted monthly LTC antimicrobial days fell 29.7%, and antimicrobial starts fell 25.9% during the intervention period; both decreases were sustained during the 2-year postintervention period. CONCLUSION: The teaching and guideline intervention improved the quality and reduced the quantity of antimicrobial use in LTC patients. [source]

    Factors associated with delirium severity among older patients

    Philippe Voyer PhD
    Aim., The goal of this study was to determine whether the factors associated with delirium varied according to the severity of the delirium experienced by the older patients. Background., Delirium among older patients is prevalent and leads to numerous detrimental effects. The negative consequences of delirium are worse among older adults with severe delirium compared with patients with mild delirium. There has been no study identifying those factors associated with delirium severity among long-term care older patients newly admitted to an acute care hospital. Design., This is a descriptive study. Methods., This is a secondary analysis study of institutionalized older patients newly admitted to an acute care hospital (n = 104). Upon admission, patients were screened for delirium with the Confusion Assessment Method and severity of delirium symptoms were determined by using the Delirium Index. Results., Of the 71 delirious older patients, 32 (45·1%) had moderate-severe delirium while 39 (54·9%) presented mild delirium. In univariate analyses, a significant positive relationship was observed between the level of prior cognitive impairment and the severity of delirium (p = 0·0058). Low mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores (p < 0·0001), the presence of severe illness at the time of hospitalization (p = 0·0016) and low functional autonomy (BI: p = 0·0017; instrumental activities of daily living: p = 0·0003) were significantly associated with moderate-severe delirium. Older patients suffering from mild delirium used significantly more drugs (p = 0·0056), notably narcotics (p = 0·0017), than those with moderate-severe delirium. Results from the stepwise regression indicated that MMSE score at admission and narcotic medication use are the factors most strongly associated with the severity of delirium symptoms. Conclusions., This present study indicates that factors associated with moderate-severe delirium are different from those associated with mild delirium. Given the result concerning the role of narcotics, future studies should evaluate the role of pain management in the context of delirium severity. Relevance to Clinical Practice., As moderate-severe delirium is associated with poorer outcomes than is mild delirium, early risk factor identification for moderate-severe delirium by nurses may prove to be of value in preventing further deterioration of those older patients afflicted with delirium. [source]

    Evaluation of a falls prevention programme in an acute tertiary care hospital

    M Hth Sci, PG Dip Clin Epi, Teresa A Williams BN
    Aims and objectives., To evaluate a systematic, coordinated approach to limit the severity and minimize the number of falls in an acute care hospital. Background., Patient falls are a significant cause of preventable injury and death, particularly in older patients. Best practice principles mandate that hospitals identify those patients at risk of falling and implement interventions to prevent or minimize them. Methods., A before and after design was used for the study. All patients admitted to three medical wards and a geriatric evaluation management unit were enrolled over a six-month period. Patients' risk of falling was assessed using a falls risk assessment tool and appropriate interventions implemented using a falls care plan. Data related to the number and severity of falls were obtained from the Australian Incident Monitoring System database used at the study site. Results., In this study, 1357 patient admissions were included. According to their risk category, 37% of patients (n = 496) were grouped as low risk (score = 1,10), 58% (n = 774) medium risk (score = 11,20) and 5% (n = 63) high risk (score = 21,33) for falls. The incidence of falls (per average occupied bed day) was eight per 1000 bed days for the study period. Compared with the same months in 2002/2003, there was a significant reduction in falls from 0·95 to 0·80 (95% CI for the difference ,0·14 to ,0·16, P < 0·001). Conclusion., We evaluated a systematic, coordinated approach to falls management that included a falls risk assessment tool and falls care plan in the acute care setting. Although a significant reduction in falls was found in this study, it could not be attributed to any specific interventions. Relevance to clinical practice., Preventing falls where possible is essential. Assessment of risk and use of appropriate interventions can reduce the incidence of falls. [source]

    Mortality in diabetic patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery: a 7-year follow-up study

