Care Delivery (care + delivery)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Care Delivery

  • health care delivery

  • Terms modified by Care Delivery

  • care delivery system

  • Selected Abstracts

    The Application of Design Principles to Innovate Clinical Care Delivery

    Michael D. Brennan
    Abstract: Clinical research centers that support hypothesis-driven investigation have long been a feature of academic medical centers but facilities in which clinical care delivery can be systematically assessed and evaluated have heretofore been nonexistent. The Institute of Medicine report "Crossing the Quality Chasm" identified six core attributes of an ideal care delivery system that in turn relied heavily on system redesign. Although manufacturing and service industries have leveraged modern design principles in new product development, healthcare has lagged behind. In this article, we describe a methodology utilized by our facility to study the clinical care delivery system that incorporates modern design principles. [source]

    The Vermont Model for Rural HIV Care Delivery: Eleven Years of Outcome Data Comparing Urban and Rural Clinics

    Christopher Grace MD
    Abstract Context: Provision of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care in rural areas has encountered unique barriers. Purpose: To compare medical outcomes of care provided at 3 HIV specialty clinics in rural Vermont with that provided at an urban HIV specialty clinic. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Findings: Over an 11-year period 363 new patients received care, including 223 in the urban clinic and 140 in the rural clinics. Patients in the 2 cohorts were demographically similar and had similar initial CD4 counts and viral loads. There was no difference between the urban and rural clinic patients receiving Pneumocystis carinii prophylaxis (83.5% vs 86%, P= .38) or antiretroviral therapy (96.8% vs 97.5%, P= .79). Both rural and urban cohorts had similar decreases in median viral load from 1996 to 2006 (3,876 copies/mL to <50 copies/mL vs 8,331 copies/mL to <50 copies/mL) and change in percent of patients suppressed to <400 copies/mL (21.4%-69.3% vs 16%-71.4%, P= .11). Rural and urban cohorts had similar increases in median CD4 counts (275/mm3 -350/mm3 vs 182 cells/mm3 -379/mm3). A repeated measures regression analysis showed that neither fall in viral load (P= .91) nor rise in CD4 count (P= .64) were associated with urban versus rural site of care. Survival times, using a Cox proportional hazards model, were similar for urban and rural patients (hazard ratio for urban = 0.80 [95% CI, 0.39-1.61; P= .53]). Conclusions: This urban outreach model provides similar quality of care to persons receiving care in rural areas of Vermont as compared to those receiving care in the urban center. [source]

    The Visiting Specialist Model of Rural Health Care Delivery: A Survey in Massachusetts

    Jacob Drew BA
    ABSTRACT:,Context: Hospitals in rural communities may seek to increase specialty care access by establishing clinics staffed by visiting specialists. Purpose: To examine the visiting specialist care delivery model in Massachusetts, including reasons specialists develop secondary rural practices and distances they travel, as well as their degree of satisfaction and intention to continue the visiting arrangement. Methods: Visiting specialists at 11 rural hospitals were asked to complete a mailed survey. Findings: Visiting specialists were almost evenly split between the medical (54%) and surgical (46%) specialties, with ophthalmology, nephrology, and obstetrics/gynecology the most common specialties reported. A higher proportion of visiting specialists than specialists statewide were male (P = .001). Supplementing their patient base and income were the most important reasons visiting specialists reported for having initiated an ancillary clinic. There was a significant negative correlation between a hospital's number of staffed beds and the total number of visiting specialists it hosted (r =,0.573, P = .032); study hospitals ranged in bed size from 15 to 129. Conclusions: The goal of matching supply of health care services with demand has been elusive. Visiting specialist clinics may represent an element of a market structure that expands access to needed services in rural areas. They should be included in any enumeration of physician availability. [source]

    Improving the Quality of Workers' Compensation Health Care Delivery: The Washington State Occupational Health Services Project

    Thomas M. Wickizer
    Researchers and health policy analysts in Washington State set out to determine the extent to which administrative process changes and delivery system interventions within workers' compensation affect quality and health outcomes for injured workers. This research included a pilot project to study the effects of providing occupationally focused health care through managed care arrangements on health outcomes, worker and employer satisfaction, and medical and disability costs. Based on the results, a new initiative was developed to incorporate several key delivery system components. The Washington State experience in developing a quality improvement initiative may have relevance for health care clinicians, administrators, policymakers, and researchers engaged in similar pursuits within the general medical care arena. [source]

