Care Groups (care + groups)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Care Groups

  • primary care groups

  • Selected Abstracts

    Social services and Primary Care Groups: a window of collaborative opportunity?

    Bob Hudson
    This paper reports on the findings of two investigations into the relationship between social services and Primary Care Groups (PCGs): a national postal questionnaire and a series of regional seminars. The key findings of both explorations are summarised and placed in the context of other available evidence on the development of PCGs. Issues covered include: the background and status of social services representatives; preparation and support for the board role; feedback and accountability, and early contributions. It is concluded that progress is being made in bringing together the agendas and activities of PCGs and social services, and to a lesser extent the wider local authority, but that important obstacles remain in place. The enduring significance of the resource dependency model needs to be a key factor in emerging partnerships. [source]

    Public service responsiveness to users' demands and needs: theory, practice and primary healthcare in England

    Rod Sheaff
    Analyses and policy statements about publicly funded services frequently distinguish ,demands' from ,needs'. The distinction has been challenged, calling into question the coherence of formulating welfare policy and evaluating public services in terms of needs. This paper explicates the conceptual distinction between demands and needs in terms of derived demand and information asymmetry. ,Needs' can be defined as ,rational demands', where ,rational' means ,consistent and evidence,based', and ,demands' as ,desires' rather than ,effective (i.e. economic) demand'. On that basis, practical demand management in needs,based public services would require: 1. Knowledge of users' demands for services; 2. Content analyses of users' demands to identify any misinformed demands; 3. Conversion of any misinformed demands into evidence,based specifications of needs; 4. Formulating coherent, evidence,based demands on behalf of users who cannot to do so themselves. A study of English NHS Primary Care Groups explores the problems which authorities responsible for publicly funded services face in undertaking these activities. Demand management receives low priority in terms of the incentives and intellectual resources applied to it. Needs assessment has higher priority but is regarded as a branch of evidence,based professional practice, controlled by professionals rather than responsive to users. This separation tends to defeat the purposes of needs,based public services. [source]

    Managing the entry of new medicines in the National Health Service: health authority experiences and prospects for primary care groups and trusts

    Ruth McDonald BA MSc PhD
    Abstract For the most part, the management of new medicines in the NHS has hitherto been a matter for local discretion. The result is that access to medicines is often determined by where a patient lives, as opposed to some nationally agreed clinical criteria. This ,postcode prescribing' has led to widespread variations in access to medicines and concerns about the resulting inequalities. Primary care groups and trusts are expected to reduce variations in access to care, whilst at the same time balancing their finances, since any overspends on prescribing must be covered by disinvestment in hospital and community services. We interviewed 21 health authority (HA) prescribing advisers to ascertain how they viewed the managed entry of new medicines in order to identify lessons for PCGs. In addition, we report the views of local prescribing managers on the potential impact of recent government policy changes on the process and speculate on the likely implications of these for primary care groups and trusts. What is clear from the study is that HAs often have no explicit objective in relation to new medicines, but that their desire to act is prompted by fears of overspending on prescribing budgets. The danger of this approach is that patients may be denied cost-effective treatments since all new medicines are seen as a problem. It seems likely that PCG/Ts will face the same dilemmas with which the HA advisers in our study have been wrestling for some time. Recent policy changes in relation to prescribing budgets and new medicines are likely to exacerbate these problems. The tensions between local priority setting, which may mean saying no to new medicines, whilst at the same time eradicating postcode prescribing and balancing budgets means that PCG/Ts face difficult policy choices. [source]

    Reliability and validity of the CCNCS: a dependency workload measurement system

    Anne-Marie Brady BSN, PG Dip in Health Sciences Ed
    Aim., To refine, test and evaluate the Community Client Need Classification System (CCNCS). Background., Workload assessment in community nursing is complicated by the range of services that may be delivered in one patient interaction. The CCNCS is a workload measurement system designed to capture the direct and indirect elements of community nursing work and is suitable for use with all care groups in the community. Design., Survey. Method., Forty-four community nurses implemented the CCNCS with all clients in their caseload for four weeks. Community nursing in the Irish Republic is known as public health nursing. The Public Health Nurses (PHNs) recorded the total time in minutes that was spent on each client each week. The satisfaction with and experiences of PHNs using the CCNCS during the study period was also recorded. Results., Participants endorsed the utility of the CCNCS for use in community nursing. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability results were positive with high level of agreement between raters in relation to scoring community clients. The amount of time the PHNs spent with clients correlated with ascending level of client need. Conclusions., The CCNCS affords insight into the complex nature of community nursing. It discriminates between levels of need and has potential to provide a standardised assessment of need in all community-nursing clients. Adequate resources are required to conduct further testing of the reliability and predictive validity of this system. Relevance to clinical practice., The CCNCS can provide objective evidence of community nursing workload and thus facilitate workforce planning. [source]

    Sharing specialist skills for diabetes in an inner city: A comparison of two primary care organisations over 4 years