    Background: The prognosis of diabetic patients after non-cardiac surgery remains controversial. This study was designed to compare the long-term mortality between diabetic and non-diabetic control patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery and to evaluate the possible risk factors. Methods: We investigated 274 consecutive diabetic patients and 282 non-diabetic control patients who underwent non-cardiac surgery within 1 year in a tertiary care hospital in Finland. The control group was matched for the same type of operations. Patients were followed for up to 7 years on average. The main outcome measure was mortality within 7 years. Results: Mortality both in the short-term postoperatively (,21 days) and in the long-term (up to 87 ½ months) was significantly higher in the diabetic patients compared with the non-diabetic group: 3.5 vs. 0% (P<0.05) and 37.2 vs. 15% (P<0.00001), respectively. The major causes of death among diabetic subjects were diseases of the cardiovascular system (56.8%) compared with non-diabetic patients (18.6%), P<0.0001. We found that diabetes mellitus per se is not a risk factor for post-operative mortality but a combination of variables had a significant effect on both short- and long-term mortality. Conclusion: Diabetic patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery had a significantly higher incidence of short-term post-operative and long-term mortality compared with non-diabetic subjects. We propose a model of predictors of death among diabetic individuals undergoing non-cardiac surgery within a 7-year follow-up. The majority of deaths were associated with cardiovascular diseases. [source]

    Sources of knowledge in clinical practice in postgraduate medical students and faculty members: a conceptual map

    Reza Yousefi-Nooraie MD
    Abstract Objectives, To determine the most important knowledge sources that can influence clinical practice and to cluster them in conceptual groups based on their relative importance. Methods, Faculty members, fellows and residents of a large teaching tertiary care hospital were asked to rate the importance of different resources in their daily clinical practice and their understanding of some common terms from evidence-based medicine. The knowledge sources were distributed in a two-dimensional map using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. Results, A total of 250 of 320 recruited hospital staff returned the questionnaires. The most important resources in daily practice were English journals, text books and literature searching for faculty members, experience, text books and English journals for fellows and text books, experience and peers for residents. Regional journals were the least important resources for all study groups. About 62.7% of residents did not know the meaning of ,number needed to treat', 36.8%,confidence interval', 54.9%,confounding factor' and 44.6%,meta-analysis'. The percentages for faculty members were 41.3%, 37%, 42.2% and 39.1%. The knowledge sources were placed in four clusters in a point map derived from the multidimensional scaling process. Conclusion, The dominance of the traditional information resources and experience-based medicine debate which is the consequence of traditional approaches to medical education may be one of the considerable barriers to the dissemination of evidence-based medicine in developing countries. The evidence-based clinical practice guidelines could be used as a useful passive-predigested source for busy clinicians to make informed decisions. A considerable Western bias may undermine the local research in developing world. [source]

    Appropriate utilization of hospital beds in internal medicine: evaluation in a tertiary care hospital

    Ömer Dizdar MD
    Abstract Aim, To assess the appropriateness of utilization of beds in the internal medicine department of a university hospital. Methods, The appropriateness of hospital stay was evaluated using the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol. A random sample of 402 days of stay was assessed. Results, One hundred and thirty-nine days of stay (34.6%) were classified as inappropriate. The inappropriate stays were mostly secondary to hospital-related factors. The two major factors for inappropriate stays were ,inappropriate timing/delay in diagnostic procedures/consultations' (27%) and ,delay in obtaining test results' (27%). None of the factors including age, gender, residence and inpatient period was significantly related to inappropriate stay in univariate analysis. Conclusion, This study indicated that a significant portion of stays were inappropriate. Efforts to decrease particularly hospital-related factors associated with inappropriate stay are needed. [source]

    Clinical prediction rules for bacteremia and in-hospital death based on clinical data at the time of blood withdrawal for culture: an evaluation of their development and use

