Care Factors (care + factor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The health of Arctic populations: Does cold matter?

T. Kue Young
The objective of the study was to examine whether cold climate is associated with poorer health in diverse Arctic populations. With climate change increasingly affecting the Arctic, the association between climate and population health status is of public health significance. The mean January and July temperatures were determined for 27 Arctic regions based on weather station data for the period 1961,1990 and their association with a variety of health outcomes assessed by correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Mean January temperature was inversely associated with infant and perinatal mortality rate, age-standardized mortality rate from respiratory diseases, and age-specific fertility rate for teens and directly associated with life expectancy at birth in both males and females, independent of a variety of socioeconomic, demographic, and health care factors. Mean July temperature was also associated with infant mortality and mortality from respiratory diseases, and with total fertility rate. For every 10C increase in mean January temperature, the life expectancy at birth among males increased by about 6 years and infant mortality rate decreased by about 4 deaths/1,000 livebirths. Cold climate is significantly associated with higher mortality and fertility in Arctic populations and should be recognized in public health planning. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Avoidable risk factors in perinatal deaths: A perinatal audit in South Australia

Objectives: To analyse risk factors of perinatal death, with an emphasis on potentially avoidable risk factors, and differences in the frequency of suboptimal care factors between maternity units with different levels of care. Methods: Six hundred and eight pregnancies (2001,2005) in South Australia resulting in perinatal death were described and compared to 86 623 live birth pregnancies. Results: Two hundred and seventy cases (44.4%) were found to have one or more avoidable maternal risk factors, 31 cases (5.1%) had a risk factor relating access to care, while 68 cases (11.2%) were associated with deficiencies in professional care. One hundred and four women (17.1% of cases) presented too late for timely medical care: 85% of these did have a sufficient number of antenatal visits. The following independent maternal risk factors for perinatal death were found: assisted reproductive technology (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.16), preterm labour (AOR 22.05), antepartum haemorrhage (APH) abruption (AOR 6.40), APH other/unknown cause (AOR 2.19), intrauterine growth restriction (AOR 3.94), cervical incompetence (AOR 8.89), threatened miscarriage (AOR 1.89), pre-existing hypertension (AOR 1.72), psychiatric disorder (AOR 1.85) and minimal antenatal care (AOR 2.89). The most commonly found professional care deficiency in cases was the failure to act on or recognise high-risk pregnancies/complications, found in 49 cases (8.1%). Conclusion: Further improvements in perinatal mortality may be achieved by greater emphasis on the importance of antenatal care and educating women to recognise signs and symptoms that require professional assessment. Education of maternity care providers may benefit from a further focus on how to recognise and/or manage high-risk pregnancies. [source]

Rise in maternal mortality in the Netherlands

JM Schutte
Please cite this paper as: Schutte J, Steegers E, Schuitemaker N, Santema J, de Boer K, Pel M, Vermeulen G, Visser W, van Roosmalen J, the Netherlands Maternal Mortality Committee. Rise in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. BJOG 2009;117:399,406. Objective, To assess causes, trends and substandard care factors in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design, Confidential enquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Setting, Nationwide in the Netherlands. Population, 2,557,208 live births. Methods, Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the period 1993,2005. Main outcome measures, Maternal mortality. Results, The overall maternal mortality ratio was 12.1 per 100 000 live births, which was a statistically significant rise compared with the maternal mortality ratio of 9.7 in the period 1983,1992 (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0,1.5). The most frequent direct causes were (pre-)eclampsia, thromboembolism, sudden death in pregnancy, sepsis, obstetric haemorrhage and amniotic fluid embolism. The number of indirect deaths also increased, mainly caused by an increase in cardiovascular disorders (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4,4.6). Women younger than 20 years and older than 45 years, those with high parity or from nonwestern immigrant populations were at higher risk. Most substandard care was found in women with pre-eclampsia (91%) and in immigrant populations (62%). Conclusions, Maternal mortality in the Netherlands has increased since 1983,1992. Pre-eclampsia remains the number one cause. Groups at higher risk for complications during pregnancy should be better identified early in pregnancy or before conception, in order to receive preconception advice and more frequent antenatal visits. There is an urgent need for the better education of women and professionals concerning the danger signs, and for the training of professionals in order to improve maternal health care. [source]

Oral health disparities and food insecurity in working poor Canadians

Vanessa Muirhead
Abstract,,, Objectives:, This study explored oral health disparities associated with food insecurity in working poor Canadians. Methods:, We used a cross-sectional stratified study design and telephone survey methodology to obtain data from 1049 working poor persons aged between 18 and 64 years. The survey instrument contained sociodemographic items, self-reported oral health measures, access to dental care indicators (dental visiting behaviour and insurance coverage) and questions about competing financial demands. Food-insecure persons gave ,often' or ,sometimes' responses to any of the three food insecurity indicators used in the Canadian Community Health Survey (2003) assessing ,worry' about not having enough food, not eating enough food and not having the desired quality of food because of insufficient finances in the previous 12 months. Results:, Food-insecure working poor persons had poor oral health compared with food-secure working poor persons indicated by a higher percentage of denture wearers (P < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of toothache, pain and functional impacts related to chewing, speaking, sleeping and work difficulties (P < 0.001). Fewer food-insecure persons rated their oral health as good or very good (P < 0.001). Logistic regression analyses showed that oral health disparities between food-insecure and food-secure persons related to denture wearing, having a toothache, reporting poor/very poor self-rated oral health or experiencing an oral health impact persisted after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and access to dental care factors (P < 0.05). Food-insecure working poor persons reported relinquishing goods or services in order to pay for necessary dental care. Conclusions:, This study identified oral health disparities within an already marginalized group not alleviated by access to professional dental care. Working poor persons regarded professional dental care as a competing financial demand. [source]