    Diabetes trends in Europe

    Philippe Passa
    Abstract Estimates and projections suggest an epidemic expansion of diabetes incidence and prevalence in Europe. To evaluate trends in type 1 and type 2 diabetes in seven European countries (Finland, Denmark, the UK, Germany, France, Spain, and Italy), a variety of information is available, including population-based studies on small or large cohorts of subjects representative of the general population in a particular country, European co-operative studies, and sales figures for insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents that allow extrapolation of the number of pharmacologically treated diabetic patients. The incidence of type 1 diabetes in young people is increasing in most European countries, as is its prevalence in all age groups. Type 2 diabetes is the major contributor to the epidemic rise in diabetes. From 1995 to 1999, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increased considerably, particularly in the UK, Germany, and France. Costs of ambulatory and in-hospital diabetic care (including antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and hypolipidemic agents) have increased even more rapidly than has the number of affected patients. Diabetes trends in Europe are alarming; health care professionals involved in diabetes care must be made aware of these detrimental trends, and health care delivery to patients with diabetes must be improved. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A qualitative investigation of the views and health beliefs of patients with Type 2 diabetes following the introduction of a diabetes shared care service

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2003
    S. M. Smith
    Abstract Aims A qualitative research approach was adopted in order to explore the views and health beliefs of patients with Type 2 diabetes who had experienced a new structured diabetes shared care service. Methods Patients from 15 general practices were randomly selected and invited to attend three focus groups. Two independent researchers adopted the ,Framework' technique to analyse the transcribed data and identify key themes expressed by patients. Results Themes relating to diabetes included frustration, victimization and powerlessness in relation to living with diabetes, controlling blood sugar, medication and economic barriers to care. Differences in emphases between patients and healthcare providers emerged. Patients were generally positive about shared care and largely identified it with the nurses involved. Conclusion This research highlights the importance of an in-depth exploration of patients' views during changes in diabetes care delivery to identify service delivery failures and gaps in patient knowledge such as lack of awareness of the extent of macrovascular risk. [source]

    Increasing hospital-wide delivery of smoking cessation care for nicotine-dependent in-patients: a multi-strategic intervention trial

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2009
    Megan Freund
    ABSTRACT Aims, design and intervention Smoking care provision to in-patients is important in assisting smoking cessation and for management of nicotine withdrawal. Limited studies have reported the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase the hospital-wide provision of such care. A quasi-experimental matched-pair trial, involving two intervention and two control hospitals in NSW, Australia, investigated whether a multi-strategic intervention increased hospital-wide smoking care provision. Participants and measurements Patient surveys (n = 274,347 per experimental condition), medical notes audits (n = 181,228) and health professional surveys (n = 229,302) were used to collect outcome data at baseline and follow-up. Findings Significantly greater increases in intervention hospitals compared to control hospitals were found for patient-reported offer of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (intervention 34% versus control 12%), provision of NRT (16% versus 4%) and provision of written resources (11% versus 2%), and for the recording in medical notes of smoking management discussion (13% versus 3%), offer of NRT (24% versus 3%) and provision of NRT (21% versus 5%). Intervention group health professionals reported significantly greater increases in the mean estimate of patients who: had their smoking management discussed (30% versus 17%); were offered or provided with NRT (30% versus 18%); were asked their intention to smoke post-discharge (22% versus 10%); and were provided with discharge NRT (21% versus 4%). Conclusions Implementation of a multi-strategic intervention is effective in increasing hospital smoking care delivery, particularly the provision of NRT. Research is required to identify methods to increase further the delivery of this and other forms of smoking care. [source]

    Acute stroke management: avoiding procrastination, the best way to optimize care delivery

    G. Saposnik
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Older people , recipients but also providers of informal care: an analysis among community samples in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

    Hannah M. McGee PhD
    Abstract Data on both the provision and receipt of informal care among populations of older adults are limited. Patterns of both informal care provided and received by older adults in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI) were evaluated. A cross-sectional community-based population survey was conducted. Randomly selected older people (aged 65+, n = 2033, mean age (standard deviation): 74.1 years (6.8), 43% men, 68% response rate) provided information on the provision and receipt of care, its location, and the person(s) who provided the care. Twelve per cent of the sample (251/2033) identified themselves as informal caregivers (8% RoI and 17% NI). Caregivers were more likely to be women, married, have less education and have less functional impairment. Forty-nine per cent (1033/2033, 49% RoI and 48% NI) reported receiving some form of care in the past year. Care recipients were more likely to be older, married, have more functional impairment, and poorer self-rated health. Receiving regular informal care (help at least once a week) from a non-resident relative was the most common form of help received [28% overall (578/2033); 27% RoI and 30% NI]. Five per cent (n = 102/2033) of the sample reported both providing and receiving informal care. Levels of informal care provided by community-dwelling older adults were notably higher than reported in single-item national census questions. The balance of formal and informal health and social care will become increasingly important as populations age. It is essential, therefore, to evaluate factors facilitating or impeding informal care delivery. [source]