    Tsukasa Nakamura MD (Research Fellow)
    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives, To develop clinical prediction rules for true bacteremia, blood culture positive for gram-negative rods, and in-hospital death using the data at the time of blood withdrawal for culture. Methods, Data on all hospitalized adults who underwent blood cultures at a tertiary care hospital in Japan were collected from an integrated medical computing system. Logistic regression was used for developing prediction rules followed by the jackknife cross validation. Results, Among 739 patients, 144 (19.5%) developed true bacteremia, 66 (8.9) were positive for gram-negative rods, and 203 (27.5%) died during hospitalization. Prediction rule based on the data at the time of blood withdrawal for culture stratified them into five groups with probabilities of true bacteremia 6.5, 9.6, 21.9, 30.1, and 59.6%. For blood culture positive for gram-negative rods, the probabilities were 0.6, 4.7, 8.6, and 31.7%, and for in-hospital death, those were 6.7, 15.5, 26.0, 35.5, and 56.1%. The area of receiver operating characteristic for true bacteremia, blood culture positive for gram-negative rods, and in-hospital death were 0.73, 0.64, and 0.64, respectively, in original cohort and 0.72, 0.64, and 0.64 in validation respectively. Conclusions, The clinical prediction rules are helpful for improved clinical decision making for bacteremia patients. [source]

    Post-cholecystectomy biliary strictures: Not always benign

    Ajay Sharma
    Abstract Background:, Post-cholecystectomy malignant biliary obstruction masquerading as benign biliary stricture (BBS) has not been reported in the literature; it presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Methods:, Of the 349 post-cholecystectomy BBS managed at a tertiary care hospital in northern India between 1989 and 2004, 11 patients were found to have biliary malignancy. Records of these 11 patients were analyzed retrospectively for the purpose of this study. Results:, Mean age of patients with malignant biliary strictures was significantly higher (52 vs 38 years, P = 0.000); they were more likely to have jaundice (100% vs 78%, P = 0.008) and pruritus (82% vs 48%, P = 0.03). Unlike most patients with BBS referred from elsewhere to us, they had had a smooth postoperative course uncomplicated by bile leak, had a longer cholecystectomy-presentation interval, and were more likely to have high strictures ((Bismuth type III/IV) 91% vs 49%, P = 0.008). Conclusions:, Post-cholecystectomy biliary obstruction is not always benign. High bilirubin levels and hilar strictures, especially after an uneventful cholecystectomy, in a middle-aged patient should raise a suspicion of underlying missed malignancy. [source]

    Healthcare-associated candidemia,A distinct entity?,

    Joyti Gulia MD
    Abstract BACKGROUND: The concept of health care-associated infection (HCAI) was developed to address the fact that select patients now present to the hospital with infections due to traditionally nosocomial pathogens. Although epidemiologic studies document the clear existence of health care-associated pneumonia, little is known about fungal pathogens and their role in HCAIs. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of health care-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to candida species and to compare patients with HCA candidemia to nosocomial candidemia. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Academic, tertiary care hospital. MEASUREMENTS: We measured the proportion of cases of candidal BSI classified as health care-associated along with the microbiology of these infections. We compared health care-associated and nosocomial cases of candidemia with respect to demographics, severity of illness, and fluconazole susceptibility. RESULTS: We noted 233 cases of candidal BSI over a 3-year period. Nearly one-quarter represented an HCAI that presented to the hospital, as opposed to a nosocomial process. Although patients with HCA candidemia were similar to subjects with nosocomial infection in terms of underlying comorbidities and severity of illness, those with HCA yeast BSI were more likely to be immunosuppressed and to have their infection caused by a fluconazole-resistant organism. C. glabrata was seen more often in patients presenting to the hospital with an HCA case of candidemia. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians must recognize the potential for candida species to cause HCA infections and to be present at time of hospital presentation. Physicians need to consider this and the distribution of species of yeast causing BSI in their institution when considering initial therapy for patients with a suspected BSI. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2010;5:298,301. © 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine. [source]