    Abdu Mohiddin MFPHM Lecturer
    Abstract Objective, To evaluate the effects of organizational change and sharing of specialist skills and information technology for diabetes in two primary care groups (PCGs) over 4 years. Methods, In PCG-A, an intervention comprised dedicated specialist sessions in primary care, clinical guidelines, educational meetings for professionals and a shared diabetes electronic patient record (EPR). Comparison was made with the neighbouring PCG-B as control. In intervention and control PCGs, practice development work was undertaken for a new contract for family doctors. Data were collected for clinical measures, practice organizational characteristics and professional and patient views. Results, Data were analysed for 26 general practices including 17 in PCG-A and nine in PCG-B. The median practice-specific proportions of patients with HbA1c recorded annually increased in both areas: PCG-A from median 65% to 77%, while PCG-B from 53% to 84%. For cholesterol recording, PCG-A increased from 50% to 76%, and PCG-B from 56% to 80%. Organizational changes in both PCGs included the establishment of recall systems, dedicated clinics and educational sessions for patients. In both PCGs, practices performing poorly at baseline showed the greatest improvements in organization and clinical practice. Primary care professionals' satisfaction with access and communication with diabetes specialist doctors and nurses increased, more so in the intervention PCG. Only 16% of primary care professional respondents used the diabetes EPR at least monthly. Patient satisfaction and knowledge did not change. Conclusions, Improvements in practices' organizational arrangements were associated with improvements in clinical care in both PCGs. Sharing specialist skills in one PCG was associated with increased professional satisfaction but no net improvement in clinical measures. A shared diabetes EPR is unlikely to be used, unless integrated with practice information systems. [source]

    Socio-cognitive Habilitation Using the Math Interactive Learning Experience Program for Alcohol-Affected Children

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2007
    Julie A. Kable
    Background: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) has been recognized as a disabling condition with a significant impact on the neurobehavioral functioning of affected individuals, including cognition, behavior, and academic functioning, but little research has been performed on targeted interventions for these children. Methods: A socio-cognitive habilitative program focused on improving behavior and math functioning in children 3 to 10 years of age (n=61) was developed and evaluated. The intervention provided parental instruction on FAS, advocacy, and behavioral regulation via workshops and interactive math tutoring with children. All families received parental instruction and were then randomly assigned to either the math instruction or standard psychoeducational care groups. Results: Satisfaction with workshops was very high, with over 90% agreeing that trainers were knowledgeable and materials easy to understand and helpful. Significant gains in knowledge were found for information provided in the instructional groups. At posttesting, caregivers reported fewer problem behaviors on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, Internalizing Problem Behavior, Externalizing Problem Behavior, and Total Problem Behavior summary scales. After 5 months, both groups of children demonstrated gains in math knowledge but significantly higher gains were found in the group receiving direct math instruction. The math treatment group was also more likely to demonstrate a gain of over 1 standard deviation on any of the 4 math outcome measures used. Conclusions: These findings suggest that parents of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FAS(D)) benefit from instruction in understanding their child's alcohol-related neurological damage and strategies to provide positive behavioral supports and that targeted psychoeducational programs may be able to remediate some of the math deficits associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. [source]

    The Impact of Managed Care on Children's Outpatient Treatment: A Comparison Study of Treatment Outcome Before and After Managed Care

    Paula Armbruster MA
    This study examined treatment outcome pre- and post-managed care in 3 samples of patients (N = 885) at an urban-based children's psychiatric outpatient clinic. Although the post-managed care groups were seen for fewer sessions than the pre-managed care group, there was no difference between the pre- and post-managed care groups in clinical outcome. [source]

    Public Roles for the Medical Profession in the United States: Beyond Theories of Decline and Fall

    Rosemary A. Stevens
    The future role of national medical organizations as a moral voice in health policymaking in the United States deserves attention from both scholarly and strategic perspectives. Arguments for strengthening the public roles of organized professionalism include its long (if neglected) history of public service. Scholarship of the past 40 years has emphasized the decline of a profession imbued with self-interest, together with associated hteories of organizational conflict. Through new concepts and language, a different version of organized medicine from that of the past might be invented for the future,one that draws on multiple medical organizations, encourages more effective cooperation with other health care groups, and builds on traditional professional agendas through adaptation and extension. [source]

    Development and growth in very preterm infants in relation to NIDCAP in a Dutch NICU: two years of follow-up

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2 2009
    JM Wielenga
    Abstract Aim: To study development and growth in relation to newborn individualized developmental and assessment program (NIDCAP®) for infants born with a gestational age of less than 30 weeks. Methods: Developmental outcome of surviving infants, 25 in the NIDCAP group and 24 in the conventional care group, in a prospective phase-lag cohort study performed in a Dutch level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was compared. Main outcome measure was the Bayley scales of infant development-II (BSID-II) at 24 months corrected age. Secondary outcomes were neurobehavioral and developmental outcome and growth at term, 6, 12 and 24 months. Results: Accounting for group differences and known outcome predictors no significant differences were seen between both care groups in BSID-II at 24 months. At term age NIDCAP infants scored statistically significant lower on neurobehavioral competence; motor system (median [IQR] 4.8 [2.9,5.0] vs. 5.2 [4.3,5.7], p = 0.021) and autonomic stability (median [IQR] 5.7 [4.8,6.7] vs. 7.0 [6.0,7.7], p = 0.001). No differences were seen in other developmental outcomes. After adjustment for background differences, growth parameters were comparable between groups during the first 24 months of life. Conclusion: At present, the strength of conclusions to be drawn about the effect of NIDCAP on developmental outcome or growth at 24 months of age is restricted. Further studies employing standardized assessment approaches including choice of measurement instruments and time points are needed. [source]