    Distinguishing between heterogeneity and inefficiency: stochastic frontier analysis of the World Health Organization's panel data on national health care systems

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 10 2004
    William Greene
    Abstract The most commonly used approaches to parametric (stochastic frontier) analysis of efficiency in panel data, notably the fixed and random effects models, fail to distinguish between cross individual heterogeneity and inefficiency. This blending of effects is particularly problematic in the World Health Organization's (WHO) panel data set on health care delivery, which is a 191 country, 5-year panel. The wide variation in cultural and economic characteristics of the worldwide sample produces a large amount of unmeasured heterogeneity in the data. This study examines several alternative approaches to stochastic frontier analysis with panel data, and applies some of them to the WHO data. A more general, flexible model and several measured indicators of cross country heterogeneity are added to the analysis done by previous researchers. Results suggest that there is considerable heterogeneity that has masqueraded as inefficiency in other studies using the same data. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Short- and Long-Term Mortality after an Acute Illness for Elderly Whites and Blacks

    Daniel Polsky
    Objective. To estimate racial differences in mortality at 30 days and up to 2 years following a hospital admission for the elderly with common medical conditions. Data Sources. The Medicare Provider Analysis and Review File and the VA Patient Treatment File from 1998 to 2002 were used to extract patients 65 or older admitted with a principal diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, hip fracture, gastrointestinal bleeding, congestive heart failure, or pneumonia. Study Design. A retrospective analysis of risk-adjusted mortality after hospital admission for blacks and whites by medical condition and in different hospital settings. Principal Findings. Black Medicare patients had consistently lower adjusted 30-day mortality than white Medicare patients, but the initial survival advantage observed among blacks dissipated beyond 30 days and reversed by 2 years. For VA hospitalizations similar patterns were observed, but the initial survival advantage for blacks dissipated at a slower rate. Conclusions. Racial disparities in health are more likely to be generated in the posthospital phase of the process of care delivery rather than during the hospital stay. The slower rate of increase in relative mortality among black VA patients suggests an integrated health care delivery system like the VA may attenuate racial disparities in health. [source]

    Fair and Just Culture, Team Behavior, and Leadership Engagement: The Tools to Achieve High Reliability

    Allan S. Frankel
    Background. Disparate health care provider attitudes about autonomy, teamwork, and administrative operations have added to the complexity of health care delivery and are a central factor in medicine's unacceptably high rate of errors. Other industries have improved their reliability by applying innovative concepts to interpersonal relationships and administrative hierarchical structures (Chandler 1962). In the last 10 years the science of patient safety has become more sophisticated, with practical concepts identified and tested to improve the safety and reliability of care. Objective. Three initiatives stand out as worthy regarding interpersonal relationships and the application of provider concerns to shape operational change: The development and implementation of Fair and Just Culture principles, the broad use of Teamwork Training and Communication, and tools like WalkRounds that promote the alignment of leadership and frontline provider perspectives through effective use of adverse event data and provider comments. Methods. Fair and Just Culture, Teamwork Training, and WalkRounds are described, and implementation examples provided. The argument is made that they must be systematically and consistently implemented in an integrated fashion. Conclusions. There are excellent examples of institutions applying Just Culture principles, Teamwork Training, and Leadership WalkRounds,but to date, they have not been comprehensively instituted in health care organizations in a cohesive and interdependent manner. To achieve reliability, organizations need to begin thinking about the relationship between these efforts and linking them conceptually. [source]

    The advanced practice nurse,nephrologist care model: Effect on patient outcomes and hemodialysis unit team satisfaction