    Clinical significance of polymicrobial bacteremia in newborns

    Piyush Gupta
    Objective: To identify whether polymicrobial bacteremia in newborns is associated with any predisposing factors, distinguishing clinical features, or higher mortality. Methods: Results of blood cultures obtained over a period of 1 year from neonates admitted to the paediatric ward and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital were retrospectively analysed. The study group included all cases with polymicrobial bacteremia (isolation of two or more organisms). Controls (double the number of study cases) were randomly selected from the monomicrobial group. Case records of included cases were retrieved and scrutinized. Results: Of 770 positive cultures during the study period, 52 (6.8%) cultures were positive for more than one organism. Complete case records were retrieved for 40 polymicrobial and 78 monomicrobial cases. The two groups were comparable for maternal and neonatal parameters including: maternal and obstetric complications; period of gestation; mode of delivery; birthweight and perinatal asphyxia; clinical symptomatology; invasive therapeutic interventions; and mortality. Conclusions: Isolation of more than one organism from the blood culture of a suspected septic newborn is not rare. It does not always represent a true invasion by multiple organisms. Polymicrobial isolation per se should not be the criterion for hastily changing the therapeutic decisions. [source]

    Clinicopathologic profile of normocomplementemic and hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis: a study from South India

    CVP Dincy
    Abstract Background, This study aims to study the clinical and histopathological characteristics of hypocomplementemic and normocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis (HUVS and NUV) among dermatology clinic attendees in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Patients and methods, A prospective study was conducted in the dermatology department from February 2003 to May 2004. Seventy-five patients met the inclusion criteria for UV. Sixty-eight patients in whom complement levels were available were classified into either NUV or HUVS groups. Clinical features, laboratory parameters and histological features were compared, and the significance of differences was established using Pearson's Chi-squared test. Results, There was a female preponderance among patients with HUVS. Wheals > 24 h were seen in 90% of patients, and in 54.4% of patients, the wheals were partially blanching or non-blanching. Angioedema was more prevalent in patients with NUV than HUVS (44.4% vs. 21.4%). Systemic involvement was seen in 64.3% of patients with HUVS and 44.4% of patients with NUV. Fever, ANA positivity and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were significantly associated with HUVS. In most cases of UV, a provoking factor could not be identified. Neutrophilic small vessel vasculitis was seen in 42.9% of patients with HUVS and 16.6% patients with NUV. Direct immunofluorescence test showing immunoreactants at the dermo-epidermal junction were present in 60% of patients with HUVS and 33.3% patients with NUV. Conclusion, The clinical features of Indian patients with UV were similar to those reported from the West. Fever, ANA positivity and SLE were significantly associated with HUVS. [source]

    Arabic validation of the short form of Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) questionnaire,,

    Waleed Altaweel FRCS(C)
    Abstract Aims To translate and validate the Arabic version of the short form of Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) questionnaire in a sample of women with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Methods Two native Saudis independently translated the original UDI-6 into Arabic. These two translations were harmonized, and then checked by independent back translation by two English teachers. They collaborated with the clinical investigators to reach a consensus version of the questionnaire. The harmonized version was pre-tested in a pilot study on 20 patients. The final version of the UDI-6 was applied to 68 consecutive patients aged 22 years or over complaining of LUTS for at least 3 months at our tertiary care hospital. The patients were rerated after 1 week to assess test,retest reliability. To assess the capacity of the questionnaire to discriminate between women with and without LUTS, cases, and controls of healthy women sample were involved and assessed. The psychometric properties of the questionnaire, such as reliability and validity were assessed. Results The correlation co-efficient between ratings was >0.75 and the discriminate power between cases and control were confirmed. The UDI showed good internal consistency total score cronbach ,,=,0.71. Conclusions The Arabic version of UDI-6 is a valid and robust instrument and a reliable method to use in daily practice and clinical research. Neurourol. Urodynam. 28:330,334, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Extreme prematurity and school outcomes

