Care Encounter (care + encounter)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Care Encounter

  • health care encounter

  • Selected Abstracts

    Serum aminotransferase activity and mortality risk in a United States community,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Tae Hoon Lee
    Serum aminotransferase [such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)] is commonly used as an indicator of liver disease. The aim of the study was to determine the degree to which aminotransferase results are associated with increased mortality at the population level. All adult residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who had a health care encounter at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, in 1995 were identified and their AST or ALT results extracted from a laboratory database. These subjects were followed forward from January 1995 to April 2006 and their survival determined. To exclude patients with abnormal results because of a terminal illness, deaths within the first 2 years were excluded. The main outcome measure was survival. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated, based on Minnesota White death rates. During 1995, AST was measured at least once in 18,401 community residents, of whom 2,350 (13%) had results greater than the upper limit of normal (ULN). Of 6,823 subjects who had their ALT measured, 911 (13%) had results higher than ULN. Abnormal AST was associated with a significantly increased SMR (1.32 for 1,2 ULN and 1.78 for >2 ULN). SMR was also higher for abnormal ALT (SMR = 1.21 for 1,2 ULN and 1.51 for >2 ULN). In contrast, normal AST or ALT was associated with a risk of death lower than expected (SMR 0.95 for AST, 0.61 for ALT). Conclusion: Serum levels of AST and ALT obtained in a routine medical care setting are associated with future mortality in community residents. (HEPATOLOGY 2008;47:880,887.) [source]

    Actualizing Gadow's moral framework for nursing through research,

    NURSING PHILOSOPHY, Issue 2 2003
    Daryl Sharp Minicucci PhD RN CS NPP
    Abstract The purpose of this paper is to describe how Sally Gadow's perspectives on existential advocacy as the moral framework for the nurse,patient relationship were synthesized with a general theory of motivation, self-determination theory (SDT), to inform the design of a study in which the influence of interpersonal care on the process of tobacco dependence treatment was explored. Consistent with the tenets of existential advocacy, participants who perceived their care providers as interpersonally sensitive and bringing more of their whole selves to the care encounter reported more autonomous motivation and felt competence for stopping smoking. The integration of existential advocacy with SDT, which led to the empirical work in which Gadow's ideas were actualized and her model supported, is described. Study findings are discussed in light of Gadow's philosophical views, and implications for nursing highlighted. [source]

    Mazes, Conflict, and Paradox: Tools for Understanding Chronic Pain

    PAIN PRACTICE, Issue 3 2009
    Cary A. Brown PhD
    Abstract This article presents an argument for framing chronic pain within a complex adaptive systems (CAS) paradigm. The first aim of this article is to demonstrate how chronic pain can be framed as a CAS and how paradox, one of the core characteristics of a CAS, exists within the chronic pain experience. The second aim is to illustrate how paradox exists at multiple levels within the health care encounter and ongoing experience of chronic pain. Finally, the article will use the example of interactions at the patient/clinician level to illustrate how health care workers' efforts to deal with issues emergent from the range of paradoxes have for the most part been ineffective, and at times harmful, to persons experiencing chronic pain. This article uses the example of chronic pain to explore how the manner in which health care providers and patients recognize and deal with paradoxes can either worsen the pain experience or help generate creative new ways to manage the chronic pain condition. The CAS principles discussed in this article hold application across a range of chronic conditions for which a traditional biomedical paradigm proves insufficient. [source]

    Unpacking the concept of patient satisfaction: a feminist analysis

    Sheila A. Turris MSN RN
    Aim., The aim of this paper is to present a feminist critique of the concept of patient satisfaction. Background., Fiscal restraint, health care restructuring, shifting demographics, biomedical technological advances, and a significant shortage of health care professionals are stretching health care systems across North America to the breaking point. A simultaneous focus on consumerism and health service accountability is placing additional pressure on the system. The concept of patient satisfaction, with roots in the consumer movement of the 1960s, has both practical and political relevance in the current health care system and is commonly used to guide research related to consumer experiences of health care. Because the quality of health care encounters may lead to treatment-seeking delays, patient satisfaction research may be an effective vehicle for addressing this public health issue. However, there is wide agreement that patient satisfaction is an under-theorized concept. Using current conceptualizations of patient satisfaction, we end up all too often producing a checklist approach to ,achieving' patient satisfaction, rather than developing an understanding of the larger issues underlying individual experiences of health care. We focus on the symptoms rather than the problems. Discussion., Without further theoretical refinement, the results of research into patient satisfaction are of limited use. To push forward theoretical development we might apply a variety of theoretical lenses to the analysis of both the concept and the results of patient satisfaction research. Feminism, in particular, offers a perspective that may provoke further refinement of patient satisfaction as a concept. Conclusions., Without a deeper understanding of the values and beliefs (or the worldview) that informs our approaches to researching patient satisfaction, researchers will be reacting to the most obvious indicators and failing to address the underlying issues related to individual experiences of health care. [source]

    Anticipating Demand for Emergency Health Services due to Medication-related Adverse Events after Rapid Mass Prophylaxis Campaigns

    Nathaniel Hupert MD
    Objectives: Mass prophylaxis against infectious disease outbreaks carries the risk of medication-related adverse events (MRAEs). The authors sought to define the relationship between the rapidity of mass prophylaxis dispensing and the subsequent demand for emergency health services due to predictable MRAEs. Methods: The authors created a spreadsheet-based computer model that calculates scenario-specific predicted daily MRAE rates from user inputs by applying a probability distribution to the reported timing of MRAEs. A hypothetical two- to ten-day prophylaxis campaign for one million people using recent data from both smallpox vaccination and anthrax chemoprophylaxis campaigns was modeled. Results: The length of a mass prophylaxis campaign plays an important role in determining the subsequent intensity in emergency services utilization due to real or suspected adverse events. A two-day smallpox vaccination scenario would produce an estimated 32,000 medical encounters and 1,960 hospitalizations, peaking at 5,246 health care encounters six days after the start of the campaign; in contrast, a ten-day campaign would lead to 41% lower peak surge, with a maximum of 3,106 encounters on the busiest day, ten days after initiation of the campaign. MRAEs with longer lead times, such as those associated with anthrax chemoprophylaxis, exhibit less variability based on campaign length (e.g., 124 out of an estimated 1,400 hospitalizations on day 20 after a two-day campaign versus 103 on day 24 after a ten-day campaign). Conclusions: The duration of a mass prophylaxis campaign may have a substantial impact on the timing and peak number of clinically significant MRAEs, with very short campaigns overwhelming existing emergency department (ED) capacity to treat real or suspected medication-related injuries. While better reporting of both incidence and timing of MRAEs in future prophylaxis campaigns should improve the application of this model to community-based emergency preparedness planning, these results highlight the need for coordination between public health and emergency medicine planning for infectious disease outbreaks to avoid preventable surges in ED utilization. [source]