    Lori Harwood
    Abstract The tertiary care nurse practitioner/clinical nurse specialist (NP/CNS) is an advanced practice nurse with a relatively new role within the health-care system. It is stated that care provided by the NP/CNS is cost-effective and of high quality but little research exists to document these outcomes in an acute-care setting. The clinical coverage pattern by nephrologists and NP/CNS of a hemodialysis unit in a large academic center allowed such a study. Two NP/CNS plus a nephrologist followed two of three hemodialysis treatment shifts per day; only a nephrologist followed the third shift. The influence of this care pattern of patients was examined using a cross-sectional review of outcomes such as adequacy of delivered dialysis, anemia management, phosphate control, hospitalizations, etc. In addition, the level of satisfaction of the dialysis team and perceptions of care delivered with the care models was assessed. The care model staff-to-patient-number ratio was similar in both groups (1:27 for NP/CNS plus nephrologist; 1:29 for nephrologist alone). Patient demographics were similar in both groups but the NP/CNS,nephrologist group had patients with more comorbidities. No statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences existed between the groups in patient laboratory data, adherence to standards, medications, inter- and intradialytic blood pressure, achievement of target postdialysis weights, and hospitalizations or emergency room visits. Significantly more adjustments were made to target weights and medications and more investigations were ordered by the NP/CNS,nephrologist team. Team satisfaction and perceptions of care delivery were higher with the NP/CNS,nephrologist model. It is concluded that the NP/CNS,nephrologist care model may increase the efficiency of the care provided by nephrologists to chronic hemodialysis patients. The model may also be a solution to the problem of providing nephrologic care to an ever-growing hemodialysis population. [source]

    Towards consistent modes of e-health implementation: structurational analysis of a telecare programme's limited success

    Albert Boonstra
    Abstract Telecare is the use of information and communication systems to facilitate care delivery to individuals in their homes. Although the expectations of telecare are high, its implementation has proved complex. This case study demonstrates this complexity through a structurational analysis of a telecare implementation process. The paper shows how structuration concepts enable a combined analysis of actors' interactions with a technology and of the interaction among these actors from different institutional contexts. In this example, fragmented multi-actor agency induced an inconsistent implementation mode, leading to unsuccessful telecare appropriation. This paper concludes with a preliminary proposal for more consistent telecare implementation modes. These modes may better support the actors' reflexive monitoring and dialogue and inform further research. [source]

    Community mental health nursing: Keeping pace with care delivery?

    Julie Henderson
    ABSTRACT:, The National Mental Health Strategy has been associated with the movement of service delivery into the community, creating greater demand for community services. The literature suggests that the closure of psychiatric beds and earlier discharge from inpatient services, have contributed to an intensification of the workload of community mental health nurses. This paper reports findings from the first stage of an action research project to develop a workload equalization tool for community mental health nurses. The study presents data from focus groups conducted with South Australian community mental health nurses to identify issues that impact upon their workload. Four themes were identified, relating to staffing and workforce issues, clients' characteristics or needs, regional issues, and the impact of the health-care system. The data show that the workload of community mental health nurses is increased by the greater complexity of needs of community mental health clients. Service change has also resulted in poor integration between inpatient and community services and tension between generic case management and specialist roles resulting in nurses undertaking tasks for other case managers. These issues, along with difficulties in recruiting and retaining staff, have led to the intensification of community mental health work and a crisis response to care with less time for targeted interventions. [source]

    The Application of Design Principles to Innovate Clinical Care Delivery

    Michael D. Brennan
    Abstract: Clinical research centers that support hypothesis-driven investigation have long been a feature of academic medical centers but facilities in which clinical care delivery can be systematically assessed and evaluated have heretofore been nonexistent. The Institute of Medicine report "Crossing the Quality Chasm" identified six core attributes of an ideal care delivery system that in turn relied heavily on system redesign. Although manufacturing and service industries have leveraged modern design principles in new product development, healthcare has lagged behind. In this article, we describe a methodology utilized by our facility to study the clinical care delivery system that incorporates modern design principles. [source]

    Nurses' perceptions of individualized care

    Riitta Suhonen
    suhonen r., gustafsson m.-l., katajisto j., välimäki m. & leino-kilpi h. (2010) Nurses' perceptions of individualized care. Journal of Advanced Nursing,66(5), 1035,1046. Abstract Title.,Nurses' perceptions of individualized care. Aim., This paper is a report of a study of nurses' perceptions of individualized care, the factors associated with these perceptions, and nurses' perceptions of the provision of individualized care in different types of healthcare organization. Background., Although individualized care has been an internationally-challenging and long-standing research topic in nursing, the current literature on individualized care from the perspective of nurses is limited. Methods., A cross-sectional, descriptive and exploratory design using a questionnaire (Individualised Care Scale,Nurse) was employed to survey a stratified sample of 544 nurses (response rate 59%) working as Registered or Enrolled Nurses in one hospital district in Finland in 2008. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics (General Linear Model, one-way analysis of variance) and Cronbach's alpha coefficients for reliability analysis. Results., Nurses perceived that they supported patient individuality well and that the care they provided took into account patient individuality. Based on the General Linear Model, nurses' background variables were not associated with their perceptions of individualized care delivery. However, between-organization differences were found in all study variables: mental health ward nurses had the most positive perceptions, and nurses working in primary health centre long-term care wards the lowest. Conclusion., Healthcare organizations and work environments need to be evaluated as they may have an influence on individualized care provision. The Individualised Care Nurse instrument is sensitive to healthcare working environments and can be used in evaluating nurses' perceptions of individualized care. [source]