    G.M. Buck
    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of extreme prematurity on three global measures of school outcomes. Using a matched cohort design, exposed infants comprised all surviving singleton infants 28 weeks gestation born at one regional neonatal intensive care hospital between 1983 and 1986 (n = 132). Unexposed infants comprised randomly selected full-term infants ( 37 weeks gestation) frequency matched on date of birth, zip code and health insurance. All children were selected from a regional tertiary children's centre serving western New York population. Standardised telephone interviews elicited information on grade repetition, special education placement and use of school-based services. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for potential confounders for children without major handicaps. Extreme prematurity was associated with a significant increase in risk of grade repetition (OR = 3.22; 95% CI = 1.63, 6.34), special education placement (OR = 3.16; 95% CI = 1.14, 8.76) and use of school-based services (OR = 4.56; 95% CI = 1.82, 11.42) in comparison with children born at term, even after controlling for age, race, maternal education, foster care placement and the matching factors. These findings suggest that survivors of extreme prematurity remain at risk of educational underachievement. [source]

    Nitrites in induced sputum as a simple and cheap non-invasive marker of airway inflammation for asthmatic schoolchildren

    Arturo Recabarren
    To determine if there are differences in the nitric oxide metabolites (nitrites) in sputum of patients with persistent asthma and healthy schoolchildren, we performed a case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in Arequipa, Perú. Nitrites in induced sputum samples were measured using the Griess assay in 30 persistent asthmatics (mean age of 10.1 yr) and 30 controls (mean age of 11.9 yr). The mean ± s.d. of nitrites among asthmatics was significantly higher than the controls (16.30 ± 8.6 vs. 10.25 ± 4.68 nmol/ml, respectively, p = 0.001). Moreover, the nitrite level in the sputum in children with severe persistent asthma was higher than in the level found in the moderate and mild asthmatics (32.83 ± 9.48 vs. 18.10 ± 1.96 vs. 11.84 ± 4.73 nmol/ml, respectively, p < 0.01 for linear trend). This study showed for the first time in children that asthmatics have significantly higher levels of nitrites in induced sputum than healthy controls and that the level of nitrite correlates with the severity of the asthma. Nitrite levels in sputum, a simple and cheap, non-invasive method, may be a good alternative to measure the severity of inflammation in asthmatic children. [source]

    Adverse drug reactions in medical intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital,

    Lisha Joshua MBBS
    Abstract Purpose Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) have multiorgan dysfunction as well as altered pharmacokinetic parameters. Hence they are susceptible to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The objective of the study is to assess the characteristics of ADRs among inpatients in the medical ICU and to compare the same with patients who have not experienced ADRs. Methods Prospective, observational study for a period of 1 year in medical ICU of a tertiary care hospital. Relevant data of patients with ADRS were analysed. Characteristics of patients with and without ADRs were compared. Results Of 728 patients admitted in medical ICU, 222 (28.4%) had ADRs. Multiple ADRs (38.7%) implicated by the same drug and serious ADRs (37%) were noticed. Renal/electrolyte system (21%) was most commonly involved. Clinical spectrum included acute renal failure (ARF, 11.4%), hepatic injuries (5.4%), haematological dysfunction (4.2%), seizures (3.3%), upper gastrointestinal bleed (3.3%) and cutaneous ADRs (3.3%). Antimicrobials (27%) were the commonly implicated drug class. The most commonly implicated drug was furosemide (6.8%). Infrequently reported ADRs included azithromycin-induced erythema multiforme, leflunamide-induced erythema multiforme and vasculitis, ceftazidime-induced seizures and ceftriaxone-induced hepatitis. Co-morbidity, polypharmacy and duration of stay were significantly higher in patients with ADRs compared to those who have not experienced ADRs. Three patients died. Conclusion High incidence of serious and multiple ADRs noticed. A wide clinical spectrum of ADRs and infrequently reported ADRs to newer drugs were also observed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Frequency of potential azole drug,drug interactions and consequences of potential fluconazole drug interactions,

