Care Guidelines (care + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Evaluation of Emergency Air Evacuation of Critically Ill Patients from Cruise Ships

Laurence D. Prina
Background: The study objectives were to assess the ship physician's diagnostic accuracy in making the decision to air evacuate critically ill patients from cruise ships, to determine the outcome of these patients, and the overall benefit of air evacuation. Methods: From October 1999 to May 2000, we performed a prospective study of critically ill patients coming from cruise ships in the Caribbean and transported to our institution by air ambulance. Demographics, initial diagnosis, and treatment on board were collected by the triage officer at the time of the cruise physician's first call. In route complications and flight team composition were obtained from the air ambulance monitoring log. Patients were followed-up in the hospital for complications, outcome, and final diagnosis. Results: A consecutive series of 104 patients were considered for analysis. There were 65 men and 39 women (mean age: 68.7 years). Cruise physician's diagnosis was correct in more than 90% of the cases. Internal medicine and surgical conditions represented 80.8% and 19.2% of the cases respectively, falling mainly into three categories: cardiac (34.6%), neurological (20.2%), and digestive (14%). Two cardiac arrests and 1 ventricular fibrillation were successfully resuscitated and 5 of 15 myocardial infarctions received thrombolytic therapy on board. Air transfers were warranted in 96.1% of the cases and physician presence in the flight was considered appropriate in 97.6%. In route complications and mortality rate were 5.8% and 2.9% respectively, related to serious cardiac events. Among the 98 hospitalized patients, 10 patients developed new complications and 5 died. The overall mortality rate was 7.7%. Conclusion: The cruise industry appears off to a good start in the medical treatment of passengers needing air evacuation to a land based medical facility. There is room for improvement and adoption of American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) and International Council of Cruise Lines (ICCL) Health Care Guidelines are meaningful first steps. Analysis of Caribbean medical facilities and implementation of active telemedicine conferencing represent alternatives to air evacuation that need to be studied. [source]

The Practical Approach to Lung Health in South Africa (PALSA) intervention: respiratory guideline implementation for nurse trainers

A. Bheekie d.pharm
Aim:, This paper describes the design, facilitation and preliminary assessment of a 1-week cascade training programme for nurse trainers in preparation for implementation of the Practical Approach to Lung Health in South Africa (PALSA) intervention, tested within the context of a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial in the Free State province. PALSA combines evidence-based syndromic guidelines on the management of respiratory disease in adults with group educational outreach to nurse practitioners. Background:, Evidence-based strategies to facilitate the implementation of primary care guidelines in low- to middle-income countries are limited. In South Africa, where the burden of respiratory diseases is high and growing, documentation and evaluation of training programmes in chronic conditions for health professionals is limited. Method:, The PALSA training design aimed for coherence between the content of the guidelines and the facilitation process that underpins adult learning. Content facilitation involved the use of key management principles (key messages) highlighted in nurse-centred guidelines manual and supplemented by illustrated material and reminders. Process facilitation entailed reflective and experiential learning, role-playing and non-judgemental feedback. Discussion and results:, Preliminary feedback showed an increase in trainers' self-awareness and self-confidence. Process and content facilitators agreed that the integrated training approach was balanced. All participants found that the training was motivational, minimally prescriptive, highly nurse-centred and offered personal growth. Conclusion:, In addition to tailored guideline recommendations, training programmes should consider individual learning styles and adult learning processes. [source]

Caring for cancer survivors,

CANCER, Issue S18 2009
A survey of primary care physicians
Abstract BACKGROUND: The number of long-term US cancer survivors is expected to double by the year 2050. Although primary care physicians (PCPs) provide the majority of care for long-term cancer survivors, to the authors' knowledge, few data to date have detailed PCP practice patterns, attitudes, and challenges in caring for long-term cancer survivors. METHODS: Self-administered surveys were mailed to 406 community- and academic-based general internal medicine physicians in Denver, Colorado. Survey development included in-depth physician interviews and pretesting. Of the 299 responses, 72 were ineligible; an analysis of the data from 227 surveys is presented. RESULTS: The response rate was 76%. Community-based PCPs comprised 70% of completed surveys. Reported care patterns were assessed to create a multidimensional care score reflecting levels of attention to 4 areas of survivorship care: monitoring for cancer recurrence, management of late effects, sexual functioning, and mental health. Only 24% of PCPs met criteria for routinely providing more multidimensional survivorship care. More recent medical school graduates reported providing less multidimensional survivorship care when compared with their more experienced colleagues. Approximately 82% of PCPs believed that primary care guidelines for adult cancer survivors are not well defined, and 47% of PCPs cited inadequate preparation and lack of formal training in cancer survivorship as a problem when delivering care to long-term survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Although PCPs provide the bulk of care for long-term survivors within the survivorship phase of the cancer trajectory, only a small subset have reported providing multidimensional survivorship care. Results underscore a need for substantially increased training in survivorship care to support the delivery of multidimensional primary care for long-term survivors. Cancer 2009;115(18 suppl):4409,18. 2009 American Cancer Society. [source]

The role of research, evidence and education in optometry: a perspective,

Anthony J Adams OD PhD FAAO
Eye and health care are and always will be both art and science. The science of discovery, its translation to clinical care and the education that necessarily follows for practitioners is witnessing remarkable change and increasing impact on patient care. An independent and vibrant profession commits to discovery as a basis of better patient care; optometry is no exception. Some recent discoveries in our field are breathtaking and the increasing awareness in health care, including in optometry, of the advantages of accepting the challenge of translating these discoveries to patient care is becoming more evident. Health-care practice is increasingly evidence-based on careful science. The implications of evidence-based health care are surprisingly broad, with impact on clinical care guidelines, reimbursement, future scope of practice responsibilities and education both within our schools of optometry and for our practitioner. [source]