    Individualized care: its conceptualization and practice within a multiethnic society

    Kate Gerrish BNurs MSc PhD RGN RM DN Cert
    Individualized care: its conceptualization and practice within a multiethnic society This paper reports on the selected findings from a larger ethnographic study of the provision of individualized care by district nurses to patients from different ethnic backgrounds. Undertaken in an English community National Health Service (NHS) Trust serving an ethnically diverse population, the study comprised two stages. First, an organizational profile of the Trust was undertaken in order to analyse the local policy context. Data were collected by means of in-depth interviews with managers and a review of policy documentation and caseload profiles. Second, a participant observational study was undertaken focusing on six district nursing teams. Purposive sampling was used to identify four teams with high minority ethnic caseloads and two teams with predominately white ethnic majority caseloads. Interview transcripts and field notes were analysed by drawing upon the principles of dimensional analysis. This paper focuses upon aspects of the second stage, namely how the nurses' conceptualized and practised individualized care. Six principles underpinning the philosophy of individualized care expounded by the nurses were identified: respecting individuality; holistic care; focusing on nursing needs; promoting independence; partnership and negotiation of care; and equity and fairness. Each is examined in turn and consideration given to how they were modified in their transformation into practice. Some implications for patients from minority ethnic backgrounds of the nurses' conceptualization and practice of individualized care are discussed. The lack of internal consistency within the nurses' discourse, the impact of policy directives on care delivery and the influence of factors outside the nurses' control, served to illuminate the complexity whereby the ideals of individualized care were adjusted and reworked in the realities of everyday nursing practice. This in turn raised questions about the appropriateness of the current interpretation and practice of individualized care in a multi-ethnic society. [source]

    Nursing care quality and adverse events in US hospitals

    Robert J Lucero
    Aim., To examine the association between nurses' reports of unmet nursing care needs and their reports of patients' receipt of the wrong medication or dose, nosocomial infections and patient falls with injury in hospitals. Background., Because nursing activities are often difficult to measure, and data are typically not collected by health care organisations, there are few studies that have addressed the association between nursing activities and patient outcomes. Design., Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data collected in 1999 from 10,184 staff nurses and 168 acute care hospitals in the US. Methods., Multivariate linear regression models estimated the effect of unmet nursing care needs on adverse events given the influence of patient factors and the care environment. Results., The proportion of necessary nursing care left undone ranged from 26% for preparing patients and families for discharge to as high as 74% for developing or updating nursing care plans. A majority of nurses reported that patients received the wrong medication or dose, acquired nosocomial infections, or had a fall with injury infrequently. However, nurses who reported that these adverse events occurred frequently varied considerably [i.e. medication errors (15%), patient falls with injury (20%), nosocomial infection (31%)]. After adjusting for patient factors and the care environment, there remained a significant association between unmet nursing care needs and each adverse event. Conclusion., The findings suggest that attention to optimising patient care delivery could result in a reduction in the occurrence of adverse events in hospitals. Relevance to clinical practice., The occurrence of adverse events may be mitigated when nurses complete care activities that require them to spend time with their patients. Hospitals should engage staff nurses in the creation of policies that influence human resources management to enhance their awareness of the care environment and patient care delivery. [source]

    Recognising our role: improved confidence of general nurses providing care to young people with a mental illness in a rural paediatric unit

    Lorna Moxham
    Objective., To implement and evaluate strategies suggested by general nurses to improve management of children and adolescents with mental health problems admitted to a paediatric unit of a general hospital. Background., The first phase of a study using a Participatory Action Research approach identified several concerns associated with general nurses providing care to young people with mental disorders in paediatric units of general hospitals, together with suggestions for strategies to address these issues. This paper describes the second and third phase of the Participatory Action Research study, involving the implementation and evaluation of these strategies. Design., Participatory Action Research. Methods., Actions that occurred during phase two of the Participatory Action Research study included revision and introduction of policies and procedures for mental health care in the unit, education and training sessions for paediatric nursing staff and opportunities to strengthen communication between existing mental health services. In phase three, two focus groups were conducted to explore current perceptions of mental health care delivery in the unit and evaluate change, following phase two. Results., Changes in clinical practice for paediatric mental health care were acknowledged by participants. Reflection has assisted nurses to better understand their strengths and weaknesses and to acknowledge and challenge the assumptions on which their ideas, feelings and actions about patients with mental health issues are based. Participants also recognised the existing skills and expertise they possess that are relevant to the management of young people with a mental health problem, although they continue to seek ongoing education and support in this field. Conclusions., This study demonstrates that through Participatory Action Research it is possible to enhance mental health nursing care in a rural paediatric unit. Relevance to clinical practice., Such changes have the potential to improve the experience of young people and their families whilst receiving treatment for mental health conditions in a general paediatric unit. [source]