    D. Tony Yu MD
    Abstract Purpose To assess the frequency of potential azole,drug interactions and consequences of interactions between fluconazole and other drugs in routine inpatient care. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients treated for systemic fungal infections with an oral or intravenous azole medication between July 1997 and June 2001 in a tertiary care hospital. We recorded the concomitant use of medications known to interact with azole antifungals and measured the frequency of potential azole drug interactions, which we considered to be present when both drugs were given together. We then performed a chart review on a random sample of admissions in which patients were exposed to a potential moderate or major drug interaction with fluconazole. The list of azole-interacting medications and the severity of interaction were derived from the DRUGDEX® System and Drug Interaction Facts. Results Among the 4185 admissions in which azole agents (fluconazole, itraconazole or ketoconazole) were given, 2941 (70.3%) admissions experienced potential azole,drug interactions, which included 2716 (92.3%) admissions experiencing potential fluconazole interactions. The most frequent interactions with potential moderate to major severity were co-administration of fluconazole with prednisone (25.3%), midazolam (17.5%), warfarin (14.7%), methylprednisolone (14.1%), cyclosporine (10.7%) and nifedipine (10.1%). Charts were reviewed for 199 admissions in which patients were exposed to potential fluconazole drug interactions. While four adverse drug events (ADEs) caused by fluconazole were found, none was felt to be caused by a drug,drug interaction (DDI), although in one instance fluconazole may have contributed. Conclusions Potential fluconazole drug interactions were very frequent among hospitalized patients on systemic azole antifungal therapy, but they had few apparent clinical consequences. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hospitalization in Winnipeg, Canada due to occupational disease: A pilot study

    Allen G. Kraut MD, FRCPC
    Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to identify the extent of occupational exposures to hazardous substances amongst male medical inpatients and to determine the extent to which these exposures may have contributed to the development of medical conditions. Methods A random sample of 297 male who were admitted from outside the hospital to the medical wards to a large tertiary care hospital, were between age 18,75 and could communicate in English completed an occupational history questionnaire. This information was merged with an inpatient database which contained patient demographics, admission diagnoses, and co-morbidity data. A specialist in occupational medicine and internal medicine determined whether the medical conditions the participants had were related to their exposures. Results One individual had a condition causing admission that was related to his work and 12 others (4%) had a condition that was possibly related to their work which had caused symptoms. One additional individual was found to have asymptomatic asbestos related pleural fibrosis. Fourteen of 37 possible harmful occupational exposures were reported by more than 10% of the study participants. On average each participant reported 5.5 exposures. Conclusions Occupational exposures to male medical inpatients are common. For 4.4% (13/297) of male admissions to the general medical wards from the emergency room occupational factors may have played a role in the development of medical conditions which led to admission or to major co-morbidities. Detailed occupational histories will likely lead to more suspected cases of work related medical admissions. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:372,379, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc [source]

    Role for Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Head and Neck,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 7 2004
    Damon A. Silverman MD
    Objective: Clarify the role for postoperative radiation for adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the head and neck as it relates to tumor site, T-stage, and surgical margin status. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study at an academic tertiary care hospital. Methods: A review of 129 patients with biopsy-proven ACC was performed. Previous treatment failures and nonoperative candidates were excluded, with 75 patients considered eligible for further study. Patients were grouped according to treatment modality and Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival, locoregional control, and distant control were compared using log-rank tests. Patients were also stratified according to tumor site, T-stage, and surgical margin status, and pair-wise comparisons of treatment outcome within each group were performed using Wald tests from Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Twenty-five patients were treated with surgery alone, and 50 were treated with surgery and postoperative radiation. There was no significant difference in outcome between treatment groups when correlated with tumor site (P = .89). However, postoperative radiation was associated with improved overall survival for advanced T-stage (T4) tumors (P = .019) and greater locoregional control for patients with microscopically positive margins (P = .018). There was no demonstrated benefit of postoperative radiation for patients with microscopically negative margins (P = .93). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that advanced T-stage and positive microscopic margins are important factors in determining the necessity for postoperative radiation therapy for ACC of the head and neck and that radiation therapy may not be necessary for patients with early T-stage tumors and negative surgical margins. [source]