    Reporting a research project on the potential of aged care nurse practitioners in the Australian Capital Territory

    Paul Arbon
    Aim., This paper reports a project investigating the potential role of the nurse practitioner in aged care across residential, community and acute care venues in the Australian Capital Territory. Background., Australia, like many other countries, faces unprecedented challenges in the provision of health care. Escalating health care costs, an ageing population, increasing prevalence of comorbidities and chronic illnesses, inefficient health care delivery, changing models of health care and shifting professional role boundaries are factors that have contributed to the development of advanced practice roles for nursing. Design., This was a mixed methods study using multiple data sources. Methods., Student aged care nurse practitioners were examined across the continuum of care in the acute, community and residential aged care settings. The potential role of the nurse practitioner in these areas was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively to identify a model of care to enhance the delivery of efficient and effective health care. Results., The project findings have demonstrated that there is potential for significant improvement in client outcomes arising from a transboundary aged care nurse practitioner model. The improved outcomes are associated with a decrease in acute hospital admissions for residential care clients, timely intervention for a range of common conditions and strengthened multidisciplinary approaches to care provision for older people. Conclusions., Overall the project findings strongly support the potential of a transboundary aged care nurse practitioner role. This role would focus on skilled assessment, timely assessment and intervention, brokering around access to care and clinical leadership and education for nurses. Relevance to clinical practice., This paper offers further evidence of support for the role of nurse practitioners in complementing existing health services and improving delivery of care. [source]

    Solving nursing shortages: a common priority

    James Buchan
    Aims and objectives., This paper provides a context for this special edition. It highlights the scale of the challenge of nursing shortages, but also makes the point that there is a policy agenda that provides workable solutions. Results., An overview of nurse:population ratios in different countries and regions of the world, highlighting considerable variations, with Africa and South East Asia having the lowest average ratios. The paper argues that the ,shortage' of nurses is not necessarily a shortage of individuals with nursing qualifications, it is a shortage of nurses willing to work in the present conditions. The causes of shortages are multi-faceted, and there is no single global measure of their extent and nature, there is growing evidence of the impact of relatively low staffing levels on health care delivery and outcomes. The main causes of nursing shortages are highlighted: inadequate workforce planning and allocation mechanisms, resource constrained undersupply of new staff, poor recruitment, retention and ,return' policies, and ineffective use of available nursing resources through inappropriate skill mix and utilisation, poor incentive structures and inadequate career support. Conclusions., What now faces policy makers in Japan, Europe and other developed countries is a policy agenda with a core of common themes. First, themes related to addressing supply side issues: getting, keeping and keeping in touch with relatively scarce nurses. Second, themes related to dealing with demand side challenges. The paper concludes that the main challenge for policy makers is to develop a co-ordinated package of policies that provide a long term and sustainable solution. Relevance to clinical practice., This paper highlights the impact that nursing shortages has on clinical practice and in health service delivery. It outlines scope for addressing shortage problems and therefore for providing a more positive staffing environment in which clinical practice can be delivered. [source]

    Nursing the clinic vs. nursing the patient: nurses' experience of a day hospital chemotherapy service

    Sonja Mcilfatrick PhD
    Aims and objectives., This study sought to explore the nurses' experience of a day hospital chemotherapy service in an acute general hospital in Northern Ireland and how this compared with their experience of working in an inpatient setting. Background., Despite the many changes taking place in cancer care delivery, little research has been conducted on nurses' experience of working in more acute cancer treatment settings. Research conducted to date has tended to focus on the role of nurses in wards, hospices and palliative care settings. Design., This Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenological study explored nurses' lived experience of day hospital chemotherapy service. Method., Face-to-face focused in-depth interviews were conducted with the total population of nurses who worked in the day hospital at the time of data collection (n = 10). Data analysis involved a two-staged approach, the analysis of narratives and narrative analysis, based on the work of Polkinghorne (1995). Conclusions., The nurses' viewed their experience of the chemotherapy day hospital as having both positive and negative dimensions. The positive dimensions included an increased sense of autonomy and the challenge of developing new skills, while the negative dimension included a perceived decrease in their caring role: (i),The individual characteristics of the nurse were seen to have a key influence on caring experience; (ii),Role changes led to a perceived dichotomy between their actual and aspired role and their caring and clinical role. Relevance to clinical practice., There is a need to achieve a balance between delivering a clinical role (administering chemotherapy) while maintaining the centrality of the nurse,patient relationship. This can be likened to achieving a balance between ,nursing the clinic' alongside ,nursing the patient'. These findings have implications for the discourse on caring within other outpatient type clinics and discourse on cancer nursing as therapy and the culture of the cancer clinic. [source]

    Changes in practice at the nurse,doctor interface.

    Using focus groups to explore the perceptions of first level nurses working in an acute care setting
    Summary ,,A unique combination of factors has recently triggered a rapid change in the clinical practice of nurses in the UK. ,,This study was carried out to explore the consequences of changing practice at the nurse,doctor interface, as perceived by first level nurses working in an acute care setting in the UK. ,,Qualitative data were collected using focus group interviews and analysed thematically. ,,Findings suggest that role change to these nurses is represented by a ,shift' in the practice of technical activities from junior doctors and a corresponding delegation of nursing activity to care assistants. ,,It is suggested that the wholesale incorporation of technical interventions into the role of the nurse without an increase in the number of qualified nurses is turning nursing back to a task system of care delivery. ,,This has the potential to depersonalize patients and reduce work satisfaction for nurses. [source]

    Community-oriented primary care: a multidisciplinary community-oriented approach to primary care?

    Penny Lenihan
    Abstract Developing more of a local public health focus, and involving local communities in Great Britain in health care decision-making, are key aspects of the radically changing face of primary care. Community-oriented primary care (COPC) is an international model for innovative primary health care delivery historically applied in developing or deprived communities, but increasingly seen as having broader relevance for a wider range of primary care settings. COPC has a long history of development in deprived communities, it is still however seen as innovative. It fits the current requirements of clinical governance and the ,Modern and Dependable NHS', but does its long history also provide information about it's pitfalls? COPC is promoted as an approach that is applicable to community mental health problems, community psychologists can provide the expertise to facilitate addressing community mental health in COPC programmes. This paper describes the COPC model and highlights the relevance of the COPC philosophy and the problems of its implementation for community psychologists in primary care. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Shortening of Median Door-to-Balloon Time in Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Singapore by Simple and Inexpensive Operational Measures: Clinical Practice Improvement Program

    Background: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the standard reperfusion strategy for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in our center. We aimed to shorten the median door-to-balloon time from over 100 minutes to 90 minutes or less. Methods: We have been using three strategies since March 2007 to shorten the door-to-balloon time: (1) the intervention team is now activated by emergency department physicians (where previously it had been activated by coronary care unit); (2) all members of the intervention team have converted from using pagers to using cell phones; and (3) as soon as the intervention team is activated, patients are transferred immediately to the cardiac catheterization laboratory (where previously they had waited in the emergency department for the intervention team to arrive). An in-house physician and a nurse would stay with the patients before arrival of the intervention team. Results: During 12 months, 285 nontransfer patients (analyzed, n = 270) underwent primary PCI. The shortest monthly median door-to-balloon time was 59 minutes; the longest monthly median door-to-balloon time was 111 minutes. The overall median door-to-balloon time for the entire 12 months was 72 minutes. On a per-month basis, the median door-to-balloon time was 90 minutes or less in 10 of 12 months. On a per-patient basis, the median door-to-balloon time was 90 minutes or less in 182 patients (67.4%). There was 1 case (0.4%) of inappropriate activation by the emergency department. While waiting for the intervention team to convene, 1 patient (0.4%) deteriorated and had to be resuscitated in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Conclusions: Improved health care delivery can be achieved by changing simple and inexpensive operational processes. [source]

    Persistent isolationist or collaborator?

    The nurse's role in interprofessional collaborative practice
    orchard ca. (2010) Journal of Nursing Management18, 248,257 Persistent isolationist or collaborator? The nurse's role in interprofessional collaborative practice Aim, The present study explores current understanding about interprofessional collaborative client-centred practice and nursing's role in this form of care delivery. Background, A profession-only focus on nursing practice has been challenged at professional, national governmental and World Health Organization levels stressing for more interprofessional patient-centred collaborative teamwork. Evaluation, Moving to patient-centred collaborative practice is fraught with barriers. Enablers can result in building trust, power sharing and shared decision-making. Changing current workplace environments requires institutional commitments to support collaborative team development. Key issue(s), Nurses can become collaborative members of teams through: (1) re-socialize; (2) understanding and articulating nurses roles, knowledge and skills to others; (3) other health providers sharing the same to nurses; (4) identifying where shared roles, knowledge and skills exist; and (5) learning to work in collaborative teams. Nurses must address some fundamental issues about practice that negate collaboration and patient-centred care. Conclusions, All professionals, including nurses, must move away from a service-oriented delivery to a patient-centred collaborative approach to care. Implications for nursing management, The values within health organizations need to be underpinned by collaborative interprofessional patient-centred practice. To accomplish this goal, administrators and managers must support assessment of employees and visiting physicians as to their conformance with agency established expectations for such practice. [source]

    The times they are a changin

    Cert Ed, MIKE THOMAS PhD
    Aim, A discussion paper outlining the potential for a multi-qualified health practitioner who has undertaken a programme of study incorporating the strengths of the specialist nurse with other professional routes. Background and rationale, The concept and the context of ,nursing' is wide and generalized across the healthcare spectrum with a huge number of practitioners in separate branches, specialities and sub-specialities. As a profession, nursing consists of different groups in alliance with each other. How different is the work of the mental health forensic expert from an acute interventionalist, or a nurse therapist, from a clinical expert in neurological deterioration? The alliance holds because of the way nurses are educated and culturalized into the profession, and the influence of the statutory bodies and the context of a historical nationalized health system. This paper discusses the potential for a new type of healthcare professional, one which pushes the intra- and inter-professional agenda towards multi-qualified staff who would be able to work across current care boundaries and be more flexible regarding future care delivery. In September 2003, the Nursing and Midwifery Council stated that there were ,more than 656 000 practitioners' on its register and proposed that from April 2004, there were new entry descriptors. Identifying such large numbers of practitioners across a wide range of specialities brings several areas of the profession into question. Above all else, it highlights how nursing has fought and gained recognition for specialisms and that through this, it may be argued client groups receive the best possible ,fit' for their needs, wants and demands. However, it also highlights deficits in certain disciplines of care, for example, in mental health and learning disabilities. We argue that a practitioner holding different professional qualifications would be in a position to provide a more holistic service to the client. Is there then a gap for a ,new breed' of practitioner; ,a hybrid' that can achieve a balanced care provision to reduce the stress of multiple visits and multiple explanations? Methods, Review of the literature but essentially informed by the authors personal vision relating to the future of health practitioner education. Implications for nursing management, This article is of significance for nurse managers as the future workforce and skill mix of both acute and community settings will be strongly influenced by the initial preregistration nurse education. [source]

    A Comparison of HMO Efficiencies as a Function of Provider Autonomy

    Patrick L. Brockett
    Current debates in the insurance and public policy literatures over health care financing and cost control measures continue to focus on managed care and HMOs. The lower utilization rates found in HMOs (compared to traditional fee-for-service indemnity plans) have generally been attributed to the organization's incentive to eliminate all unnecessary medical services. As a consequence HMOs are often considered to be a more efficient arrangement for delivering health care. However, it is important to make a distinction between utilization and efficiency (the ratio of outcomes to resources). Few studies have investigated the effect that HMO arrangements would have on the actual efficiency of health care delivery. Because greater control over provider autonomy appears to be a recurrent theme in the literature on reform, it is important to investigate the effects these restrictions have already had within the HMO market. In this article, the efficiencies of two major classes of HMO arrangements are compared using "game-theoretic" data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. While other studies confirm that absolute costs to insurance firms and sponsoring companies are lowered using HMOs, our empirical findings suggest that, within this framework, efficiency generally becomes worse when provider autonomy is restricted. This should give new fuel to the insurance companies providing fee-for-service (FFS) indemnification plans in their marketplace contentions. [source]

    International Collaboration: Initial Steps and Strategies

    Barbara Sheer DNSc, FAANP, FNP-C
    ABSTRACT The nurse practitioner (NP) movement, which began in the United States in 1965, has caused sweeping changes both in nursing and in health care delivery. The concept of NPs then spread to the United Kingdom (U.K.) and continues to move globally. The international development of NPs has been streamlined through collaborative efforts of the U.S. and the U.K. There have been striking similarities in the evolution of expanded practice roles in both countries. In 1993, NPs from the U.S. and the U.K. came together to support the first international NP conference and, in the process, developed a framework for global international collaboration. This article summarizes the collective knowledge and the strategies for success developed through this collaborative effort. [source]